MMDA
MMDA-structure.png
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral, Insufflation, Rectal
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
Chemical and physical data
Formula C11H15NO3
Molar mass 209.24 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)

MMDA (3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 5-methoxy-MDA) is a psychedelic and entactogen drug of the amphetamine class. It is an analogue of lophophine, MDA, and MDMA.

MMDA was described by Alexander Shulgin in his book PiHKAL. Shulgin lists the dosage range of MMDA as 100–250 mg. The first symptoms appear within 30–60 minutes following oral administration. MMDA produces euphoria and loving warmth, and attenuates feelings such as anxiety and loneliness. MMDA also produces eyes-closed visuals, a state of drowsiness, muscle relaxation, and time dilation. Side effects include moderate mydriasis, dizziness, sensations of heat or cold, and trembling. The imagery is generally realistic, and often related to everyday perception of people, landscapes, or objects. The effects of MMDA usually reach a peak during the first hour following the initial symptoms, and begin to wane during the second hour, and usually completely disappear by the end of the fifth hour.

Contents

Psychotherapeutic actionsEdit

In his 1973 book, The Healing Journey, Claudio Naranjo explored the psychotherapeutic potential of MMDA. Like MDA, he found that MMDA facilitates communication and suggested it has potential applications in psychotherapy. Worldwide as of 2005, MMDA has not been approved for any human applications.

PharmacologyEdit

MMDA has been shown to act as a non-neurotoxic serotonin releasing agent with no effects on dopamine release and probably norepinephrine release as well,[1] and as a 5-HT2A receptor agonist.[2] The latter property is responsible for its psychedelic effects, whereas the former mediates its mood-lifting and empathogenic effects.

Legal StatusEdit

United StatesEdit

MMDA is classified as a Schedule 1 substance in the United States, and is similarly controlled in other parts of the world. Internationally, MMDA is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[3]

AustraliaEdit

MMDA is considered a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (October 2015).[4] A Schedule 9 substance is a substance which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ McKenna DJ, Guan XM, Shulgin AT (March 1991). "3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) analogues exhibit differential effects on synaptosomal release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 38 (3): 505–12. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(91)90005-M. PMID 1829838. 
  2. ^ Zhang Z, An L, Hu W, Xiang Y (April 2007). "3D-QSAR study of hallucinogenic phenylalkylamines by using CoMFA approach". Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design. 21 (4): 145–53. doi:10.1007/s10822-006-9090-y. PMID 17203365. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ a b Poisons Standard October 2015 https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01534

External linksEdit