Metis in the United States
The Métis in the United States are a specific culture and community of people descended from unions between Native American and early European colonist parents - usually Indigenous women who married French (and later Scottish, English ) men who worked as fur trappers and traders during the 18th and 19th centuries at the height of the fur trade. They developed as an ethnic and cultural group from the descendants of these unions. The women were usually Algonquian, Cree and Cherokee.
Paul Kane's oil painting Half-Breeds Running Buffalo, depicting a Métis buffalo hunt on the prairies of Dakota in June 1846.
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In the French colonies, people of mixed indigenous and French ancestry were referred to by those who spoke French as métis, as it means "mixture". Being bilingual, these people were able to trade European goods, such as muskets, for the furs and hides at a trading post. These métis were found from the Atlantic Coast, especially in the Southeast, through the Great Lakes area and to the Rocky Mountains. While the word in this usage originally had no ethnic designation (and was not capitalized in English), it grew to become an ethnicity in the nineteenth century. This use (of simply meaning "mixed") excludes mixed-race people born of unions in other settings or more recently than about 1870.
The Métis in the U.S. are fewer in number than the neighboring Métis in Canada. During the early colonial era, the border did not exist between Canada and the British colonies, and people moved easily back and forth through the area. While the two communities come from the same origins, the Canadian Métis have developed further as an ethnic group than in the U.S.
"Métis" is the French term for "mixed-blood". The word is a cognate of the Spanish word mestizo and the Portuguese word mestiço. Michif ([mɪˈtʃɪf]) is the name of creole language spoken by the Métis people of western Canada and adjacent areas of the United States, mostly a mix of Cree and Canadian French.
With exploration, settlement, and exploitation of resources by French and British fur trading interests across North America, European men often had relationships and sometimes marriages with Native American women. Often both sides felt such marriages were beneficial in strengthening the fur trade. Indigenous women often served as interpreters and could introduce their men to their people. Because many Native Americans and First Nations often had matrilineal kinship systems, the mixed-race children were considered born to the mother's clan and usually raised in her culture. Fewer were educated in European schools. Métis men in the northern tier typically worked in the fur trade and later hunting and as guides. Over time in certain areas, particularly the Red River of the North, the Métis formed a distinct ethnic group with its own culture.
Mixed-race peoples sometimes emerged as leaders, as in the Five Civilized Tribes of the American Southeast. White husbands were prized; Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins, for example, was pressed repeatedly by the Creeks to take a Creek wife. Many of their leaders — Francis the Prophet, Neamathla, and others — were men of mixed race, who could bridge cultures. While they often had European or American schooling, they identified primarily as Cherokee or Creek, for instance, and usually spoke both their own languages and English. The older chiefs thought such young men could provide a unique path to the future.
Between 1795 and 1815 a network of Métis settlements and trading posts was established throughout what is now the US states of Michigan and Wisconsin, and to a lesser extent in Illinois and Indiana. As late as 1829, the Métis were dominant in the economy of present-day Wisconsin and Northern Michigan.
During the early days of territorial Michigan, Métis and French played a dominant role in elections. It was largely with Métis support that Gabriel Richard was elected as delegate to Congress. After Michigan was admitted as a state and under pressure of increased European-American settlers from eastern states, many Métis migrated westward into the Canadian Prairies, including the Red River Colony and the Southbranch Settlement. Others identified with Chippewa groups, while many others were subsumed in an ethnic "French" identity, such as the Muskrat French. By the late 1830s only in the area of Sault Ste. Marie was there widespread recognition of the Métis as a significant part of the community.
In Montana a large group of Métis from Pembina region hunted there in the 1860s, eventually forming an agricultural settlement in the Judith Basin by 1880. This settlement eventually disintegrated, with most Métis leaving, or identifying more strongly either as "white" or "Indian".
Mixed-race people continue to live throughout North America but only some identify ethnically and culturally as Métis. A strong Prairie Métis identity exists in the "homeland" once known as Rupert's Land, which extends south from Canada into North Dakota, especially the land west of the Red River of the North. The historic Prairie Métis homeland also includes parts of Minnesota, and Wisconsin. A number of self-identified Métis live in North Dakota, mostly in Pembina County. Many members of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians (a federally recognized Tribe) are of mixed race and identify as Métis rather than strictly Ojibwe.
Many Métis families are recorded in the U.S. Census for the historic Métis settlement areas along the Detroit and St. Clair rivers, Mackinac Island, and Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, as well as Green Bay in Wisconsin. Their ancestral families were often formed in the early 19th-century fur trading era.
The Métis have generally not organized as an ethnic or political group in the United States as they have in Canada, where they had armed confrontations in an effort to secure a homeland. They have not sought federal recognition as an official tribe in the United States, or as having status as Native Americans.
The first "Conference on the Métis in North America" was held in Chicago in 1981, after increasing research about this people. This also was a period of increased appreciation for different ethnic groups and reappraisal of the histories of settlement of North America. Papers at the conference focused on "becoming Métis" and the role of history in formation of this ethnic group, defined in Canada as having Aboriginal status. The people and their history continue to be extensively studied, especially by scholars in Canada and the United States.
- Mary Cecilia Bailly
- Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin
- Antonine Barada
- Pierre Bottineau
- Bernard Walter Brisbois
- Michel Cadotte
- Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
- Jacques Raphael Finlay
- Josiah Francis (Hillis Hadjo)
- Evelyn Frechette
- Augustin Grignon
- Josette Juneau
- Magdelaine Laframboise
- Charles Michel de Langlade
- Ranald MacDonald
- William McIntosh
- Alexander McGillivray
- Peter McQueen
- Dylan Miner
- Andrew Montour
- Madame Montour
- Nancy McCrea
- William Weatherford
- Jean Baptiste Wilkie
Of Métis descentEdit
- Peterson, Jacqueline; Brown, Jennifer S. H. (2001). The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Métis in North America. Winnipeg, Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-87351-408-8.
- Heidler, David S.; Heidler, Jeanne T. (2003). Old Hickory's War. Andrew Jackson and the Quest for Empire. Louisiana State University Press. p. 9. ISBN 9780807128671.
- Peterson and Brown, The New Peoples, p. 44-45
- Wallace Gesner, "Habitants, Half-Breeds and Homeless Children: Transformations in Metis and Yankee-Yorker Relations in Early Michigan," in Michigan Historical Review Vol. 24, issue 1 (Jan. 1998) p. 23-47
- Kerry A. Trask, "Settlement in a Half-Savage Land: Life and Loss in the Métis Community of La Baye," Michigan Historical Review Vol. 15, no. 1 (Spring 1989) p. 1
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Pembina State Museum - History - State Historical Society of North Dakota". history.nd.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
- Peter C. Douaud, "Reviewed Work: 'The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Métis in North America' by Jacqueline Peterson, Jennifer S. H. Brown", American Indian Quarterly Vol. 11, No. 2 (Spring, 1987), pp. 159-161, University of Nebraska Press, Article DOI: 10.2307/1183704 (subscription required), accessed 12 May 2015
- Barkwell, Lawrence J., Leah Dorion, and Audreen Hourie. Metis legacy Michif culture, heritage, and folkways. Metis legacy series, v. 2. Saskatoon, SK: Gabriel Dumont Institute, 2006.
- Barkwell, Lawrence J., Leah Dorion and Darren Prefontaine. Metis Legacy: A Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican Publications and Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute, 2001.
- Foster, Harroun Marther. We Know Who We Are: Métis Identity in a Montana Community. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2006.
- Peterson, Jacqueline and Jennifer S. H. Brown, ed. The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Metis in North America. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2001.
- St-Onge, Nicole, Carolyn Podruchny, and Brenda Macdougall (eds.), Contours of a People: Metis Family, Mobility, and History. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2012.