Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records
Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records is a legal and heraldic office in Scotland. The holder of this office is appointed by the Crown, and like the Lord Lyon King of Arms receives an annual salary. Lyon Clerk's duties include heraldic research, the preparation of papers, lectures and conducting and assisting with the preliminary business of application for a grant or matriculation of armorial bearings. This includes scrutiny of documents supporting the application. As Keeper of the Records the duties include maintaining the records of the Court of the Lord Lyon, overseeing the preparation of documents, allowing inspection of the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland and other records, and issuing certified extracts when required. Until 1867 there was a Lyon Clerk Depute, and in 1986 Elizabeth Ann Roads became the first woman appointed to the office of Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records.
The arms of office of the Lyon Clerk
|Governing body||Court of the Lord Lyon|
|Chief officer||Russell Hunter Esq., Lyon Clerk|
In 1669 the Parliament of Scotland passed the Lyon King of Arms Act of 1669, the act confirmed the privileges and emoluments of the: '"Lyon King at Armes and his breethren heraulds and pursevants their Clerk of Court and thair successors". The Lyon King of Arms Act of 1672 mentioned the 'Lyon Clerk' as one of the recipients of all documents, on behalf of the Lord Lyon King of Arms.
The Lyon Clerk, together with the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the Procurator fiscal, the Herald painter and the Macer of the Court constitutes the Court of the Lord Lyon. The Lyon Court is a part of the Scottish judiciary and deals with the subject of heraldry and genealogy in Scotland. The Lyon Clerk assists the Lord Lyon in both his ministerial and judicial work. The Lyon Clerk is appointed by the Crown through the Royal sign-manual, the appointment is then published in the Edinburgh Gazette. The Lyon Clerk's salary is paid for by the Crown. This has been the case since the Lyon King of Arms Act of 1867, when the whole of the Lyon Court and Her Majesty's Officers of Arms were formally made into civil servants. Prior to this reform the Lyon Clerk received fees for every grant and matriculation. In 1837 the Lyon Clerk is paid £19 6s. for a grant of arms with supporters and £15 15s. without, for a matriculation £4 10s. 6d with supporters and £2 17s. without.
The Lyon Clerk have a prominent role in the operations of the Lyon Court. Every submission of application for a grant of arms, a matriculation of arms or the recording of genealogy must be made through the Lyon Clerk. This submission must be done either personally, by an intermediary agent or by correspondence, the Lyon Clerk is required to personally interview and reply to each applicant. As such the Lyon Clerk must take receipt of all documents and evidence submitted by the applicant in each case. Finally after the grant or matriculation has been made the Lyon Clerk must ensure that the resulting patent of arms is properly illuminated and emblazoned for the applicant and for the Lyon Court's register.
As Keeper of the Records, the Lyon Clerk is responsible for the maintenance of the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland. This is done through the regular addition of new grants and matriculations. The Lyon Clerk must ensure that members of the public have access to the register by facilitating searches and studies of the records.
Lyon Clerks and Keepers of the RecordsEdit
|Arms||Name||Date of appointment||Notes||Ref.|
|Adam or Alexander MacCulloch||(1554)||Marchmont|
|James Purdie of Kinaldies||(1584)||Islay|
|John Purdy||4 January 1587||Ross|
|James Borthwick, WS||(1594)||Rothesay|
|George Watson, WS||1625|
|Robert Smith of Gibleston||8 Augustus 1663|
|Harry Maule, WS||1709|
|Charles Erskine||4 June 1715||Bute|
|David Erskine||6 June 1724||Rothesay|
|Thomas Brodie, WS||8 December 1769||Lyon Depute|
|Robert Boswell of St. Boswells, WS||2 November 1770|
|James Home of Linhouse, WS||4 May 1804||Lyon Depute|
|David Clyne, SSC||3 February 1819|
|Edward William Auriol Drummond Hay||1 April 1823|
|Alexander Macdonald||5 May 1845||(Ad interim)|
|James Lorimer of Kellyfield||7 November 1848||(Ad interim)|
|3 May 1864||(For life)|
|James William Mitchell||6 March 1890||Rothesay||[a]|
|Francis James Grant, WS||3 September 1898||Rothesay||[b]|
|Harold Andrew Balvaird Lawson, CVO||4 September 1929||Rothesay||[c]|
|Malcolm Innes of Edingight, CVO, WS||4 August 1966||Carrick
|John Inglis Drever "Don" Pottinger, LVO||9 July 1981||Islay||[e]|
|Elizabeth Ann Roads, LVO||1986 February 5||Linlithgow
|Russell Hunter Esq.||25 June 2018||[g]|
Lyon Clerks DeputeEdit
|Name||Date of appointment||Notes|
|Robert Innes, WS||(1675)|
|William Richardson||6 May 1751|
|Robert Donaldson||1755 April 17||Marchmont|
|William Walker||29 July 1769||Marchmont|
|James Cumyng||7 November 1770||Herald painter|
|Robert Ranken||7 November 1773|
|William Boswell||24 December 1794|
|Alexander Liston Ramage||7 September 1796|
|John Blair||12 January 1799|
|Alexander Boswell||23 January 1801|
|Thomas Small||2 May 1804||Marchmont|
|John Edward Touch||20 June 1807|
|David Clyne (joint)||25 August 1807|
|Alexander Lambe Robertson
William Thomson (joint)
|25 August 1812|
|De Carteret Mendell||5 November 1819|
|William Smith||17 May 1823|
|Archibald Duncan||7 September 1825|
|William Anderson||8 November 1828||Marchmont|
|Alexander Macdonald||3 June 1829|
|William Anderson||7 May 1845||Marchmont|
|John Whyte||29 June 1863|
|Robert Riddle Stodart||9 May 1864|
|James William Mitchell||4 June 1886||Rothesay|
|Office abolished in 1867.|
- "No. 26030". The London Gazette. 7 March 1890. p. 1268.
- "No. 27012". The London Gazette. 7 October 1898. p. 5863.
- "No. 33534". The London Gazette. 13 September 1929. p. 5904.
- "No. 18483". The Edinburgh Gazette. 12 August 1966. p. 630.
- "No. 20951". The Edinburgh Gazette. 31 July 1981. p. 1023.
- "No. 21892". The Edinburgh Gazette. 21 February 1986. p. 247.
- Lyon Court [@Lyoncourt] (25 Jun 2018). "Her Majesty the Queen has appointed Mr Russell Hunter to be Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records. He was admitted as a solicitor in 1997 and has degrees in history and law from the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, respectively. He will take up office during July" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Court Activity 2010". Court of the Lord Lyon. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- "Badges of the heralds of the Commonwealth & Ireland". White Lion Society. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- Parliament of Scotland (1669). "Lyon King of Arms Act of 1669". Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. 1669 c. 95. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
- Parliament of Scotland (1672). "Lyon King of Arms Act of 1672". Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. 1672 c. 47. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- Stevenson p.51
- Parliament of the United Kingdom (1867). "Lyon King of Arms Act of 1867". Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1860–1879. 1867 c. 17 (Regnal. 30 and 31 Vict). Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- Great Britain Parliament, House of Commons (1837). House of Commons papers, Volume 39. London: HMSO. p. 16.
- Stevenson p.52
- Stevenson pp.447–448