Lynndie Rana England (born November 8, 1982) is a war criminal and a former United States Army Reserve soldier who served in the 372nd Military Police Company and became known for her involvement in the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. She was one of 11 military personnel convicted in 2005 by Army courts-martial for mistreating detainees and other crimes in connection with the torture and prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad during the occupation of Iraq. She was sentenced to three years in prison and dishonorably discharged from the Army. England was incarcerated from September 27, 2005 to March 1, 2007 when she was released on parole.
Official U.S. Army photo of Pvt. Lynndie England, near year 2000.
|Born||November 8, 1982|
Ashland, Kentucky, U.S.
|Alma mater||Frankfort High School|
|Home town||Fort Ashby, West Virginia, U.S.|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Criminal charge||Mistreating detainees|
|Penalty||Three years' imprisonment & dishonorable discharge|
|Imprisoned at||Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar (released in 2008)|
Born in Ashland, Kentucky, England moved with her family to Fort Ashby, West Virginia, when she was two years old. She grew up in a trailer park with her mother Terrie Bowling England, and her father Kenneth R. England Jr., a railroad worker, who worked at a station in Cumberland, Maryland. She aspired to be a storm chaser. As a young child, England was diagnosed with selective mutism.
England joined the United States Army Reserve in Cumberland in 1999 while she was a junior at Frankfort High School near Short Gap. England worked as a cashier in an IGA store during her junior year of high school and married a co-worker, James L. Fike, in 2002, but they later divorced. At the time of her marriage, Xavier Amador (the psychologist for England's lawyers) alleges that she was an evangelical Christian. England also wished to earn money for college, so that she could become a storm chaser. She was also a member of the Future Farmers of America. After graduating from Frankfort High School in 2001, she worked a night job in a chicken-processing factory in Moorefield. She was deployed to Iraq in June 2003.
On July 9, 2007, England was appointed to the Keyser, West Virginia volunteer recreation board. In July 2009, England released Tortured: Lynndie England, Abu Ghraib and the Photographs that Shocked the World, a biography that was set with a book tour that she hoped would rehabilitate her damaged image. As of 2009, England was on antidepressant medication and also had post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety. As of 2013, she had found seasonal employment as a secretary.
Involvement in prisoner abuseEdit
England mobilized with her Army Reserve unit and was stationed in Baghdad at the Abu Ghraib prison in March 2003 to perform guard duties. Along with other soldiers, she was investigated in late 2003 for mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners of war involving the infliction of sexual, physical and psychological abuse after photographs came to light showing prisoners being abused.
While formal charges were being prepared for general court-martial, England was transferred to the U.S. military installation at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, on March 18, 2004, because of her pregnancy. Her court-martial was scheduled for September 2005 on charges of conspiracy to maltreat prisoners and assault consummated by battery.
On April 30, 2005, England agreed to plead guilty to four counts of maltreating prisoners, two counts of conspiracy, and one count of dereliction of duty. In exchange, prosecutors would have dropped two other charges, committing indecent acts and failure to obey a lawful order. This plea deal would have reduced her maximum sentence from 16 years to 11 years had it been accepted by the military judge. In May 2005, however, Military Judge Colonel James Pohl declared a mistrial on the grounds that he could not accept England's plea of guilty to a charge of conspiring with Spc. Charles Graner Jr. to maltreat detainees because Graner had testified that he believed that, in placing a tether around a naked detainee's neck and asking England to pose for a photograph with him, he was documenting a legitimate use of force. Graner was convicted on all charges and sentenced to 10 years in prison. At her retrial, England was convicted on September 26, 2005, of one count of conspiracy, four counts of maltreating detainees and one count of committing an indecent act. She was acquitted on a second conspiracy count. The next day, England was sentenced to a three-year prison term and a dishonorable discharge.
England was incarcerated at Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar. She was paroled on March 1, 2007, after serving 521 days, less than seventeen months. She remained on parole through September 2008 until her three-year sentence was complete, whereupon she was discharged. After serving her sentence, England returned to Fort Ashby, West Virginia, and stayed with friends and family.
Members of the United States Senate have reportedly reviewed additional photographs supplied by the Department of Defense that have not been publicly released. There has been considerable speculation as to the contents of these photos. In a March 2008 interview, England stated in response to a question about these unreleased pictures, "You see the dogs biting the prisoners. Or you see bite marks from the dogs. You can see MPs holding down a prisoner so a medic can give him a shot."
In a May 11, 2004, interview with Denver CBS owned-and-operated television station KCNC-TV, England reportedly said that she had been "instructed by persons in higher ranks" to commit acts of abuse for psyop reasons, and that she should keep doing it, because it worked as intended. England noted that she felt "weird" when a commanding officer asked her to do such things as "stand there, give the thumbs up, and smile". However, England felt that she was doing "nothing out of the ordinary".
Asked about the picture of her posing with Graner in front of a pyramid of naked men, she said:
At the time I thought, I love this man [Graner], I trust this man with my life, okay, then he's saying, well, there's seven of them and it's such an enclosed area and it'll keep them together and contained because they have to concentrate on staying up on the pyramid instead of doing something to us.
Asked about the picture showing her pointing at a man forced to masturbate, she again referred to her feelings for Graner at the time:
Graner and Frederick tried to convince me to get into the picture with this guy. I didn't want to, but they were really persistent about it. At the time I didn't think that it was something that needed to be documented but I followed Graner. I did everything he wanted me to do. I didn't want to lose him.
In a 16 January 2009 interview with The Guardian, England reiterates:
... that she was goaded into posing for the photographs by her then lover and more senior fellow soldier, Charles Graner. 'They said in the trial that authority figures really intimidate me. I always aim to please.'
In 2012, following her release, she stated that she did not regret her actions. "Their (Iraqis') lives are better. They got the better end of the deal," she said. "They weren't innocent. They're trying to kill us, and you want me to apologize to them? It's like saying sorry to the enemy."
- The Errol Morris film Standard Operating Procedure includes an interview in which England confirms that several of the infamous pictures were taken "after midnight", meaning on her 21st birthday (01:14:58-01:15:20), and images putting the pictures at 2316 on 07 November (01:16:15-01:16:40). Although there is disparity as to date, this appears to indicate 08 November.
- P.J. Dickerscheid (29 June 2009). "Abu Ghraib scandal haunts W.Va. reservist". The Independent (Ashland, Kentucky).
- "Profile: Lynndie England". BBC News. September 27, 2005. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Emma Brockes. "Interview: She's home from jail, but Lynndie England can't escape Abu Ghraib | US news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-08-25.
- "Is Lynndie England a Victim or Victimizer? - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2005-05-02. Retrieved 2015-08-25.
- McKelvey, Tara. "A Soldier's Tale: Lynndie England". Marie Claire. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- Nestel, M. L., "Abu Ghraib's Grasp", The Daily, 19 March 2012.
- Stern magazine, Edition 13/08, 19 March 2008, p. 40
- "English-language transcript of March 2008 interview with Lynndie England". Stern magazine. 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- "Lynndie England gets spot on town board in W.Va". Army Times. Associated Press. 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- "Iraq War 10 Years Later: Where Are They Now? Lynndie England (Abu Ghraib)". NBC News. March 19, 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- Beavers, Liz. "England back in Mineral County: Army reservist, notorious face of Abu Ghraib scandal, out of prison." Cumberland Times-News. "Friday, England family attorney Roy T. Hardy of Keyser confirmed England had been paroled March 1 after serving approximately half of her sentence at a military prison located near San Diego."
- "English-language transcript of March 2008 interview with Lynndie England". Stern magazine. 2008-03-17. Archived from the original on 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- "Private In Prison Abuse Photos Shares Her Story". CBS 4 Denver. May 11, 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-01-19.
- "Lynndie England Blames Media for Photos (AP)". 2008-03-19. Archived from the original on 2008-03-21. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
- "none". The Guardian Weekend. January 16, 2009. p. 16.
- "Iraq War 10 Years Later: Where Are They Now? Lynndie England (Abu Ghraib) - World News". Worldnews.nbcnews.com. 2013-03-19. Archived from the original on 2015-08-31. Retrieved 2015-08-25.
- Tucker, Bruce; Triantafyllos, Sia (2008). "Lynndie England, Abu Ghraib, and the New Imperialism". Canadian Review of American Studies. 38 (1): 83–100. doi:10.3138/cras.38.1.83.
- Gourevitch, Philip; Morris, Errol (2008). The Ballad of Abu Ghraib. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-311539-7.
- Maddox, Marjorie (2017). "Soldier girl". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. University of Nebraska Press. 38 (1): 64–66. doi:10.5250/fronjwomestud.38.1.0064. JSTOR 10.5250/fronjwomestud.38.1.0064.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) - A semi-fictionalized account of Lynndie England.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lynndie England.|
- 'What happens in war happens', a profile with the Guardian UK, January 3, 2009
- Symbol Of Shame? – a CBS News article, May 7, 2004
- "A new monster-in-chief" – Observer article by Mary Riddell, May 9, 2004
- "England back in Mineral County" at Archive.today (archived May 24, 2012)
- This American Life – 384 Fall Guy
- Dickerscheid, P.J., and Vicki Smith, "Abu Ghraib scandal haunts Lynndie England", Military Times, June 29, 2009.