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Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of lymphatic vessels from pre-existing lymphatic vessels[1] in a method believed to be similar to angiogenesis (blood vessel development).[2]

Anatomical terminology

Lymphangiogenesis plays an important physiological role in homeostasis, metabolism and immunity. Impaired or excessive lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including neoplasm metastasis,[3] oedema, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lymphangiomatosis and impaired wound healing.

The role of the lymphatic system in these diseases has received renewed interest largely due to the relevantly recent[when?] discovery of LEC (lymphatic endothelial cell)-specific markers such as podoplanin, LYVE-1, PROX-1, desmoplakin and VEGF-C receptor VEGFR-3.[4] These specific markers have enabled new insights into functional and molecular lymphatic biology. There are several known pro-lymphangiogenesis inducers such as VEGF-C, hyaluronic acid and ephrin-B2.

Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain VEGFC patterning during lymphangiogenesis, including formation of Turing patterns.[5][6]


  1. ^ Michael Jeltsch; Tuomas Tammela; Kari Alitalo; Jörg Wilting (2003). "Genesis and pathogenesis of lymphatic vessels". Cell and Tissue Research. 314 (1): 69–84. doi:10.1007/s00441-003-0777-2. PMID 12942362.
  2. ^ "Lymphatic vasculature development" (PDF). Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  3. ^ Steven A. Stacker (1 July 2009). Lymphangiogenesis in Cancer Metastasis. Springer. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-90-481-2246-2. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  4. ^ Jha, Sawan K.; Rauniyar, Khushbu; Jeltsch, Michael (2018). "Key molecules in lymphatic development, function, and identification". Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 219: 25–34. doi:10.1016/j.aanat.2018.05.003. PMID 29842991.
  5. ^ Wertheim, Kenneth Y.; Roose, Tiina (April 2017). "A Mathematical Model of Lymphangiogenesis in a Zebrafish Embryo". Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. 79 (4): 693–737. doi:10.1007/s11538-017-0248-7. ISSN 1522-9602. PMC 5501200. PMID 28233173.
  6. ^ Roose, Tiina; Wertheim, Kenneth Y. (2019-01-03). "Can VEGFC Form Turing Patterns in the Zebrafish Embryo?". Bulletin of Mathematical Biology: 1–37. doi:10.1007/s11538-018-00560-2. ISSN 1522-9602. PMC 6397306. PMID 30607882.

Further readingEdit

Lymphangiogenesis and disease
  • Plate, Karl H (2001). "From angiogenesis to lymphangiogenesis". Nature Medicine. 7 (2): 151–152. doi:10.1038/84579. PMID 11175837.
  • Jell, Gavin; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Revell, Peter; Al-Saffar, Najat (2006). "Lymphangiogenesis in the bone–implant interface of orthopedic implants: Importance and consequence". Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 77A (1): 119–127. doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30548. PMID 16392126.
  • Ji, Rui-Cheng (2006). "Lymphatic Endothelial Cells, Lymphangiogenesis, and Extracellular Matrix". Lymphatic Research and Biology. 4 (2): 83–100. doi:10.1089/lrb.2006.4.83. PMID 16808670.