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Lycopodium (from Greek lukos, wolf and podion, diminutive of pous, foot) is a genus of clubmosses, also known as ground pines or creeping cedar,[1] in the family Lycopodiaceae, a family of fern-allies (see Pteridophyta).[2] They are flowerless, vascular, terrestrial or epiphytic plants, with widely branched, erect, prostrate or creeping stems, with small, simple, needle-like or scale-like leaves that cover the stem and branches thickly. The leaves contain a single, unbranched vascular strand and are microphylls by definition. The kidney-shaped or reniform spore-cases (sporangia) contain spores of one kind only[2] (isosporous, homosporous) and are borne on the upper surface of the leaf blade of specialized leaves (sporophylls) arranged in a cone-like strobilus at the end of upright stems. The club-shaped appearance of these fertile stems gives the clubmosses their common name.

Lycopodium
Lycopodium annotinum1.jpg
Lycopodium annotinum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Lycopodiophyta
Class: Lycopodiopsida
Order: Lycopodiales
Family: Lycopodiaceae
Subfamily: Lycopodioideae
Genus: Lycopodium
L.
Species

See text

Lycopods reproduce asexually by spores. The plants have an underground sexual phase that produces gametes, and this alternates in the lifecycle with the spore-producing plant. The prothallium developed from the spore is a subterranean mass of tissue of considerable size and bears both the male and female organs (antheridia and archegoniae).[2] However, they are more commonly distributed vegetatively through above- or below-ground rhizomes.

About 76 accepted species occur,[3] with 37 species widely distributed in temperate and tropical climates,[2] though they are confined to mountains in the tropics.

The genera Diphasiastrum, Lycopodiella, and Huperzia were once included within this genus, but are now recognized as being distinct. Some taxonomists also segregate several more genera, including Dendrolycopodium for L. obscurum and related species, and Spinulum for L. annotinum and related species.

The spores of Lycopodium and Diphasiastrum species are harvested and are sold as lycopodium powder.

Contents

SpeciesEdit

 
Lycopodium clavatum

Section LycopodiumEdit

 
Lycopodium dendroideum

Section Obscura (genus Dendrolycopodium)Edit

Section Annotina (genus Spinulum)Edit

Section DiphasiumEdit

Section LycopodiastrumEdit

Section Magellanica (genus Austrolycopodium)Edit

Section PseudolycopodiumEdit

Section PseudodiphasiumEdit

UsesEdit

Lycopodium sp. herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or externally as compresses for treatment of disorders of the locomotor system, skin, liver and bile, kidneys and urinary tract, infections, rheumatism, and gout,[4] though claims of efficacy are unproven. It has also been used in some United States government chemical warfare test programs such as Operation Dew. Lycopodium powder was also used to determine the molecular size of oleic acid.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
  2. ^ a b c d Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lycopodium" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 153.
  3. ^ "The Plant List: Lycopodium". Royal Botanic Gardens kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  4. ^ Vogl, S; Picker, P; Mihaly-Bison, J; Fakhrudin, N; Atanasov, A. G.; Heiss, E. H.; Wawrosch, C; Reznicek, G; Dirsch, V. M.; Saukel, J; Kopp, B (2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine--an unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.

External linksEdit