Lunar outpost (NASA)
A lunar outpost by the United States space administration NASA is a vision of a permanent or semi-permanent presence of humans on the Moon. NASA has requested an increase in the 2020 budget of $1.6 billion, in order to make another manned mission to the Moon by 2024, followed by a sustained presence on the Moon by 2028.
The concept of establishing a long-term human presence on the Moon can be traced back to the late 1950s. The Lunex Project, conceptualized in 1958, was a US Air Force plan to construct an underground Air Force Base on the Moon. On June 8, 1959, the US Army's Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) organized a task force called Project Horizon to assess the feasibility of constructing a military base on the Moon.
Project Horizon proposed using a series of Saturn launches to pre-construct an outpost while in Earth orbit, with the intention of subsequently delivering and landing the completed assembly on the Moon. Additional Saturn launches each month would then ship supplies to the inhabitants.
was an element of the George W. Bush era Vision for Space Exploration, which has been replaced with President Barack Obama's space policy. The outpost would have been an inhabited facility on the surface of the Moon. At the time it was proposed, NASA was to construct the outpost over the five years between 2019 and 2024. The United States Congress directed that the U.S. portion, "shall be designated the Neil A. Armstrong Lunar Outpost".
On December 4, 2006, NASA announced the conclusion of its Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture Study. The Lunar Architecture Study's purpose was to "define a series of lunar missions constituting NASA's Lunar campaign to fulfill the Lunar Exploration elements" of the Vision for Space Exploration. What resulted was a basic plan for a lunar outpost near one of the poles of the Moon, which would permanently house astronauts in six-month shifts. These studies were made before the discovery of water ice (5.6 ± 2.9% by mass) in a polar crater, which may substantially affect plans.
2005 Exploration Systems Architecture StudyEdit
The Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) is the official title of a large-scale, system level study released by NASA in November 2005 in response to American president George W. Bush's announcement on January 14, 2004 of his goal of returning astronauts to the Moon and eventually Mars — known as the Vision for Space Exploration (and unofficially as "Moon, Mars and Beyond" in some aerospace circles, though the specifics of a manned "beyond" program remain vague).
2006 reference architectureEdit
A reference architecture was established for this outpost, based on a location on the rim of the Shackleton crater, located in the immense South Pole-Aitken basin, near the Moon's south pole. At a presentation on December 4, 2006, Doug Cooke (Deputy Associate Administrator, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate) described an area "that is ... sunlit ... 75 to 80 percent of the time, and it is adjacent to a permanently dark region in which there are potentially volatiles that we can extract and use. ... This sunlit area is about the size of the Washington Mall." (approximately 1.25 km²). The Indian Chandrayaan orbiter helped in the determination of the precise location of the outpost.
The outpost design included:
- Habitation modules
- Solar power units
- Unpressurized rovers
- In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) unit
- Surface mobility carrier
The outpost would have been supplied by a mixed crew and cargo Altair lander, capable of bringing four astronauts and a payload of six tons to the Moon's surface.
As planned, an incremental buildup would begin with four-person crews making several seven-day visits to the moon until their power supplies, rovers and living quarters were operational. The first mission would begin by 2020. This would be followed by 180-day missions to prepare for journeys to Mars.
2008 concepts studyEdit
On June 6, 2008 NASA announced a set of six research opportunities and requested proposals for research funding in response to the announcement. The overall budget for research conducted as part of this "Lunar Surface Systems Concepts Study" is anticipated to be $2 million. Proposals will be selected and contracts awarded in August 2008 by the NASA Constellation Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO).
2010/2011 surface system concept reviewEdit
The LSSPO was established at the Johnson Space Center in August 2007. The LSSPO was studying lunar surface systems such as "habitation systems", ISRU, rovers, power production and storage, systems to meet science and exploration objectives and safety systems. The LSSPO was expected to conduct a surface system concept review in the 2010 or 2011 timeframe.
Other countries' plansEdit
China National Space Administration (CNSA) has commenced the Chang'e program for exploring the Moon to investigate the prospect of lunar mining, specifically for mining isotope helium-3 for use as an energy source on Earth. CNSA director Luan Enjie has stated, humans must learn to leave Earth and "set up self-sufficient extraterrestrial homeland." China launched the Chang'e 1 robotic lunar orbiter on October 10, 2007.
The goal isn't just scientific exploration. ... It's also about extending the range of human habitat out from Earth into the solar system as we go forward in time. ... In the long run a single-planet species will not survive. ... If we humans want to survive for hundreds of thousands or millions of years, we must ultimately populate other planets.
Now, today the technology is such that this is barely conceivable. We're in the infancy of it. ... I'm talking about that one day, I don't know when that day is, but there will be more human beings who live off the Earth than on it. We may well have people living on the moon. We may have people living on the moons of Jupiter and other planets. We may have people making habitats on asteroids ... I know that humans will colonize the solar system and one day go beyond.
- Human Civilization: Extend human presence to the Moon to enable eventual settlement.
- Scientific Knowledge: Pursue scientific activities that address fundamental questions about the history of Earth, the solar system and the universe; and therefore, about our place in them.
- Exploration Preparation: Test technologies, systems, flight operations and exploration techniques to reduce the risks and increase the productivity of future missions to Mars and beyond.
- Global Partnerships: Provide a challenging, shared and peaceful activity that unites nations in pursuit of common objectives.
- Economic Expansion: Expand Earth's economic sphere, and conduct lunar activities with benefits to life on the home planet.
- Public Engagement: Use a lively space exploration program to engage the public, encourage students and help develop the high-technology workforce that will be required to address the challenges of tomorrow.
According to retired NASA Office of Inspector General Senior Special Agent Joseph Richard Gutheinz, Jr., if "NASA succeeds, we may very well see the first permanent manned presence on the moon in 2024." Gutheinz, who teaches risk management, once investigated the Mir Space Station fire and collision and frequently speaks out against unnecessary risks in space, although he considers settling the Moon to be an acceptable risk.
Criticisms come from groups that want the manned exploration money diverted to Mars, from those who prefer unmanned exploration, and from those who simply want the money spent elsewhere. The criticisms listed here mostly predate the discovery of significant amounts of polar water ice. Jeff Foust, writing for The Space Review, called the six themes that NASA released too "broad" and the explanations supporting them "shallow." He also argues that a Moon base is a poor use of resources, since "science can be done for far less money by robotic missions—which also don't put human lives at risk." The Los Angeles Times seconded that in an editorial, saying "Manned moon flight may appeal to baby boomers, but it makes little scientific sense for most space missions these days. Robots can now perform, or be developed to perform, most of the tasks people would do at a moon station." 
Columnist Gregg Easterbrook, who has reported on the space program for decades, has criticized the plans as a poor use of resources. He writes that
Although, of course, the base could yield a great discovery, its scientific value is likely to be small while its price is extremely high. Worse, moon-base nonsense may for decades divert NASA resources from the agency's legitimate missions, draining funding from real needs in order to construct human history's silliest white elephant.
According to Easterbrook, the billions of dollars that a lunar colony might cost should instead be devoted to exploring the Solar System with space probes; space observatories; and protecting the Earth from near-Earth asteroids.
Buzz Aldrin, the second of twelve men to have walked on the Moon, disagrees with NASA's current goals and priorities, including their plans for a lunar outpost. While not necessarily opposed to sending people back to the Moon, Aldrin argues that NASA should concentrate on a crewed mission to Mars and leave further lunar exploration and the establishment of a base there to a consortium of other countries under U.S. leadership. In a July 2009 editorial in the Washington Post, he said that NASA's Vision for Space Exploration "is not visionary; nor will it ultimately be successful in restoring American space leadership. Like its Apollo predecessor, this plan will prove to be a dead end littered with broken spacecraft, broken dreams and broken policies." He continued by saying that
the lunar surface ... is a poor location for homesteading. The moon is a lifeless, barren world, its stark desolation matched by its hostility to all living things. And replaying the glory days of Apollo will not advance the cause of American space leadership or inspire the support and enthusiasm of the public and the next generation of space explorers.
- "America to the Moon by 2024 - NASA's FY 2020 Budget Amendment Summary" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
- Please refer to Saturn (rocket family).
- Dale, Shana (2006-12-04). "Exploration Strategy and Architecture" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
- "NASA Authorization Act of 2008 - Section 404 - Lunar Outpost". Library of Congress. 2008-09-27.
- "NASA Unveils Global Exploration Strategy and Lunar Architecture". 2006-12-04. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
- Colaprete, A.; Schultz, P.; Heldmann, J.; Wooden, D.; Shirley, M.; Ennico, K.; Hermalyn, B.; Marshall, W; Ricco, A.; Elphic, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Summy, D.; Bart, G. D.; Asphaug, E.; Korycansky, D.; Landis, D.; Sollitt, L. (22 October 2010). "Detection of Water in the LCROSS Ejecta Plume". Science. 330 (6003): 463–468. Bibcode:2010Sci...330..463C. doi:10.1126/science.1186986. PMID 20966242.
- Microsoft Word - lunar_architecture.DOC
- Moonbase: In the Dark On Lunar Ice | Space.com | 26 December 2006
- "Exploration Systems Mission Directorate - Lunar Surface Systems Concepts Study". NASA. 2008-06-06. Archived from the original on 2008-09-17.
- "Lunar Surface Systems Concepts Study - Compilation of Briefings" (PDF). NASA ESMD.
- Staff Writers (2006-08-03). "Japan Plans Moon Base By 2030". Moon Daily. SpaceDaily. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- David, Leonard (4 March 2003). "China Outlines its Lunar Ambitions". Space.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- "NASA's Griffin: 'Humans Will Colonize the Solar System'". Washington Post. September 25, 2005. pp. B07.
- "Why The Moon?". Dec. 4, 2006
- Settling the Moon: A Home Away from Home, by Joseph Richard Gutheinz, Jr. Earth Magazine, September 2008.
- A giant leap over rough terrain[permanent dead link]. The Associated Press, June 24, 2004.
- Jeff Foust. "Moonbase Why". The Space Review. Dec. 11, 2006
- "Don't colonize the moon". Los Angeles Times. Dec. 10, 2006
- Gregg Easterbrook. "Moon Baseless: NASA can't explain why we need a lunar colony". Slate. Dec. 8, 2006.
- Buzz Aldrin and David Noland. "Buzz Aldrin to NASA: U.S. Space Policy Is on the Wrong Track Archived 2009-07-14 at the Wayback Machine." Popular Mechanics August 2009.
- Buzz Aldrin. "Time to Boldly Go Once More. Washington Post. July 16, 2009.