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Lule Sami (julevsámegiella) is a Uralic, Sami language spoken in Lule Lappmark, i.e. around the Lule River, Sweden and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sami is an official language. It is written in the Latin script, having an official alphabet.

Lule Sami
julevsámegiella
Native to Norway, Sweden
Native speakers
1,000–2,000 (2007)[1]
Uralic
Latin
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Norway; Sweden[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 smj
ISO 639-3 smj
Glottolog lule1254[3]
Sami languages large.png
Lule Sami is 4 on this map
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Contents

StatusEdit

With 1,500 to 2,000 speakers it is the second largest of all Sami languages. It is reported that the number of native speakers is in sharp decline among the younger generations. The language has, however, been standardised in 1983 and elaborately cultivated ever since.

PhonologyEdit

OrthographyEdit

The orthography used for Lule Sámi is written using an extended form of the Latin script. There are a few special characters: á (a-acute), ń (n-acute), and å (a-ring). Traditionally, the character n-acute (Ń/ń) has been used to represent the [ŋ] sound, found, for example, in the English word "song". In place of n-acute (found in Unicode, but not in Latin-1 or traditional Nordic keyboards), many have used ñ or even ng. In modern orthography, such as in the official publications of the Swedish government and the recently published translation of the New Testament, it is usually replaced with ŋ, in accordance with the orthography of many other Sami languages.

GrammarEdit

CasesEdit

Lule Sámi has seven cases:

NominativeEdit

Like the other Uralic languages, the nominative singular is unmarked and indicates the subject of a predicate. The nominative plural is also unmarked and is always formally the same as the genitive singular.

GenitiveEdit

The genitive singular is unmarked and looks the same as the nominative plural. The genitive plural is marked by an -j. The genitive is used:

  • to indicate possession
  • with prepositions
  • with postpositions.

AccusativeEdit

The accusative is the direct object case and it is marked with -v in the singular. In the plural, its marker is -t, which is preceded by the plural marker -j.

InessiveEdit

The inessive marker is -n in the singular and the plural, when it is then preceded by the plural marker -j. This case is used to indicate:

  • where something is
  • who has possession of something

IllativeEdit

The illative marker is -j in the singular and -da in the plural, which is preceded by the plural marker -i, making it look the same as the plural accusative. This case is used to indicate:

  • where something is going
  • who is receiving something
  • the indirect object

ElativeEdit

The elative marker is -s in the singular and the plural, when it is then preceded by the plural marker -j. This case is used to indicate:

  • where something is coming from

ComitativeEdit

The comitative marker in the singular is -jn and -j in the plural, which means that it looks like the genitive plural. The comitative is used to state with whom or what something was done.

PronounsEdit

The personal pronouns have three numbers - singular, plural and dual. The following table contains personal pronouns in the nominative and genitive/accusative cases.

  English nominative English genitive
First person (singular) I mån my muv
Second person (singular) you (thou) dån your, yours duv
Third person (singular) he, she sån his, her suv
First person (dual) we (two) måj our munnu
Second person (dual) you (two) dåj your dunnu
Third person (dual) they (two) såj theirs sunnu
First person (plural) we mij our mijá
Second person (plural) you dij your dijá
Third person (plural) they sij their sijá

The next table demonstrates the declension of a personal pronoun he/she (no gender distinction) in various cases:

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative sån såj sij
Genitive suv sunnu sijá
Accusative suv sunnuv sijáv
Inessive sujna sunnun siján
Illative sunji sunnuj sidjij
Elative sujsta sunnus sijás
Comitative sujna sunnujn sijájn

VerbsEdit

PersonEdit

Lule Sami verbs conjugate for three grammatical persons:

  • first person
  • second person
  • third person

MoodEdit

Lule Sami has 5 grammatical moods:

Grammatical numberEdit

Lule Sami verbs conjugate for three grammatical numbers:

TenseEdit

Lule Sami verbs have two simple tenses:

and 2 compound tenses:

Verbal nounsEdit

Negative verbEdit

Lule Sami, like Finnish, the other Sámi languages and some Estonian dialects, has a negative verb. In Lule Sami, the negative verb conjugates according to tense (past and non-past), mood (indicative, imperative and optative), person (1st, 2nd and 3rd) and number (singular, dual and plural).

Present
ondicative
Past
indicative
Imperative Optative
1st singular iv ittjiv
2nd singular i ittji ale allu
3rd singular ij ittjij allis allus
1st dual en ejma allon allun
2nd dual ähppe ejda al'le alluda
3rd dual äbá ejga alliska alluska
1st plural ep ejma allop allup
2nd plural ehpit ejda allit allut
3rd plural e ettjin allisa allusa

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lule Sami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lule Sami". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  • Spiik, Nils-Erik: Lulesamisk grammatik
  • Grundström, Harald: Lulesamisches Wörterbuch
  • Kintel, Anders 1991: Syntaks og ordavledninger i lulesamisk. Kautokeino : Samisk utdanningsråd.
  • Wiklund, K.B. 1890: Lule-lappisches Wörterbuch. Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilaisen seuran toimituksia ; 1

External linksEdit