Lufeng Formation

The Lufeng Formation (formerly Lower Lufeng Series) is a Lower Jurassic sedimentary rock formation found in Yunnan, China. It has two units: the lower Dull Purplish Beds/Shawan Member are of Hettangian age, and Dark Red Beds/Zhangjia'ao Member are of Sinemurian age.[1] It is known for its fossils of early dinosaurs. The Dull Purplish Beds have yielded the possible therizinosaur Eshanosaurus, the possible theropod Lukousaurus, and the "prosauropods" "Gyposaurus" sinensis, Lufengosaurus, Jingshanosaurus, and Yunnanosaurus. Dinosaurs discovered in the Dark Red Beds include the theropod Sinosaurus triassicus, the "prosauropods" "Gyposaurus", Lufengosaurus, and Yunnanosaurus, indeterminate remains of sauropods, and the early armored dinosaurs Bienosaurus and Tatisaurus.[2]

Lufeng Formation
Stratigraphic range: Hettangian-Pliensbachian
~201–183 Ma
TypeGeological formation
Sub-unitsShawan & Zhangjia'ao Members
UnderliesChuanjie Formation
OverliesPrecambrian slate basement
Thicknessover 300 metres (980 ft)
Lithology
PrimarySiltstone
OtherSandstone
Location
Coordinates25°00′N 102°06′E / 25.0°N 102.1°E / 25.0; 102.1Coordinates: 25°00′N 102°06′E / 25.0°N 102.1°E / 25.0; 102.1
Approximate paleocoordinates34°18′N 104°36′E / 34.3°N 104.6°E / 34.3; 104.6
RegionYunnan
Country China
ExtentYunnan Basin
Lufeng Formation is located in China
Lufeng Formation
Lufeng Formation (China)
Lufeng Formation is located in Yunnan
Lufeng Formation
Lufeng Formation (Yunnan)

PaleofaunaEdit

RhynchocephaliansEdit

Rhynchocephalians reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes

Clevosaurus[3]

Indeterminate

Yunnan

Partial skulls and jaws.[3] The three named species do not display any autapomorphic characters and should be considered indeterminate within the genus. Only record of rhynchocephalians from Asia.[3]

CrurotarsansEdit

Crurotarsans reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes

Dianchungosaurus[4]

D. lufengensis[4]

Yunnan[4]

Dark Red Beds[4]

Formerly considered an ornithopod dinosaur.

OrnithischiansEdit

Indeterminate ornithopod remains Yunnan. Dark Red Beds.[2]

Ornithischians reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes

Bienosaurus[4][5]

B. lufengensis[4]

Yunnan[4]

Dark Red Beds[4]

A right "[d]entary with teeth,"[6] with additional cranial fragments such as a partial frontal. These specimens are catalogued as IVPP V 9612. The dentary preserves 11 teeth or roots with two additional empty alveoli.

Tatisaurus[4]

T. oehleri[4]

Yunnan[4]

Dark Red Beds[4]

"Isolated dentary."[6]

SauropodomorphsEdit

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Sauropodomorphs reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Chuxiongosaurus[7]

C. lufengensis[7]

Yunnan[7]

"Skull[7]

Gyposaurus[8]

G. sinensis[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[9]

"[Two] skeletons, [one] with partial skull, [two] partial skeletons, [three] skull fragments, adult."[10]

Fulengia[4]

F. youngi[4]

Yunnan[4]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]

"Skull."[11]

Jingshanosaurus[9]

J. xinwaensis[9]

Yunnan[9]

  • Dull Purplish Beds[9]

"Complete skeleton with skull, adult."[10]

"Kunmingosaurus"[4]

"K. wusdingensis"[4]

Yunnan[4]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]

nomen nudum

Lufengosaurus[8]

L. huenei[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
  • Dull Purplish[9]

"(including Gyposaurus sinensis, L. magnus)"[2]

L. magnus[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
  • Dull Purplish[9]

Tawasaurus[4]

T. minor[4]

Yunnan[4]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
Xingxiulong X. chengi Yunnan
Yizhousaurus[12] Y. sunae Yunnan Zhangjiaao Member Partial skeleton with skull

Yunnanosaurus[8]

Y. huangi[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
  • Dull Purplish[9]

"More than [twenty] partial to complete skeletons, [two] skulls, juvenile to adult."[11]

Y. robustus[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
  • Dull Purplish[9]

TheropodsEdit

Theropods reported from the Lower Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Eshanosaurus[9]

E. deguchiianus[9]

Yunnan[9]

  • Dull Purplish Beds[9]

"Dentary."[13]

Possible therizinosaur

 
Sinosaurus triassicus

Lukousaurus[8]

L. yini[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[9]
  • Holotype skull, tooth[14]
  • Three bone fragments[15]

Possible crocodylomorph[16]

Sinosaurus[8]

S. triassicus[8]

Yunnan[8]

  • Dark Red Beds[4]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[9]
  • Maxillary fragments, teeth, and a lower jaw fragment
  • Incomplete skull and other post-cranial fragments

Dilophosaurus sinensis specimen

Now included in Sinosaurus

Panguraptor[17] P. lufengensis[17] Yunnan[17]
  • Dull Purplish Beds[17]
  • Partial skeleton[17]
A coelophysid

CynodontsEdit

Cynodonts reported from the Lufeng Formation
Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images
Bienotherium
  • B. yuannanese
  • B. magnum
A tritylodontid
 
Skull of Morganucodon oehleri
Dianzhongia D. longirostrata A tritylodontid
Hadrocodium[18]

H. wui[18]

Yunnan[18]

  • Dark Red Beds
Skull One of the oldest and smallest mammaliaforms known. Indicates a correlation between the separation of the middle ear bones from the mandible and the expanded brain vault in early mammals.[19]
Lufengia L. delicata A tritylodontid
Morganucodon
  • M. oehleri
  • M. heikuopengensis
Zhangjiawa Member (M. heikuopengensis)

Shawan Member (M. oehleri)

A morganucodontan
Sinoconodon S. rigneyi Zhangjiawa Member A mammaliamorph closely related to Mammaliaformes
Yunnanodon[20][21]

Y. brevirostre[20]

Yunnan[20]

  • Dark Red Beds
A tritylodontid

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Luo, Z., and X.-C. Wu. 1994. The small tetrapods of the Lower Lufeng Formation, Yunnan, China; pp. 251–270 in N. C. Fraser and H.-D.Sues (eds.), In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs. Cambridge University Press, New York
  2. ^ a b c Weishampel, et al. 2004.
  3. ^ a b c Jones MEH. 2006 The Early Jurassic clevosaurs from China (Diapsida: Lepidosauria). New Mex. Museum Nat. Hist. Sci. Bull. 37, 548–562.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "48.3 Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 2. Dark Red Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 534.
  5. ^ Raven, Thomas J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Xu, Xing; Maidment, Susannah C.R. (2019). "A reassessment of the purported ankylosaurian dinosaur Bienosaurus lufengensis from the Lower Lufeng Formation of Yunnan, China". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 64 (2): 335–342. doi:10.4202/app.00577.2018.
  6. ^ a b "Table 15.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 336.
  7. ^ a b c d Junchang, Lü; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Tianguang, Li; Shimin, Zhong (2010). "A New Basal Sauropod Dinosaur from the Lufeng Basin, Yunnan Province, Southwestern China". Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition). 84 (6): 1336–1342. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2010.00332.x.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "48.3 Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 1. Dull Purplish Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series and 2. Dark Red Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series" in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 534.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "48.3 Yunnan, People's Republic of China; 1. Dull Purplish Beds of the Lower Lufeng Series," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 534.
  10. ^ a b "Table 12.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 234.
  11. ^ a b "Table 12.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 236.
  12. ^ Zhang, Qian-Nan; You, Hai-Lu; Wang, Tao; Chatterjee, Sankar (2018-09-07). "A new sauropodiform dinosaur with a 'sauropodan' skull from the Lower Jurassic Lufeng Formation of Yunnan Province, China". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 13464. Bibcode:2018NatSR...813464Z. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-31874-9. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 6128897. PMID 30194381.
  13. ^ "Table 7.1," in Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 152.
  14. ^ Young, C.C. (1948). "Further notes on Gyposaurus sinensis Young". Bulletin of the Geological Society of China. 28 (1–2): 91–103.
  15. ^ M. N. Bien. 1940. Discovery of Triassic saurischian and primitive mammalian remains at Lufeng, Yunnan. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 20(3/4):225-234
  16. ^ Irmis, R. B. (2004). "First report of Megapnosaurus (Theropoda: Coelophysoidea) from China". PaleoBios. 24 (3): 11–18.
  17. ^ a b c d e You, Hai-Lu; Azuma, Yoichi; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ya-Ming; Dong, Zhi-Ming (2014). "The first well-preserved coelophysoid theropod dinosaur from Asia". Zootaxa. 3873 (3): 233–49. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3873.3.3. PMID 25544219. Retrieved 2017-09-17.
  18. ^ a b c Luo, Zhe-Xi; Crompton, Alfred W.; Sun, Ai-Lin (2001). "A New Mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and Evolution of Mammalian Characteristics (Supplementary Information (Hadrocodium wui IVPP8275))" (PDF). Science. 292 (5521): 1535–1540. Bibcode:2001Sci...292.1535L. doi:10.1126/science.1058476. PMID 11375489. S2CID 8738213. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  19. ^ Luo, Zhe-Xi; Crompton, Alfred W.; Sun, Ai-Lin (2001). "A New Mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and Evolution of Mammalian Characteristics" (PDF). Science. 292 (5521): 1535–1540. Bibcode:2001Sci...292.1535L. doi:10.1126/science.1058476. PMID 11375489. S2CID 8738213. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-20.
  20. ^ a b c Cui, G. H. (1976). "Yunnania, a new tritylodont genus from Lufeng, Yunnan". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 25: 1–7.
  21. ^ Cui, G. H. (1986). "Yunnanodon, a replacement name for Yunnania Cui, 1976". Gu Jizhui Dongwu Yu Gu Renlei Vertebr. PalAsiatica. 24: 9.

BibliographyEdit

  • Barrett, P.M.; Xu X. (2005). "Reassessment of Dianchungosaurus lufengensis Yang, 1982, an enigmatic reptile from the Lower Lufeng Formation (Lower Jurassic) of Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China". Journal of Paleontology. 79 (5): 981–986. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079[0981:ARODLY]2.0.CO;2.
  • Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. 861 pp. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.