Luís de Almeida Braga
Born in Braga, Almeida Braga first came to politics whilst a student at the University of Coimbra where he was active in the cause of monarchism. Forced into exile in 1911 following a crackdown on such activity, he feld to Belgium where he continued his studies at Ghent University and the Université Libre de Bruxelles. The journal that he founded, Alma Portuguesa, was an early basis for integralist development and he produced it in exile until he was amnestied in 1916. Whilst in exile Almeida Braga was also involved in translating Portuguese language literature into French, including some of the works of Gil Vicente.
He was involved in the failed monarchist uprising of 1919 and afterwards became, along with his close ally Alberto Monsaraz, one of the leading advocates for the claims of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza. Although a prolific writer he was not a main leader of the integralist movement and spent much of the 1920s out of Portugal, notably in Brazil. Whilst there his writings found an audience and helped to bring about the development of Brazilian Integralism. As one of the group's leading thinkers he set out to convert Portugal's elite to the new, somewhat Maurrasian, political ideology, particularly focusing on the young in their quest for support.
In 1932, by then settled back in Portugal, he joined with José Hipólito Raposo in launching the journal Integralismo Lusitano as an attempt to redefine their older ideas in the Portugal of António de Oliveira Salazar. The initiative was not a success. Unlike some former integralists Almeida Braga did not like Salazar and his last active involvement in politics saw him campaign in the 1958 Presidential election for Salazar's opponent Humberto Delgado.
- O Culto da Tradição, 1916.
- Mar Tenebroso, 1918.
- Paixão e Graça da Terra, 1932.
- Sob o Pendão Real, 1942.
- Posição de António Sardinha, 1943.
- A Revolta da Inteligência, 1944.
- Nuvens sobre o Deserto, 1954.
- Espada ao Sol, 1969.
- Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, 1990, p. 7
- Four Plays of Gil Vicente, p. 73
- Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right, p. 8
- Tom Gallagher, Portugal: A Twentieth-Century Interpretation, Manchester University Press, 1983, pp. 30-31