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Loznica (Serbian: Лозница, pronounced [lǒznit͡sa]) is a city located in the Mačva District of western Serbia. It lies on the right bank of the Drina river. In 2011 the city had a total population of 19,572, while the administrative area had a population of 79,327.

Loznica

Град Лозница
City of Loznica
Loznicapanoramaf.jpg
Muzej Jadra, Loznica 001.jpg
Vukov Dom Kulture.JPG
Loznica 054.jpg
Church in Loznica by night.JPG
Monument on Gucevo hill.JPG
Corso in Loznica.JPG
From top: Panoramic view of Loznica, Loznica city museum, Cultural center, Elementary school "Anta Bogićević", Church of the Most Holy Theotokos, Monument on Gucevo hill, Corso in Loznica
Etymology: Vine (sr. loza)
Location of the city of Loznica within Serbia
Location of the city of Loznica within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°32′00″N 19°13′33″E / 44.53333°N 19.22583°E / 44.53333; 19.22583Coordinates: 44°32′00″N 19°13′33″E / 44.53333°N 19.22583°E / 44.53333; 19.22583
Country Serbia
RegionŠumadija and Western Serbia
DistrictMačva
Settlements54
Government
 • MayorVidoje Petrović (SNS)
Area
 • Urban9.45 km2 (3.65 sq mi)
 • Administrative612 km2 (236 sq mi)
Elevation
121 m (397 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[2]
 • Urban
19,212
 • Urban density2,000/km2 (5,300/sq mi)
 • Administrative
79,327
 • Administrative density130/km2 (340/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
15300
Area code+381(0)15
ISO 3166 codeSRB
Car platesLO
Websitewww.loznica.rs

Its name stems from the word "loza" (the Serbian word for vine). Originally, its name was Lozica (Serbian for small vine), but it later became Loznica.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The oldest settlements on the territory of Jadar and Loznica can be traced to the Neolithic period when the Starčevo culture flourished from 4500–3000 BC. Illyrian and Celtic tribes inhabited the region prior to the Roman conquest in 75 BC. Roman conquest of the Balkan peninsula brought huge changes: the territory became part of the Roman province of Dalmatia.

The most important settlement in Jadar was Genzis, located near Lešnica, while the Roman settlement in present-day Loznica was called Ad Drinum. Legend tells that Loznica was named after the grape vines that were grown in this region, starting from the 3rd century BC in the time of Roman Emperor Probus. The first reference to the town as Loznica dates back to the reign of Serbian King Stefan Milutin, when Catherine, the wife of Milutin's brother Dragutin, founded the nearby monastery of Tronoša (1317). Loznica received little notice for the next two hundred years. By 1533, Loznica had been conquered from the Serbian Despotate by the Ottoman Empire and was then populated by Muslims; according to the tax registry, out of 37 houses, 26 houses were Muslim and 11 were Christian.

In 1600, Loznica became an officially Muslim settlement with 55 houses. In this period Loznica and Jadar were part of the region administered from Zvornik. The Zvornik region itself was ruled by the pasha in Bosnia. Striving toward liberation from Ottoman rule, the population of Loznica was actively involved in the common fight of the Serbian people, beginning with the First Serbian Uprising of 1804. The uprising was very important since the Ottomans did not easily give up on the border part of their territory from which they could harvest taxes and supply their army as well as break through towards the central part of the rebellious Serbia.

During the whole period of the First Uprising (1804–13), numerous and heavy battles against the Ottomans were fought in Loznica and its vicinity. In 1813 the Serbs managed to drive the Ottomans across the river Drina, at which time the Ottomans reoccupied Loznica. In November 1833, Loznica and Jadar officially became part of the Principality of Serbia, during the rule of Miloš Obrenović, when Sultan Mahmud II ceded six seized regions to Serbia. This resulted in the abolition of Ottoman ownership over the land and it was declared a free peasant state, which meant that the feudal system was revoked.

Jadar became part of the Podrinje region, while Loznica became the seat of the region, remaining in this role until the end of the 19th century, when the capital was moved to Šabac. During the thirties of the 19th century, Loznica had 295 houses with 1203 people and became the centre of the administrative and political power of Podrinje. The education system started to develop and a hospital was set up (1882), construction of industrial buildings started, craftsmen, trade and banking started to develop. Construction of the railway between Šabac, Loznica and Banja Koviljaca started by the beginning of the 20th century. The First Balkan War and First World War halted economic development and significantly reduced the number of people in Loznica and vicinity.

Upon completion of the First World War, Loznica remained a regional centre with about 5000 people. There was a short period of reconstruction and economic development, followed by the Great Depression, which saw a decline in the prices of agricultural products. By the mid-1930s, craft and trade shops had been established, bringing some relief to the economy. Later, the antimony mines were acquired by German industrialists which further strengthened the economy. This growth was, however, brought to an abrupt halt at the beginning of World War II. In January 2008, according to the Serbian law, Loznica received the status of a city. Loznica is also the first liberated city in occupied Europe during World War II.[citation needed]

Geography and climateEdit

The city is located in western Serbia, in the Mačva District, near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies on the right bank of the Drina river.

ClimateEdit

Loznica has a humid subtropical climate with cold winters, often very cold due to the mountain winds of nearby mountains, and warm to hot summers. When hot air from Adriatic Sea starts going inland, to the north-east it rises over mountain barriers (Zlatar and Zlatibor), gaining jet effect and continuing fast to western parts of Serbia.

Climate data for Loznica (1981–2010, extremes 1961–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.6
(70.9)
25.6
(78.1)
30.2
(86.4)
32.0
(89.6)
36.0
(96.8)
37.3
(99.1)
42.3
(108.1)
40.3
(104.5)
37.6
(99.7)
31.1
(88.0)
29.1
(84.4)
26.4
(79.5)
42.3
(108.1)
Average high °C (°F) 5.1
(41.2)
7.6
(45.7)
12.8
(55.0)
17.9
(64.2)
23.3
(73.9)
26.0
(78.8)
28.3
(82.9)
28.4
(83.1)
23.9
(75.0)
18.8
(65.8)
11.6
(52.9)
6.2
(43.2)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
2.4
(36.3)
6.9
(44.4)
11.8
(53.2)
17.0
(62.6)
20.0
(68.0)
21.8
(71.2)
21.4
(70.5)
16.8
(62.2)
11.9
(53.4)
6.3
(43.3)
2.2
(36.0)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
2.1
(35.8)
6.5
(43.7)
11.2
(52.2)
14.4
(57.9)
15.9
(60.6)
15.6
(60.1)
11.7
(53.1)
7.3
(45.1)
2.7
(36.9)
−0.9
(30.4)
6.9
(44.4)
Record low °C (°F) −25.4
(−13.7)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−15.5
(4.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.1
(39.4)
7.7
(45.9)
5.0
(41.0)
−0.1
(31.8)
−4.6
(23.7)
−13.4
(7.9)
−17.6
(0.3)
−25.4
(−13.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.3
(2.33)
46.0
(1.81)
65.7
(2.59)
62.8
(2.47)
78.2
(3.08)
108.5
(4.27)
85.2
(3.35)
75.2
(2.96)
69.5
(2.74)
73.5
(2.89)
74.4
(2.93)
69.6
(2.74)
868.0
(34.17)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 12 13 13 13 14 10 9 10 11 13 15 147
Average snowy days 7 7 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 28
Average relative humidity (%) 83 78 71 69 69 71 69 71 76 80 82 84 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60.0 90.3 140.2 176.0 231.7 247.8 292.5 273.5 197.2 143.1 82.7 51.5 1,986.4
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[3]

DemographicsEdit

YearPop.±% p.a.
194853,436—    
195359,796+2.27%
196170,534+2.09%
197178,228+1.04%
198184,180+0.74%
199186,875+0.32%
200286,413−0.05%
201179,327−0.95%
Source: [4]

According to the 2011 census, the ethnic groups in the city of Loznica include Serbs (79,327), and smaller numbers of Romani (761), Ethnic Muslims (660), Yugoslavs (74), Montenegrins (58) and others.

SettlementsEdit

Society and cultureEdit

CultureEdit

Among cultural heritage include the Church of the Holy Virgin located in the town, the 14th-century Čokešina Monastery, the 13th-century Tronoša Monastery, and monuments on Mount Gučevo, in Tekeriš, and in Draginac, as well as the ethnic village of Tršić.

A Serbian epic poem is the Battle of Loznica in which the central figure Anta Bogičević leads Serbian forces during the First Serbian Uprising. The most important local cultural event is "Vukov Sabor" (Council of Vuk) in Tršić, held annually in September, in memory of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić who was born in the village; it remains the oldest and largest cultural event in Serbia, for its importance and the increasing volume (20-30,000 visitors).

SportEdit

Loznica's local football club is called FK Loznica, with the Lagator Stadium as home ground.

EconomyEdit

 
Viskoza factory

The largest factory of Loznica was "HI Viskoza Loznica", founded in 1957 with over 10,000 employees (1981), at the time when the city had 18,000 inhabitants. Production of trailers was primarily in the factory "FAK Loznica", and textile production in "Moda" Loznica.

Italian manufacturer of stockings and women's underwear "Golden Lady" has a factory in Loznica, exporting to countries of the European Union. For now the factory employs 550 workers.

Also, one of the largest lithium mines (Jadar mine) in Serbia with total reserves of 125.3 million tonnes is located in Lozncica.

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2017):[5]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 148
Mining 40
Processing industry 4,101
Distribution of power, gas and water 249
Distribution of water and water waste management 330
Construction 1,020
Wholesale and retail, repair 2,793
Traffic, storage and communication 669
Hotels and restaurants 603
Media and telecommunications 167
Finance and insurance 170
Property stock and charter 23
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 483
Administrative and other services 199
Administration and social assurance 900
Education 1,142
Healthcare and social work 1,844
Art, leisure and recreation 193
Other services 376
Total 15,450

GalleryEdit

Twin citiesEdit

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  3. ^ "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981–2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
  4. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  5. ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2018" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 16 March 2019.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Loznica at Wikimedia Commons