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Louisiana French (French: français de la Louisiane, Louisiana Creole: françé la lwizyàn) refers to the group of French dialects spoken in the U.S. state of Louisiana and formerly elsewhere in colonial Lower Louisiana. It comprises several distinct varieties. Figures from the United States Census report that roughly 3.5% of Louisianans over the age of 5 reported speaking French or a French-based creole at home.[2] 7% of the population of the state understands and/or speaks French.

Louisiana French
français louisianais
Native to Louisiana
Native speakers
150,000 to 200,000 (2012)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
Louisiane francophone.png
Blue indicates Louisiana parishes where French is spoken as of 2011. In total, 7% of Louisianans speak French.

The most widely spoken form of Louisiana French is Colonial French, also known as Louisiana French-Choctaw of the Louisiana Creole people. It developed before the arrival of Acadian migrants during the Great Upheaval of the 18th century. Additionally, Louisiana Creole is a related creole language.[3][4]

Speakers of Louisiana French are not only the French Creole people but also the Chitimacha, Houma, Biloxi, Tunica, Choctaw, Cajun, Acadian and the French among others. Individuals and groups of individuals, through innovation, adaptation and contact, continually enrich the French language spoken in Louisiana, seasoning it with linguistic features sometimes only found in Louisiana.[5][6][7][8][9]


Louisiana French todayEdit

As of 2011, there are an estimated 150,000 to 200,000 people in Louisiana who speak French. In comparison, there were an estimated one million native French-speakers in Louisiana in about 1968. The dialect is now at risk of extinction as children are no longer taught it formally in schools.

French in Louisiana mediaEdit

French on Louisiana radio stationsEdit

French periodicals, newspapers, and publicationsEdit

French on Louisiana cable networksEdit

French in the communityEdit

French language masses in LouisianaEdit

Recurring French language festivities/eventsEdit


French-language Public School Curriculum (French Immersion)Edit

In 2011, the parishes in blue offered one or more French-language immersion programs. Source: Les Amis de l'Immersion, Inc. Facebook Fanpage [1]

As of autumn 2011, Louisiana has French-language total immersion or bilingual French and English immersion in ten parishes: Calcasieu, Acadia, St. Landry, St. Martin, Iberia, Lafayette, Assumption, East Baton Rouge, Jefferson and Orleans. Students placed in the program begin in kindergarten or first grade and continue until high school.

The curriculum in both the total French-language immersion as well as in the bilingual program follows the same standards as all other schools in the parish and state.[4][5]

The Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL) recruits teachers locally and globally each year. Les Amis de l'Immersion, Inc. is the parent-teacher organization for students in French immersion in the state. Les Amis organizes summer camps, fundraisers and outreach for teachers, parents and students in the program.

The immersion programs as of autumn 2011 are as follows:

School Grades City Parish
Church Point Elementary K-4 Church Point Acadia
Pierre Part Primary K-4 Pierre Part Assumption
Pierre Part Middle 5-8 Pierre Part Assumption
Belle Rose Primary K-2 Belle Rose Assumption
Assumption High 9 Napoleonville Assumption
Winbourne Elementary K Baton Rouge East Baton Rouge
Henry Heights Elementary K-5 Lake Charles Calcasieu
Gillis Elementary K-5 Lake Charles Calcasieu
Prien Lake Elementary K-5 Lake Charles Calcasieu
Moss Bluff Middle 6-8 Lake Charles Calcasieu
S.J. Welsh Middle 6-8 Lake Charles Calcasieu
Alfred M. Barbe High 9-12 Lake Charles Calcasieu
Daspit Elementary K-6 New Iberia Iberia
North Lewis Street Elementary K-6 New Iberia Iberia
S. J. Montgomery Elementary K-3 Lafayette Lafayette
Myrtle Place Elementary K-3 Lafayette Lafayette
Prairie Elementary K-5 Lafayette Lafayette
Evangeline Elementary K-2 Lafayette Lafayette
Vermilion Elementary K-1 Lafayette Lafayette
Edgar Martin Middle 6-7 Lafayette Lafayette
Paul Breaux Middle 6-8 Lafayette Lafayette
Audubon Montessori K-8 New Orleans Orleans
Ecole Bilingue de la Nouvelle-Orléans Nursery-6 New Orleans Orleans
Hynes Elementary K-3 New Orleans Orleans
International High School of New Orleans 9-10 New Orleans Orleans
International School of Louisiana K-8 New Orleans Orleans
Lycée Français de la Nouvelle-Orleans PK-4 New Orleans Orleans
Park Vista Elementary K-2 Opelousas St. Landry
South Street K-3 Opelousas St. Landry
Cecilia Primary K-3 Cecilia St. Martin
Teche Elementary 4-6 Breaux Bridge St. Martin
Cecilia Junior High 7-8 Cecilia St. Martin
Cecilia High School 9-12 Cecilia St. Martin

CODOFIL Consortium of Louisiana Universities and CollegesEdit

The Consortium of Louisiana Universities and Colleges unites representatives of French programs in Louisiana universities and colleges, and organizes post-secondary level Francophone scholastic exchanges and provide support for University students studying French language and linguistics in Louisiana. Member institutions include these:


The grammar of Louisiana French is mostly the same as that of standard French as spoken worldwide.[citation needed]

Some syntactical features which are no longer present in the rest of the French-speaking world have remained, however, current in Louisiana.[citation needed]

The difference between je étais après manger and j'étais après manger ("I was eating" (compare Irish English I was after eating) is only in the spelling, not in the pronunciation.[citation needed]

Louisiana French syntax
Tense Informal grammar Formal grammar
Present progressive I am eating.
Je suis après manger.
J'après manger.
J'apé manger.
I am eating.
Je suis en train de manger.
Past progressive I was eating.
J'étais après manger.
J'tais après manger.
J'tais apé manger.
I was eating
Je mangeais; or,
J'étais en train de manger.
Passé composé [6] I came.
J'ai venu.
I came.
Je suis venu(e).
Imperfect [7] They salted the meat.
Ils saliont la viande.
They salted the meat.
Ils salaient la viande.
Future [8] I will go to sleep.
Je vas aller dormir.
I will go to sleep.
Je vais aller dormir.


Lexically, Louisiana French differs little from other varieties of French spoken in the world. However, there are several lexical treats stemming from many linguistic origins; some are unique to Louisiana French while others are shared sporadically throughout the Francophone world.

Louisiana French vocabulary
English Louisiana French Normative French
automobile, car un char une voiture
ball une pelote un ballon
catfish une barbue un poisson chat
cookie une galette un biscuit, un petit gâteau, un petit gâteau sec
dollar (U.S. dollar), currency un piastre un dollar
dude un bougre un gars, un mec
eggplant, aubergine une brème une aubergine
goat un cabri une chèvre
noise du train du bruit
now (right now) drette-là, asteur, asteur-là maintenant
possum, opossum un rat de bois un opossum
raccoon un chaoui un raton laveur
shoe un soulier une chaussure
tail (of an animal) une tcheu une queue
to look at guetter, garder regarder
where, whereto àyoù, etyoù, éyoù
why quoi faire, pourquoi pourquoi


Placenames in Louisiana French usually differ from those in International French. For instance, locales named for American Indian tribes usually use the plural article (les) before the name instead of the masculine or feminine singular article (le/la). Likewise, movement towards those locations uses the plural, aux, before the place name. That vary by region. In Pierre Part, Louisiana, for example, the elderly have often been heard to say La Californie, le Texas, La Floride. People in Lafayette, Louisiana, also use articles in front of the state names. It depends which region and how well the person knows French.

Louisiana French place names
English Louisiana French Normative French
Informal Formal
Carencro (le/au bayou) Carencro, St-Pierre Carencro, St-Pierre Carencro
New Iberia Ibérie la Nouvelle-Ibérie la Nouvelle-Ibérie
Natchitoches (les/aux) Natchitoches (les/aux) Natchitoches Natchitoches
New Orleans en ville la Nouvelle-Orléans la Nouvelle-Orléans
Arkansas (les/aux) Arcs (les/aux) Arcs l'Arkansas
Illinois (les/aux) Illinois (les/aux) Illinois l'Illinois
Lake Charles (le/au) Lac-Charles (le/au) Lac-Charles Lac-Charles

In informal Louisiana French, most US states and countries are pronounced in English and therefore require no article (California, Texas, Florida, New York, New Mexico, Colorado, Mexico, Belgium, Morocco, Lebanon, etc.).

In formal Louisiana French, prefixed articles are absent, but the names of the states and countries usually are in French (Californie, Texas, Floride, Belgique, Liban).


In informal Louisiana French, contractions are often absent.


  • J'ai appris de les grand-parents

(I learned from the grandparents) instead of standard *J'ai appris des grand-parents.

  • La lumière de le ciel (the skylight) instead of standard *La lumière du ciel.

Creole influencesEdit

Francophones and Creolophones have worked side-by-side, lived among one another, and have enjoyed local festivities together throughout the history of the state. As a result, in regions where both Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole are or used to be spoken, the inhabitants of the region often code-switch, beginning the sentence in one language and completing it in another.[6][10][11][12][13]


Taxonomies for classing Louisiana French have changed over time. Until the 1960s and 1970s, Louisianans themselves, when speaking in French, referred to their language as français, or créole. In English, they referred to their language as Creole French and French simultaneously.[14][15][16][17][18]

In 1968, Lafayette native James Domengeaux, a US Representative, created the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL), whose mission was to oversee the promotion, visibility and expansion of French language usage in Louisiana. His mission was clear: (re)create a European French bastion in Louisiana by making all Louisianans bilingual in International French and English. To accomplish his goals, he teamed up with political leaders in Canada and France, including former French President Georges Pompidou. Louisiana French, he found too limiting, so he imported Francophone teachers from Europe, Canada and the Caribbean to teach normative French in Louisiana schools. His penchant for International French caused him to lose support in Louisiana: most Louisianans, if they were going to have French in Louisiana schools, wanted Louisiana French, not "Parisian French."[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

Simultaneously, an ethnic movement took root in South Louisiana led by Acadian-Creoles like James Donald Faulk, Dudley Joseph Leblanc and Jules O. Daigle. James Donald Faulk, a French teacher in Crowley, Louisiana, introduced using the term Cajun French for Acadian-Creoles and French Creoles who identified as Cajun, for which he created a Curriculum Guide, or Teacher and Student Manual for institutionalizing the language in schools in 1977. Roman Catholic Priest Jules O. Daigle, who in 1984 published his Dictionary of the Cajun Language, followed him. Cajun French is intended to imply the French spoken in Louisiana by descendants of Acadians, an ethnic qualifier rather than a linguistic relationship.[14][15][16][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]

Linguists and social scientists then categorized Louisiana French into a tripartite system based on colonial class lines: Colonial French or Plantation Society French, Napoleonic French, Louisiana Creole, and Acadian French, but the academic terms did not last long before quickly fading away.[14][15][17][34][35]

In 2009, Iberia Parish native and activist Christophe Landry introduced three terms representing lexical differences based on Louisiana topography: Provincial Louisiana French (PLF), Fluvial Louisiana French (FLF) and Urban Louisiana French (ULF).[36]

That same year, the Dictionary of Louisiana of Louisiana French, subtitled "as spoken in Cajun, Creole and American Indian communities," was published. It was edited by a coalition of linguists and other activists. The title clearly suggests that the ethno-racial identities are mapped onto the languages, but the language, at least linguistically, remains shared across those ethno-racial lines.[13]

These are the academic taxonomies applied to categorizations of Louisiana French. With nationwide ethnicization came internal subdivisions that, some of the state's inhabitants, insist are ancestral varieties. As a result, it is not odd to hear the language referred to as French, Canadian French, Acadian French, Broken French, Old French, Creole French, Cajun French, and so on. Still other Louisiana Francophones will simply refer to their language as French, without qualifiers. Internally, two broad distinctions will be made: formal French ("good French" or "proper French") and informal French ("broken French").[9][15][37][38]

Formal FrenchEdit

Formal French is the language used in all administrative and ecclesiastic documents, speeches and in literary publications. Also known as Urban Louisiana French (ULF), it is spoken in the urban business centers of the state. Those regions have historically been centers of trade, commerce and contact with speakers of French from Europe. It would include New Orleans and its environs, Baton Rouge and its environs, St. Martinville (here, along class lines) and other once important Francophone business centers in the state. ULF sounds almost identical to Standard International French, with pronunciation and intonation varying from European to North American.

Informal FrenchEdit

This variety of Louisiana French, also known as Provincial Louisiana French (PLF) of the Country Creoles has its roots in agrarian Louisiana, but it is now also found in urban centers because of urbanization beginning in the 20th century.

Historically, along the prairies of Southwest Louisiana, Francophone Louisianans were cattle grazers and rice and cotton farmers. Along the bayous and the Louisiana littoral, sugar cane cultivation dominated and in many parishes today, sugar cultivation remains an important source of economy (like in Iberia and St. Martin parishes).

In this variety, R is alveolar, not guttural, the AU in words becomes /aw/, and the vowels at the beginning and end of words are usually omitted (Américain changes to Méricain, Espérer to Spérer). Likewise, É preceding an O frequently disappears in spoken informal LF all together (Léonide changes to Lonide, Cléophas to Clophas).

The nasality and pitch is akin to pitch and intonation associated with provincial speech in Québec. In terms of nasality, Louisiana French is similar to from French spoken in Brussels, Paris and Dakar (Senegal). Among the varieties such as those is, however, a difference in stress (inflection, accentuation), rhythm (cadence and lilt), articulation, timbre (character and quality of each phoneme, or sound), form and sound fluctuations (modulation), and tone (intonation). The pitch of PLF and Provincial Quebec French (PQF) share a predominantly agricultural history, close contact with pre-Columbian peoples and relative isolation from urbanized populations.[17][27][39][40][41]

Bayou Lafourche FrenchEdit

Particular mention should be made to the Francophones of Bayou Lafourche. An interesting linguistic phenomenon here that is absent everywhere else in Louisiana. Some Francophones along Bayou Lafourche pronounce the G and J in French as the English letter H (like in most Spanish dialects), but others pronounce the two letters in the manner of most other Francophones.[42][43][44]

Two theories exist to explain the feature. On the one hand, some activists and linguists attribute this feature to an inheritance of Acadian French spoken in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and other Canadian maritime provinces, a theory based entirely on observation of shared vocal features rather than the communities being linked by migration.[45][46]

On the other hand, it has been suggested that there may be a linguistic link to the Hispanophones living at the Mississippi River and Bayou Lafourche junction, who were more numerous than the Acadians in the immediate vicinity.[47]

Interestingly, the Louisiana Creole spoken in Lafourche Parish in and around Kraemer, Choctaw, Bayou Bœuf and Chackbay contains the letters G and J, but they are voiced as they are in LC spoken elsewhere in the state and as the French spoken elsewhere, not as the aspirated Hs in Lower Bayou Lafourche French.


Musically, Louisiana French has been the traditional language for singing music now referred to as Cajun, zydeco, and Louisiana French rock. Today, Old French music, Creole stomp, and Louisiana French rock remain the only three genres of music in Louisiana using French instead of English. In "Cajun", most artists have expressions and phrases in French in songs, predominantly sung in Louisiana English.[48][49][50]

Healing practicesEdit

Medicine men and women, or healers, called traiteur/traiteuse in French, are still found throughout the state. During their rituals for healing, they use secret French prayers to God or saints for a speedy recovery. These healers are mostly Catholic and do not expect compensation or even thanks, as it is said that then, the cure will not work.[51][52][53]


Signage, packaging, and documentation in French exists throughout the state. Beginning in the 1990s, when cultural and ethnic tourism proved a lucrative enterprise, luring large numbers of Francophones to Louisiana, State and local tourism bureau commissions were influential in convincing city, parish and state officials to produce bilingual signage and documentation. French and English bilingual signage is, therefore, usually confined to the old districts of cities, like the French Quarter in New Orleans, downtown Lafayette, New Iberia (trilingual with Spanish), St. Martinville, Breaux Bridge, and several other cities. Locals continue to refer to the place names in English and for postal services the English version is generally preferred.

To meet the demands of a growing Francophone tourist market, tourism bureaus and commissions throughout the state, particularly in southern Louisiana, have information on tourist sites in both French and English (as well as in other major languages spoken by tourists).

Similarly, the state government passed measures in 2011 to provide Louisiana French Language Services at the governmental level, with particular mention to cultural tourism and local culture and heritage. The legislative act was drafted and presented by Francophone and Francophile senators and representatives. It asserts that the French language is vital to the economy of the state. Accordingly, the bill sets forth that each branch of the state government shall take necessary action to identify employees who are proficient in French. Each branch of the state government is to take necessary steps in producing services in the Louisiana French language for both locals and visitors. This bill is, however, an unfunded state mandate.[54]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^
  2. ^
    For 1990 figures, see
  3. ^ "What is Cajun French?". Department of French Studies, Louisiana State University. Archived from the original on September 14, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2010. 
  4. ^ Cane River Valley French – Languages and Labels Archived 2007-12-23 at the Wayback Machine. – Tulane University
  5. ^ Carl A. Brasseaux, French, Cajun, Creole, Houma: A Primer on Francophone Louisiana. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2005. Alcée Fortier. Louisiana Studies: Literature, Customs and Dialects, History and Education. New Orleans: Tulane University, 1894.
  6. ^ a b Thomas A. Klingler, Michael Picone and Albert Valdman. “The Lexicon of Louisiana French.” French and Creole in Louisiana. Albert Valdman, ed. Springer, 1997. 145-170.
  7. ^ Christophe Landry. "Francophone Louisiana: more than Cajun." Louisiana Cultural Vistas 21(2), Summer 2010: 50-55.
  8. ^ Alcée Fortier. Louisiana Studies: Literature, Customs and Dialects, History and Education. New Orleans: Tulane University, 1894.
  9. ^ a b Thomas A. Klingler. "Language labels and language use among Cajuns and Creoles in Louisiana." Ed. T. Sanchez and U. Horesh. Working papers in linguistics, 9(2), 2003. 77–90.
  10. ^ Ingrid Neumann. Le Créole de Breaux Bridge, Louisiane. Etude morphosyntaxique, textes, vocabulaire. H. Buske, 1985.
  11. ^ Thomas A. Klingler. If I could turn my tongue like that: the Creole of Pointe-Coupée Parish. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2003.
  12. ^ Peter A. Machonis. "The Origins and Evolution of French and Creole in Louisiana." The African Diaspora and Creolization. Broward County, FL, 2006: 23-28.
  13. ^ a b Albert Valdman, Kevin James Rottet, Margaret M. Marshall et al. The Dictionary of Louisiana French: As spoken in Cajun, Creole and American Indian communities. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2010.
  14. ^ a b c Sylvie Dubois, William Gautreau, Howard Margot, Megan Melançon, Tracy Veler. "The Quality of French Spoken in Louisiana: Linguistic Attitudes toward the Varieties of French in Cajun Communities." SECOL Review 19, 1995: 126-150.
  15. ^ a b c d “Le problème de la démarcation des variétés de langues en Louisiane: étiquettes et usages linguistiques." Le français en Amérique du nord: état présent. Ed. Albert Valdman, Julie Auger, and Deborah Piston-Hatlen. Québec: Les Presses de l'Université de Laval, 2005. 349-367.
  16. ^ a b “Language labels and language use among Cajuns and Creoles in Louisiana.” Ed. T. Sanchez and U. Horesh. Working papers in linguistics, 9(2), 2003. 77–90.
  17. ^ a b c Michael D. Picone. "Enclave Dialect Contradiction: an external overview of Louisiana French." American Speech 72(2), Summer 1997. 117-153.
  18. ^ Michael D. Picone. "Anglophone slaves in Francophone Louisiana." American Speech 2003 78(4):404-433.
  19. ^ Marie-Ginette Baillargeon. "A marriage of convenience: Quebec's influence on the rise of the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana. Diss. University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 2008.
  20. ^ Becky Brown. "The Development of a Louisiana French Norm." French and Creole in Louisiana. Ed. Albert Valdman. Springer, 1997: 215-220.
  21. ^ James Harvey Domengeaux. "Native-Born Acadians and the Equal Ideal."Louisiana Law Review 46(151), 1985-1986.
  22. ^ Constantino Ghini et al. Statewide CODOFIL Program of French Instruction in the Elementary Grades, 1974-75, Evaluation Report. Baton Rouge and New Orleans: Ghini & Associates and Louisiana State Department of Education, 1975.
  23. ^ Joe L. Green. "The Louisiana Cajuns: the Quest for Identity through Education." Theory Into Practice 20(1), Winter 1981: 63-69.
  24. ^ Michael Hebert. "CODOFIL et l'enseignement du français en Louisiane (CODOFIL and the teaching of French in Louisiana)." Louisiana Review 3(1), 1974: 93-95.
  25. ^ Jacques Henry. "Le CODOFIL dans le mouvement francophone en Louisiane." Présence francophone 43, 1993: 25-46.
  26. ^ Anne L. Simon. "CODOFIL: A case study of an ethnic interest group." MA Thesis, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1977.
  27. ^ a b c Cécyle Trépanier and Dean Louder. "Fieldwork in French Louisiana. A Quebec perspective." Field Accounts from French Louisiana. Ed. Jacques Henry and Sara Le Ménéstrel. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2009: 141-168.
  28. ^ Floyd Clay, Ph.D. Coozan Dudley Leblanc. From Huey Long to Hadacol. Firebird Press, 1999.
  29. ^ Rev. Msgr. Jules O. Daigle, M.A., S.T.L. A Dictionary of the Cajun Language. Swallow Publications, 1994 [reprint].
  30. ^ Rev. Msgr. Jules O. Daigle, M.A., S.T.L. Cajun Self Taught. Swallow Publications, 1996
  31. ^ James Donald Faulk. Cajun French I. Abbeville: Cajun Press Inc., 1977.
  32. ^ Thomas A. Klingler, “How much Acadian is there in Cajun?” In Ursula Mathia-Moser and Günter Bischof (dirs.) Acadians and Cajuns. The Politics and Culture of French Minorities in North America. Canadiana oenipontana. Innsbruck: Innsbruck University Press, 2001. 91-103.
  33. ^ "Beyond Cajun: towards an expanded view of Regional French in Louisiana." Unpublished manuscript. Tulane University, New Orleans.
  34. ^ "Anglophone slaves in Francophone Louisiana." American Speech 2003 78(4):404-433.
  35. ^ "Le français louisianais hors de l'Acadiana." in special joint issue of Revue canadienne de linguistique appliquée / Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 9, No. 2, Fall 2006, and Revue de l’Université de Moncton, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2006, guest ed. by Robert A. Papen and Gisèle Chevalier, pp. 221-231.
  36. ^ See "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 
  37. ^ Sylvie Dubois and Megan Melançon. "Creole is. Creole ain't. Diachronic and Synchronic attitudes toward Creole identity in southern Louisiana. Language in Society 29(2), 2000: 237-258.
  38. ^ Sylvie Dubois, William Gautreau, Howard Margot, Megan Melançon, Tracy Veler. "The Quality of French Spoken in Louisiana: Linguistic Attitudes toward the Varieties of French in Cajun Communities."SECOL Review 19, 1995: 126-150.
  39. ^ J.-M. Carrière. "Creole Dialect of Missouri." American Speech 14(2), April 1939: 109-119.
  40. ^ "French dialects of Louisiana: A revised typology. Paper read at the Colloquium on French in the United States/Colloque sur le français aux Etats-Unis." Indiana University, April 22–24, 2003.
  41. ^ Albert Valdman. "Recherches lexicographiques sur le français régional de Louisiane." Le français des Dictionnaires. L'autre versant de la lexicographie française. Claudine Bavoux. Brussels: Champs linguistiques Université de Boeck, 2008: 127-139.
  42. ^ John Guilbeau. " A Glossary of Variants From Standard French in La Fourche Parish," Master's thesis, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1936.
  43. ^ "The French Spoken in La Fourche Parish, Louisiana," diss., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1950.
  44. ^ Oukada Larbi. "A Linguistic Study with Descriptive Analysis of Lafourche Parish Dialect," diss., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1977.
  45. ^ Nathalie Dajko. Ethnic and Geographic Variation in the French of the Lafourche Bassin. Diss. Tulane University, 2009.
  46. ^ Robert A. Papen. Louisiana "Cajun" French: A grammatical sketch of the French dialect spoken on Bayou Lafourche (Lafourche Parish). Unpublished manuscript, 1972.
  47. ^ See "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 
  48. ^ Marcia Gaudet and James C. McDonald, ed. Mardi Gras, Gumbo and Zydeco. University Press of Mississippi, 2003.
  49. ^ Rick Olivier and Ben Samdel. Zydeco! University Press of Mississippi, 1999.
  50. ^ Michael Tisserand. The Kingdom of Zydeco. Arcade Publishers, 1998.
  51. ^ Elizabeth Brandon. Folk Medicine in French Louisiana. In American Folk Medicine, ed. Wayland D. Hand, 213-234. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.
  52. ^ Ellen M. Daigle. Traiteurs and Their Power of Healing: The Story of Doris Bergeron. Louisiana Folklore Miscellany 6 (4), 1991: 43-48.
  53. ^ Dana David. "A Vernacular Healing System: Reinventing the Circle with Cadien Treaters." Science and Religion: Global Perspectives. Philadelphia, PA: Metanexis Institute, 2005.
  54. ^ See "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 

Further readingEdit

  • Malveaux, Vivian (2009). Living Creole and Speaking It Fluently. AuthorHouse. 
  • laFleur II, John; Costello, Brian (2013). Speaking In Tongues, Louisiana's Colonial French, Creole & Cajun Languages Tell Their Story. BookRix GmbH & Co. KG. 
  • Valdman, Albert; et al. (2009). Dictionary of Louisiana French: As spoken in Cajun, Creole and American Indian communities. University Press of Mississippi. 
  • Picone, Michael D. (1997). "Enclave Dialect Contradiction: An External Overview of Louisiana French". American Speech. Duke University Press. 72 (2): 117–153. doi:10.2307/455786. 

External linksEdit