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Louisiana Creole (kréyol la lwizyàn; French: créole louisianais) is a French-based creole language spoken by far fewer than 10,000 people, mostly in the state of Louisiana.[3] Due to the rapidly shrinking number of speakers, Louisiana Creole is considered an endangered language.[4]

Louisiana Creole
kréyòl, kouri-vini, gombo, fransé, fransé kasé
Native to Louisiana, (particularly St. Martin Parish, Natchitoches Parish, St. Landry Parish, Jefferson Parish, Lafayette Parish and Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana); also in California (chiefly Southern California), Illinois, and a small community in East Texas.[citation needed]
Native speakers
< 10,000 (2010)[1]
French Creole
  • Louisiana Creole
Language codes
ISO 639-3 lou
Glottolog loui1240[2]
Linguasphere 51-AAC-ca
Louisiana French.svg
French spread in Louisiana. Parishes marked in yellow are those where 4–10% of the population speak French or Louisiana French at home, orange 10–15%, red 15–20%, brown 20–30%.

Contents

OriginsEdit

Louisiana Creole was spoken initially by those living in the French slave colony of Louisiana. Many of the enslaved Africans came from Senegambia region of West Africa beginning in about 1719. These people originally spoke a Mande language related to Manlike and they were in contact with other languages such as Ewe, Yoruba and Kikongo. [5]

Louisiana Creole is a contact language that arose from interactions between speakers of French and various African languages in the 18th century. For this reason, prior to its establishment, the precursor to Louisiana Creole was considered a pidgin language. In its historical backdrop, this pidgin was born to facilitate communication between African slaves and francophone land owners. Once the pidgin tongue was transmitted to the next generation (who were then considered the first native speakers of the new grammar), it could effectively be considered a creole language.

Language Shift/AttritionEdit

In the case of Louisiana Creole, a diglossia resulted between Louisiana Creole– a language spoken almost exclusively by African slaves and their descendants – and Plantation Society French (PSF) also known as Colonial French. The latter was frequently associated with plantation owners, plantation overseers, small landowners, military officers/soldiers and bilingual, free people of color. Over the centuries, Louisiana Creole’s negative associations with slavery have stigmatized the language to the point where many speakers are reluctant to use it for fear of ridicule. In this way, the assignment of “high” variety (or H language) was allotted to PSF and that of “low” variety (or L language) was given to Louisiana Creole (please refer to diglossia for more information on H and L languages).[6]

As a result of Louisiana becoming one of the United States of America, matters only worsened for the social status of Louisiana Creole. With the United States being one of the wealthiest countries in the world and English being one of the most globalized languages, the promise of upward mobility prompted many speakers of Louisiana Creole to abandon their language.[7] Being that Louisiana Creole was associated with slavery and all of the negativity that linkage entails, it had no room for mobility in terms of expansion. [8] Additionally, the geographical position of Louisiana in unison with technological advances has made the entire region accessible to other areas. This not only exposes Louisiana Creole to more linguistic competition, but also reinforces the divide between H and L languages since most people who enter the region are typically English speakers.

Moreover, efforts to revitalize French in Louisiana have placed emphasis on Cajun French, to the exclusion of Creole. While national data, such as that provided by the census, could be an invaluable source in helping allocate resources to more endangered languages, it is also riddled with misrepresentations and inaccuracies that contribute to the attrition. An example of this is linked to the structure of questions which may be wrongfully interpreted.[9]

Geographic distributionEdit

 
Creole-speaking parishes in Louisiana

Speakers of Louisiana Creole are mainly concentrated in south and southwest Louisiana, where the population of Creolophones is distributed across the region. St. Martin Parish forms the heart of the Creole-speaking region. Other sizeable communities exist along Bayou Têche in St. Landry, Avoyelles, Iberia, and St. Mary Parishes. There are smaller communities on False River in Pointe-Coupée Parish, in Terrebone Parish, and along the lower Mississippi River in Ascension, St. Charles Parish, and St. James and St. John the Baptist parishes.[10]

There are also numbers of Creolophones in Natchitoches Parish on Cane River and sizable communities of Louisiana Creole-speakers in adjacent Southeast Texas (Beaumont, Houston, Port Arthur, Galveston) and the Chicago area. Louisiana Creole speakers in California reside in Los Angeles, San Diego and San Bernardino counties and in Northern California (San Francisco Bay Area, Sacramento County, Plumas County, Tehama County, Mono County, and Yuba County.)[citation needed]. Historically, there were Creole-speaking communities in Mississippi and Alabama (on Mon Louis Island), however it is likely that no speakers remain in these areas.[11]

GrammarEdit

Definite articles in Louisiana Creole vary between the le, la and les used in standard French (a testament of possible decreolization in some areas) and a and la for the singular, and for the plural. In St. Martin Parish, the masculine definite article, whether le or -a, is often omitted altogether. Louisiana Creole uses the subject-verb-object (SVO) syntax. This form of formatting sentences is similar to that of English and is the second most used syntax behind only SOV.[12]

Personal pronouns[13]Edit

Subjective Subjective Objective Objective Possessive Possessive
English Creole English Creole English Creole
1st person I mo me mine mokin/mochin (masculine)

makènn/mochènn (feminine)

2nd person you to you twa yours tokin/tochin

tokènn/tochènn

3rd person he, she li, ça him, her li his, her, hers sokin/sochin

sokènn/sochènn

1st plural we no, not, nouzòt us nouzòt, nou, zòt our, ours nokin/nochin

nokènn/nochènn

2nd plural you vos, vouzòt you vou, vouzòt your, yours vokin/vochin

vokènn/vochènn

3rd plural they them their, theirs yékin/yéchin

yékènn/yéchènn

[14]

In theory, Creole places its definite articles after the noun, unlike French. Given Louisiana Creole's complex linguistic relationship with Colonial French and Cajun French, however, this is often no longer the case. Since there is no system of noun gender, articles only vary on phonetic criteria. The article a is placed after words ending in a vowel, and la is placed after words ending in a consonant.

Another aspect of Louisiana Creole which is unlike French is the lack of verb conjugation. Verbs do not vary based on person or number. Verbs vary based on verbal markers (e.g., (past tense), (conditional), sa or "a[alé]" (future)) which are placed between the personal pronouns and conjugated verbs (e.g. Mo té kourí ô Villaj, "I went to Lafayette"). Frequently in the past tense, the verbal marker is omitted and one is left to figure out the time of the event through context.

VocabularyEdit

The vocabulary of Louisiana Creole is of primarily of French origin, as French is the language's lexifier. Some local vocabulary, such as topography, animals, plants are of regional Amerindian origin. The language possesses some vestiges of west and central African languages (namely Bambara, Wolof, Fon) in folklore and in the religion of Voodoo.[15]

NumbersEdit

Included are the French numbers for comparison.

Number Louisiana Creole French
1 un un
2 deux
3 trò/trwa trois
4 kat quatre
5 cink cinq
6 sis six
7 sèt sept
8 wit huit
9 nèf neuf
10 dis dix


GreetingsEdit

English Louisiana Creole French
Hello Bonjou Bonjour
How are things? Konmen lé-zafè? Comment vont les affaires ?
How are you doing? Konmen to yê? Konmen ç'ap(é) kouri? Comment allez-vous ? Comment vas-tu?
I'm good, thanks. Çé bon, mèsi. Mo bien, mèsi. Ça va bien, merci.
See you later. Wa (twa) pli tar. Je te vois (vois-toi) plus tard. (À plus tard.)
I love you. Mo laimé twa. Je t'aime.
Take care. Swinn-twa. Soigne-toi. (Prends soin de toi.)
Good Morning. Bonjou. Bonjour.
Good Evening. Bonswa. Bonsoir.
Good Night. Bonswa. / Bonnwí. Bonne nuit.

The Lord's PrayerEdit

Nouzòt Popá, ki dan syèl-la
Tokin nom, li sinkifyè,
N'ap spéré pou to
rwayomm arivé, é n'a fé ça
t'olé dan syèl ; paréy si la tèujr
Donné-nou jordi dipin tou yé jou,
é pardon nouzòt péshé paréy nou pardon
lê moun ki fé nouzòt sikombé tentasyon-la,
Mé délivré nou depi mal.

Common verbs UsedEdit

Galopé: to run upon
Parlé: to speak
Manjé: to eat, (n) food
Vini: to come
Sayé: to try
Bliyé: to forget
Pélé: to call
laimé: to love, to like
Hayi: to hate, to dislike
vwyajé: to travel
Ri: to laugh
Arêté: to stop
Fé(r): to do, to make
Dormi: to sleep
Shanté: to sing
Dansé: to dance
Jonglé: to ponder
Pensé: to think
Maré: to attach
Kouri: to run, to go
Ganyé, gain: to have
Di: to say, to tell
Souveni: to remember
Tandé: to hear, to listen
Ekri: to write
Ekouté: to listen
Mèt: to put
Mouri: to die
Pran: to take
Konté: to count
Kwa: to believe
Wa(r): to see
Gardé: to watch
Trouvé: to find
Kaçhé: to hide
Héré: to be happy
Tristé: to be sad
Kontan: to be content, satisfied
Asi: to sit
Rekont: to meet
Voyé: to send
Konné: to know
Swèt: to hope, wish, believe
Twé: to kill
Frappé: to hit
Mélanjé: to blend
Boukané: to smoke (food)
Okipé/Busy: to be occupied,
Advancé: to advance
Endromî: fall asleep
Las: to be exhausted
Ouvrajé: to labor, to work
Sijesté: to suggest
Yê: to be, ex. Konmen to yê: how are you, "how you be." literally
Navigé: to navigate
Pliyé: to fold
Édé: to help
Ini: to unite
Separé: to separate
Divorcé: to separate, divorce
Bwa/Bwé/Bwéson: to drink
Swaf: to have thirst, to be thirsty.
Kontinué: to continue
Pran: to take
Aprann/pran: to learn
Kombaté/Baté: to fight
Engajé: to engage
Oulé/Olé/Vlé: to want
Gélé: to freeze
Friyé: to fry
Fumé: smoke cigarettes
Sharé/Kozé/Paré: to chat, gossip

Sounds/PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

b voiced bilabial stop bobo [bobo]-sore
d voiceless dental or alveolar stop malad [malad]-sick
g voiced velar stop bagas [bagas] ‘bagasse’

VowelsEdit

Vowels Pitch
a a, á, â, Æ low front unrounded
e e, é, è, ê, ë upper-mid front unrounded
i i, í, ì, î, ï high-front unrounded
o o, ó, ò, ô, ö, Œ upper-mid back rounded
ou ou high-back rounded
u u high front rounded

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "APiCS Online -". apics-online.info. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Louisiana Creole". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "APiCS Online -". apics-online.info. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  4. ^ "Louisiana Creole". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-08-15. 
  5. ^ Sylvie Dubois and Megan Melançon (2000), "Creole Is, Creole Ain't: Diachronic and Synchronic Attitudes toward Creole Identity in Southern Louisiana," Language in Society Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 237-258
  6. ^ Carlisle, Aimee Jeanne. "Language Attrition in Louisiana Creole French" (PDF). linguistics.ucdavis.edu. University of California, Davis. Retrieved March 27, 2016. 
  7. ^ Brown, Becky (March 1993). The Social Consequences of Writing Louisiana French. Cambridge University Press. pp. 68–92. 
  8. ^ https://intersolinc.wordpress.com/2015/02/09/louisiana-creole-language/
  9. ^ Sturgis, Sue. "CENSUS WATCH: In Louisiana, the Census gets a dose of Cajun pride". Institute for Southern Studies. Retrieved March 29, 2016. 
  10. ^ Kirstin Squint, A Linguistic and Cultural Comparison of Haitian Creole and Louisiana Creole, postcolonial.org, Accessed March 11, 2014
  11. ^ Marshall, Margaret (1991). "The Creole of Mon Louis Island, Alabama, and the Louisiana Connection". Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages. 6: 73–87. 
  12. ^ http://resolver.ebscohost.com/openurl?genre=book&atitle=&title=If+I+could+turn+my+tongue+like+that%3a+the+Creole+language+of+Pointe+Coupee+Parish%2c+Louisiana&isbn=0807127795&volume=&issue=&date=20030101&aulast=Klingler%2c+Thomas+A&spage=&pages=&sid=EBSCO%3aAfrica-Wide+Information%3aSO-1603-832652&site=ftf-live
  13. ^ * Louisiana Creole Dictionary
  14. ^ * Louisiana Creole Dictionary
  15. ^ Albert Valdman, Dictionary of Louisiana Creole, Indiana University Press, 1998, pp. 3-4.

Further readingEdit

  • Fortier, Alcée (1895). "Louisiana Folk-Tales in French Dialect and English Translation". Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society. II. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  • Kein, Sybil (2005). Learn to Speak Louisiana French Creole: An Introduction. Gumbo People Products. 
  • Kein, Sybil (2006). Maw-Maw's Creole ABC Book. Gumbo People Products. 
  • Valdman, Albert; et al. (1998). Dictionary of Louisiana Creole. Indiana University Press. 
  • Klinger, Thomas A. (2003). If I could turn my tongue like that: The Creole Language of Pointe-Coupée Parish, Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press. 
  • laFleur II, John; Costello, Brian (2013). Speaking In Tongues, Louisiana's Colonial French, Creole & Cajun Languages Tell Their Story. BookRix GmbH & Co. KG. 
  • Brasseaux, Carl (2005). French, Cajun, Creole, Houma: A Primer on Francophone Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press. 
  • Hail, G.M. (1992). Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 
  • Brown, B. "The Social Consequences of Writing Louisiana French". JSTOR 4168410. 
  • Dubois & Horvath. "Creoles and Cajuns: A Portrait in Black and White" (PDF). American Speech. 
  • Valdman, A. (1997). French and Creole in Louisiana. Plenum Press. 

External linksEdit