|Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine|
|Reign||5 March 1848 – 13 June 1877|
|Born||9 June 1806|
|Died||13 June 1877 (aged 71)|
|Spouse||Princess Mathilde Caroline of Bavaria|
Anna Magdalena, Freifrau von Hochstädten (morganatic)
|Father||Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse|
|Mother||Wilhelmine of Baden|
Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Großherzog Ludwig III von Hessen und bei Rhein; 9 June 1806, Darmstadt – 13 June 1877, Seeheim) was Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 1848 until his death in 1877.
He was the son of Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse and his consort, Princess Wilhelmine of Baden. He succeeded as Grand Duke in 1848 upon the abdication of his father during the March Revolution in the German states.
During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Louis sent word more than once to Queen Victoria, mother-in-law of his nephew and successor Louis, appealing to her to reason on his behalf with the King of Prussia, "in the same sense I had already written before, but it would be utterly useless."
In Munich, on 26 December 1833, he married Princess Mathilde Caroline of Bavaria, eldest daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria. The marriage produced no children. Princess Mathilde Caroline died in 1862, and in 1868 the Grand Duke remarried, morganatically, to Magdalene Appel who was created Baroness of Hochstädten.
Honours and awardsEdit
- Electorate of Hesse: Grand Cross of the Order of the Golden Lion, 19 February 1827
- Kingdom of Prussia:
- Austrian Empire: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen, 1830
- Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight of the Order of Saint Hubert, 1833
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Falcon, 3 October 1840
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross of the House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis, with Golden Crown, 11 October 1840
- Württemberg: Grand Cross of the Order of the Württemberg Crown, 1841
- Kingdom of Saxony: Knight of the Order of the Rue Crown, 1845
- Kingdom of Hanover:
- Duchy of Modena and Reggio: Grand Cross of the Order of the Eagle of Este, 1856
- Nassau: Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau, December 1858
- Spain: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, 6 April 1863
- Monaco: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint-Charles, 23 April 1865
- United Kingdom: Stranger Knight of the Order of the Garter, 17 June 1865
- "Queen Victoria's Journals". Princess Beatrice's copies. RA VIC/MAIN/QVJ(W). 15 May 1866.
- "Großherzogliche Orden", Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (in German), Karlsruhe, 1873, pp. 58, 73
- Kurfürstlich Hessisches Hof- und Staatshandbuch: 1860 (1860), "Kurfürstliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 15
- Königlich Preussische Ordensliste (in German), vol. 1, Berlin, 1877, pp. 8, 924 – via hathitrust.org
- "Ritter-Orden: Königlich-ungarischer St. Stephans-Orden", Hof- und Staatshandbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie, 1874, p. 55, retrieved 15 September 2021
- "Königliche Orden", Hof- und – Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern (in German), Munich: Druck and Verlag, 1875, p. 8, retrieved 15 September 2021
- Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1864), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 11
- Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Großherzogtums Oldenburg: für das Jahr 1872/73, "Der Großherzogliche Haus-und Verdienst Orden" p. 29
- Württemberg (1873). Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreichs Württemberg: 1873. p. 31.
- Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen: 1873. Heinrich. 1873. p. 3.
- Staat Hannover (1865). Hof- und Staatshandbuch für das Königreich Hannover: 1865. Berenberg. pp. 37, 77.
- Almanacco di corte. p. 30.
- Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 8
- "Caballeros de la insigne orden del toisón de oro", Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1868, p. 157, retrieved 10 December 2019
- Sovereign Ordonnance of 23 April 1865
- Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 63