Loongson

Loongson (simplified Chinese: 龙芯; traditional Chinese: 龍芯; pinyin: Lóngxīn; lit. 'Dragon Chip')[1] is the name of a family of general-purpose, MIPS architecture-compatible, microprocessors, as well as the name of the Chinese fabless company (Loongson Technology) that develops them. The processors are alternately called Godson processors,[2] which are described as its academic name.[3]

龙芯中科技术有限公司
Loongson Technology Corporation Limited
TypeMixed ownership enterprise
IndustrySemiconductor technology industry
FoundedApril 2010
FounderHu Wei Wu
HeadquartersPeople's Republic of China
Loongson Industrial Park, Building 2, Zhongguancun Environmental protection park, Haidian District, Beijing, China
Area served
global
Key people
  • chairman
  • Dr.Hu Wei Wu
ServicesChip design, motherboard design, operating system and kernel maintenance, important software and library maintenance
Number of employees
More than 400 (estimate)
WebsiteLoongson Official website
Loongson
Loongson logo.svg
General information
Marketed byLoongson Technology, Jiangsu Lemote Tech Co., Ltd, Dawning Information Industry, and others
Designed byInstitute of Computing Technology (ICT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Loongson Technology, Jiangsu Lemote Tech Co., Ltd
Common manufacturer(s)
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate8 MHz to 2.0 GHz
HyperTransport speeds800 MHz to 3.0 GHz
Architecture and classification
ApplicationDesktop, Server, Supercomputer, Industrial Device, Embedded Device, Aerospace
Technology node180 nm to 28 nm
Microarchitecturesee text
Instruction setMIPS64 (with LoongISA extensions)
LoongArch
Physical specifications
Cores
  • 1–8

HistoryEdit

The Godson processors, based on MIPS architecture, were initially developed at the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).[4] The chief architect was Professor Hu Weiwu [zh].[citation needed] The development of the first Loongson chip was started in 2001.[5][6] The aim of the Godson project was to develop "high performance general-purpose microprocessors in China",[2] and to become technologically self-sufficient as part of the Made in China 2025 plan.[5] The development was supported by funding via the 10th and 11th Five-Year Plans.[7][8]

In 2010 the company was commercialised as a separate entity,[5] and in April 2010 Loongson Technology Corporation Limited was formally established and settled in Zhongguancun, Beijing, China.[citation needed] The company is a public–private partnership between ICT and Beijing-based chip designer BLX IC Design Corporation.[6] BLX itself was a spin-off from ICT, and was founded in 2002 with Jiangsu Zhongyi Group. As Loongson is a fabless designer, STMicroelectronics fabricates and markets the processors.[6][5]

The South China Morning Post reported that since 2020, Loongson has partnered with UnionTech and Sunway to develop and promote the Debian Linux-based Deepin operating system to reduce Chinese computers dependency on Microsoft Windows.[9][10]

In 2021 Loongson filed for an initial public offering on the Shanghai Stock Exchange STAR Market.[5][11] The company was seeking to raise c. 0.5 billion USD.[11] Details from this time suggested Loongson needing CN¥ 400,000,000 annual funding, for the first 10 years of its existence, and the company only broke even in 2015.[12]

Instruction set architecturesEdit

MIPSEdit

Loongson began by using the MIPS64 instruction set architecture (ISA). The internal microarchitecture was independently developed by ICT.[citation needed] Early implementations of the family lacked four instructions patented by MIPS Technologies (US4814976A, unaligned load-store) to avoid legal issues.[13][14]

In 2007, a deal was reached by MIPS Technologies and ICT. STMicroelectronics bought a MIPS license for Loongson, and thus the processor can be promoted as MIPS-based or MIPS-compatible instead of MIPS-like.[15][16][17]

In June 2009, ICT licensed the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures directly from MIPS Technologies.[18]

In August 2011, Loongson Technology Corp. Ltd. licensed the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures from MIPS Technologies, Inc. for continued development of MIPS-based Loongson CPU cores.[19][20]

LoongISAEdit

The Loongson 3A2000 in 2015 saw the adoption of LoongISA 1.0, an expanded instruction set that is a superset of MIPS64 release 2.[21][8] It can be broken down into:[22]

  • LoongEXT, general-purpose extensions, 148 instructions
  • LoongVZ, virtualisation extensions to the "VZ" system introduced in MIPS64 release 5, 5 instructions
  • LoongBT, faster x86 and ARM binary translation, 213 instructions
  • LoongSIMD, formerly LoongMMI (in Loongson 2E/F), for 128-bit SIMD, 1014 instructions
  • MIPS SIMD Architecture (MSA), DSP, and VZ modules from MIPS Release 5

The LoongISA instructions were introduced as part of the GS464E cores.[8] The binary translation instructions have the specific benefit of speeding up Intel x86 CPU emulation at a cost of 5% of the total die area. The new instructions help a QEMU hypervisor translate instructions from x86 to MIPS with only a reported 30% performance penalty.[23][24]

LoongISA 2.0 was introduced for the GS464V R2 core, with the release of the Loongson 3 4000 series. Compared to LoongISA 1.0, the DSP module is removed, and a few sets are added:[citation needed]

  • LoongSX
  • LoongASX
  • LoongEXT3 (updated)
  • LoongAMU

Loongson SIMD instructions are semi-classified and are unavailable in publicly available compilers and assemblers, Loongson 2F's LoongMMI being the sole exception. A similar status applies to other LoongISA extensions.

LoongArchEdit

Loongson moved to their own processor instruction set architecture (ISA) in 2021 with the release of the Loongson 3 5000 series.[25][26][27] A Loongson developer described it as "...a new RISC ISA, which is a bit like MIPS or RISC-V. LoongArch includes a reduced 32-bit version (LA32R), a standard 32-bit version (LA32S) and a 64-bit version (LA64)".[28] The stated rationale was to make Loongson and China not dependent on foreign technology or authorisation to develop their processor capability, whilst not infringing on any technology patents.[29]

The ISA has been referred to as "a fork of MIPS64r6" due to a perceived lack of changes judging from instruction listings.[30][31] In August, Linux maintainers complained that submitted LoongArch code is "...a blind copy of the MIPS code...", however "only with a different name".[32]

The LoongArch ISA manual has been made partially available in August 2021 with the publication of its first volume documenting the basic architecture.[33] According to the LoongArch manual, the ISA uses MIPS's privilege model and IRQ mechanism, with other parts mostly following RISC-V's practice: the delay slot is removed and the instruction encoding is changed.[33] The architecture is therefore incompatible with MIPS; the previously reported "MIPS compatibility"[30] is in fact based on a binary translation flag similar to the system for handling x86 and ARM in LoongISA. Similar to LoongISA, the instruction-set extensions (SIMD and binary translation) are not yet documented, making this functionality unusable.[33]

CoresEdit

Loongson has three main families of processor cores, some of which are available as IP cores:[34]

  • GS1xx: basic embedded MIPS32 cores with hardware divider. 3- (GS132) or 5- (GS132E) stage pipeline.
  • GS2xx: high-end embedded MIPS32 (GS232/GS232E) or MIPS64 (GS264) cores.
    • GS232 has a 5-stage pipeline at max. 500 MHz. L1 = 16KB.[citation needed] The GS 232 is mainly used for Godson-1 products.
    • GS232E/GS264 has a 10-stage pipeline at max. 1000 MHz. L1 = 16 KB, L2 = 4 MB shared. Out-of-order issue.
  • GS464 series: MIPS64 core with four-way superscalar out-of-order issue.[35] The design originated from the Loongson 2F processor.[8] It was first widely used in the Loongson 3A processor, before also being used in the Loongson 2 series.[35][36]
    • GS464 has support for MIPS64 R2 + LoongMMI (two different versions in 2E and 2F)[citation needed]
    • GS464V was first introduced in 2010 with the Godson 3B, and is a GS464 with vector capabilities.[7][37]
    • GS464E is an improved version of the GS464.[38] Development had started in 2012 after shortcomings were found in the GS464 processor.[8] The core has multiple improvements, including larger caches and better branch prediction amongst others, and was better optimised.[8] The core was extended to support LoongISA (in addition to the in addition to MIPS64 R2 architecture).[38]
    • GS464EV is a development of the GS464 series, first used by the 3A4000 processor[39]

All Loongson cores are little-endian.[citation needed]

Processor familiesEdit

Loongson has built 3 processor families from their architectural cores.[24] These are the:[24]

  • Godson-1, for consumer electronics and embedded applications
  • Godson-2, single core processors for embedded applications and low performance personal computers[note 1]
  • Godson-3, multi-core processors for higher performance computers, high-performance computing and servers[note 2]

Godson-1Edit

The first Loongson processor, the Godson-1, was designed in 2001, released in 2002, and is a 32-bit CPU running at a clock speed of 266 MHz.[6][3][24] It is fabricated with 0.18 micron CMOS process, has 8 KB of data cache, 8 KB of instruction cache and a 64-bit floating-point unit, capable of 200 double-precision MFLOPS.[40] Godson-1 series chips either use the GS132 or GS232 cores.[41]

Loongson X is a radiation hardened version of the GS232 core used in the Godson-1.[8]

Godson-2 / Loongson 2Edit

The Loongson 2 is a family of MIPS III compatible processors.[42][3] It adds 64-bit ability to the Loongson architecture.[6][24] Later Loongson 2 processors migrated to being MIPS64 compatible, due to sharing the GS464 core with the Loongson 3 series.[8] Whilst early 2 series processors were single core, they developed to become multicore.

The development plan for the Godson-2 was to develop it from a CPU to a SOC.[3][7] The 2E (2006) was a CPU, the 2F (2007) integrated the north bridge, the 2G (2008) had a hyper transport link between the CPU/north bridge and an integrated GPU/south bridge, and the 2H (2009) integrated all these functions into a SOC.[3][7] The design of the 2F was the basis of the GS464 core.[8] The 2G uses a single GS464 core;[7] the 2H uses the GS464V core, as a single-core version of the initial Godson 3B.[37]

Godson-3 / Loongson 3Edit

 
Loongson 3B1500E CPU
 
Lemote-A1310 motherboard(with Loongson 3B1500E)
 
Loongson 3A3000 CPU

The Loongson 3 family of processors are "...multi-core CPU[s] designed for high performance desktops, servers and clusters".[43][24] They were designed as the first Loongson processors that had multiple cores.[35] The processors were designed to use LoongISA - i.e. the MIPS64 ISA with additional extensions.[35] The designers also attempted to optimise x86 translation on the chip.[3]

Initial versionsEdit

The first production processor was the Loongson 3A, which used 4 GS464 cores.[35][23] The 65 nm Loongson 3A1000 is able to run at a clock speed near 1 GHz, with 4 CPU cores (~15 W) first and 8 cores later (40 W).[citation needed] In April 2010, Loongson 3A1000 was released with DDR2/3 DRAM support.[citation needed]

The designers noted that they would produce a 3B chip with enhanced processing and vector capabilities, with 8 cores, and a 3C for server applications with up to 16 cores.[7][24] The 8-core Loongson 3B was noted to use the upgraded GS464V core, with extended vector capabilities.[37] This was followed by the Loonson 3C which used 16 GS464V cores.[37]

The 3B1000, and related 2I, both failed as processors due to design errors.[21] In May 2013 development of the 3C was suspended, in favour of developing the 3A2000 processor.[21]

Later versionsEdit

In 2015, the 3A1500 and 3B2000 were released using the enhanced GS464E cores.[8] The improved microarchitecture core allowed better performance, reportedly 3 times as fast as the 3A1000, as well as introducing the LoongISA enhanced instruction set.[8] The 3A1500 was for embedded applications, whilst the 3B2000 was for servers and PCs.[8]

In 2017 Loongson released the 3A3000. The 3A3000 is designed with quad-core 64-bit and clocked at 1.5 GHz, power consumption is only 30 W.[citation needed] The performance of the 3A3000 is reported to be equivalent to the Intel J1900 processor (released in 2013).[39]

In late-2019 the 3A and 3B 4000 series were released. They used the upgraded GS464EV microarchitecture.[39] The processors are designed with four cores, 8MB of L3 cache and operating clocks between 1.8 GHz to 2 GHz.[citation needed]

Loongson 3 5000 seriesEdit

In July 2021 the Loongson 3 5000 series was released.[27] The processor series is Loongson's first with their own developed ISA, "LoongArch".[27] The processors announced include the 3A5000, a four-core desktop CPU, and the 3C5000, a sixteen-core server CPU.[30][26] Both CPUs are reported to be fabricated on a 12 nm process.

Phoronix reports that the 3A5000 CPU is "roughly on a par with the likes of the Intel Core i3 8109U / Core 2 Quad Q9500 / Core i5 750, or Armv8-based Phytium FT-2000".[27][25]

Supported softwareEdit

Operating systemsEdit

The Loongson processors are mainly designed around using the Linux operating system.[44] Any operating system supporting the MIPS architecture should theoretically work. Windows CE was ported to a Loongson-based system with minimal effort.[45] In 2010, Lemote ported an Android distribution to the Loongson platform.[46]

Loongson machines are used in the package-building and CI infrastructure of Debian and Golang, respectively. This is partially because of Loongson's status as the only vendor producing application-grade MIPS CPUs for retail.[47][48]

Compiler supportEdit

The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is the main compiler for software development on the Loongson platform.[49][50] LLVM is still inadequate due to missing workarounds for loongson's CPU errata.[51]

ICT also ported Open64 to the Loongson II platform.[52]

Loongson microprocessor specificationsEdit

Series Model Frequency
(MHz)
Architecture
MicroArchitecture Year Cores Process
(nm)
Transistor
(million)
Die Size
(mm²)
Power
(W)
Voltage
(V)
Cache (KiB) Peak Floating Point Performance
(GFLOPS)
Performance
int/fp [SPEC2000] (SPEC2006)
Remarks
L1(Single Core) L2 L3
Data instruction
Godson 1 266 MIPS-II 32-bit N/A 2001 1 180 22 71.4 1.0 Un­known 8 8 N/A N/A 0.6 [19/25] [53]
FCR_SOC 266 MIPS-II 32-bit N/A 2007 1 180 Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known 8 8 N/A N/A 0.6 Un­known [54][55]
2B 250 MIPS-III 64-bit N/A 2003 1 180 Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known 32 32 N/A N/A Un­known [52/58]
2C 450 MIPS-III 64-bit N/A 2004 1 180 13.5 41.5 Un­known Un­known 64 64 N/A N/A Un­known [159/114]
2E 1000 MIPS-III 64-bit GS464 (r1)(Prototype) 2006 1 90 47 36 7 1.2 64 64 512 N/A Un­known [503/503]
Loongson 1 1A 300 MIPS32 GS232 2010 1 130 22 71.4 1.0 Un­known 16 16 N/A N/A 0.6 Un­known [56]
1B 266 MIPS32 GS232 2010 1 130 13.3 28 0.6 Un­known 8 8 N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [57]
1C 300 MIPS32 GS232 2013 1 130 11.1 28.3 0.5 Un­known 16 16 N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [58]
1C101 8 MIPS32 GS132R 2018 1 130 Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known N/A N/A N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [59]
1D 8 MIPS32 GS132 2014 1 130 1 6 3 × 10−5 Un­known N/A N/A N/A N/A Un­known Un­known [60]
Loongson 2 2F 1200 MIPS-III 64-bit GS464 (r1) 2007 1 90 51 43 5 1.2 64 64 512 N/A 3.2 Un­known [61]
2G 1000 MIPS64 GS464 (r2) 2012 1 65 Un­known Un­known Un­known 1.15 64 64 4096 N/A Un­known Un­known [62]
2GP 800 MIPS64 GS464 (r2) 2013 1 65 82 65.7 8 1.15 64 64 1024 N/A 3.2 Un­known
2I
2H 1000 MIPS64 GS464 (r2) 2012 1 65 152 117 5 1.15 64 64 512 N/A 4 Un­known
2K1000 1000 MIPS64 Release 2 LoongISA 1.0 GS264E 2017 2 40 1900 79 5 1.1 32 32 256 × 2 1024 8 Un­known [63]
Loongson3 3A1000 1000 MIPS64 Release 2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464 (r2) 2009 4 65 425 174.5 10 1.15 64 64 256 × 4 N/A 16 [568/788], (2.4/2.3) [64]
3B1000 1000 MIPS64 Release2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464 (r2) 2010 4+4 65 > 600 Un­known 20 1.15 64 64 128 × 8 N/A Un­known Un­known [65]
3B1500 1200–1500 MIPS64 Release 2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464V 2012 4+4 32 1140 142.5 30(typical)
60(vector)
1.15–1.35 64 64 128 × 8 8192 150 Un­known [66][67]
3A1500-I 800–1000 MIPS64 Release2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464E 2015 4 40 621 202.3 15 1.15–1.25 64 64 256 × 4 4096 16 (6/??) [68]
3A2000
3B2000
3A3000 1500 MIPS64 Release 2

LoongISA 1.0

GS464E 2016 4 28 > 1200 155.78 30 1.15–1.25 64 64 256 × 4 8192 24 [1100/1700], (11/10)@Single (36/33)@Rate [69][70]
3B3000 GS464E
3A4000 1800-2000 MIPS64 Release 5

LoongISA 2.0

GS464EV(GS464v) 2019 4 28 ? ? <30 W@1.5 GHz

<40 W@1.8 GHz

<50 W@2.0 GHz[71]

0.95-1.25 64 64 256 x 4 8192 128 (21.1/21.2)@Single (61.7/58.1)@Rate
3B4000
3A5000 3B5000 2300-2500 LoongArch GS464V 2021 4 12 / 14 ?? ?? 35w @ 2.5 GHz ?? 64 64 256x4 16384 160 (26.6*/??)@Single, (80*/??)@Rate *SpecInt Base point [72]
3C5000L 2200-2300 LoongArch GS464V 2021 16 12 / 14 ?? ?? 130w @ 2.3 GHz ?? 64 64 256x4 16384x4 560 Unknown [72]

Loongson-based systemsEdit

 
Lemote FuLoong and YeeLoong with a Loongson 2F microprocessor
 
Lemote's Fulong MiniPC on top of a CD-ROM drive as reference

In 2012 it was reported that Loongson processors had found itself into very few computing systems.[6] The processors are mainly used in Chinese computers; in 2021 it was reported that Loongson supplies CPUs for most desktop computers procured by the Chinese government, and 80% of the Chinese government's servers.[12] The release of the 3A3000 processor in 2015 was noted as turning point for the company's fortunes.[12]

In March 2006, a 100 Loongson II computer design called Longmeng (Dragon Dream) was announced by Lemote.[citation needed]

In June 2006 at Computex'2006, YellowSheepRiver announced the Municator YSR-639,[73] a small form factor computer based on the 400 MHz Loongson 2.

Currently,[when?] Loongson boxes that come with a 667 MHz Godson 2E processor or an 800 MHz Godson 2F processor are sold in China at CNY 1599 (US$200) or CNY 1800 respectively without monitor, mouse, or keyboard.[citation needed]

As of July 2008, two manufacturers have announced Loongson 2F products for sale outside China.

  • Van der Led, a Dutch company, announced an 8.9" subnotebook, named Jisus, in April 2008.[74] As of September 2008, however, no orders have been fulfilled, the manufacturer does not respond to inquiries, and the product is no longer on their catalogue.
  • EMTEC, a French company, announced in June 2008[75] a 10-inch subnotebook under the brand name GdiumHome - Gdium Products | Gdium.com (beta), to be sold for "less than 399€" running Mandriva Linux. EMTEC announced the subnotebook would be available for sale in September in Europe, the United States, and China. EMTEC has already shown the devices in public events,[76] and is reaching out to the developer community through the "one laptop per hacker" program.[77]

As of November 2008 the new 8.9" netbook from the Chinese manufacturer Lemote that replaced mengloong, Yeeloong (Portable Dragon),[78] running Debian, is available[79] in Europe from the Dutch company Tekmote Electronics.

In January 2010, Jiangsu province planned to buy 1.5 million Loongson PCs.[80]

In 2017 it was noted that the company's processors were being used in the Beidou satellite.[12][8]

Loongson 3A laptopEdit

Loongson insiders[81] revealed a new model based on the Loongson 3A quad-core laptop has been developed and is expected to launch in August 2011. With a similar design to the MacBook Pro[82] from Apple Inc., it will carry a Linux operating system by default.

In September 2011, Lemote announced the Yeeloong-8133 13.3" laptop featuring 900 MHz, quad-core Loongson-3A/2GQ CPU.[83]

SupercomputersEdit

On 26 December 2007, China revealed its first Loongson based supercomputer with a performance of 1 TFLOPS of peak performance, and about 350 GFLOPS measured by LINPACK in Hefei, designated as KD-50-I.[84] This supercomputer was designed by a joint team led by Chen Guoliang at the computer science technology department of the University of Science and Technology of China and ICT (the secondary contractor). KD-50-I is the first Chinese built supercomputer to utilize domestic Chinese CPUs, with a total of more than 336 Loongson-2F CPUs, and nodes are interconnected by Ethernet. The size of the computer was roughly equivalent to a household refrigerator and the cost was less than RMB800,000 (approximately US$120,000, 80,000).[85]

On 20 April 2010, USTC announced successful development of Loongson 3A based KD-60-1. The new supercomputer is a cluster of standard blade servers with a total of over 80 quad-core Loongson processors, providing theoretical peak performance of 1 TFLOPS and reduces power consumption by 56% compared to the KD-50-I system that has similar performance.[86]

On 26 December 2012, USTC announced successful development of Loongson 3B based KD-90-1. The new supercomputer is a cluster of standard blade servers with a total of over 10 octo-core Loongson processors, providing theoretical peak performance of 1 TFLOPS, and reduces power consumption by 62% compared to the KD-60 system that has similar performance.[87]

In 2012 it was reported that Loongson processors were to be found in the Sunway BlueLight MPP and Dawning 6000 supercomputers.[6]

Dawning 6000Edit

The high-performance Dawning 6000, which has a projected speed of over one quadrillion operations per second, will incorporate the Loongson processor as its core. Dawning 6000 is currently[when?] jointly developed by the Institute of Computing Technology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Dawning Information Industry Company. Li Guojie, chairman of Dawning Information Industry Company and director and academician of the Institute of Computing Technology, said research and development of the Dawning 6000 is expected to be completed in two years.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Godson/Loongson 2 series processors have been developed and named mostly sequentially in an alphabetical format.
  2. ^ The Godson/Loongson 3 series processors seem to be named according to segment and then a generation number. The segment tends to be A (general purpose PCs), B (seemingly high core counts) and C (server processors). The generation numbers start at 1000 for the first series processors, and then increment generally to the next thousand. There are some processors that may be between generation products, that have a x5000 designation.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "龙芯处理器英文品牌定名Loongson(组图)_业界_科技时代_新浪网". tech.sina.com.cn.
  2. ^ a b Hu, Wei-Wu; Zhang, Fu-Xin; Li, Zu-Song (March 2005). "Microarchitecture of the Godson-2 Processor". Journal of Computer Science and Technology. 20 (2): 243–249. doi:10.1007/s11390-005-0243-6. S2CID 27672171. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Hu, Weiwu (August 2008). "Micro-architecture of Godson-3 multi-core processor". 2008 IEEE Hot Chips 20 Symposium (HCS): 1–31. doi:10.1109/HOTCHIPS.2008.7476554. ISBN 978-1-4673-8871-9. S2CID 38427069. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  4. ^ Wu, Yimian (23 May 2018). "China Supports Local Semiconductor Firms By Adding Them To Government Procurement List". China Money Network. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e Houweling, Elles (29 June 2021). "China-backed Loongson chip manufacturer files for IPO". Verdict. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Muncaster, Phil (19 December 2012). "Why China's Homemade Microchips Will Struggle to Displace Western Giants". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Hu, Wei-Wu; Gao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Tian-Shi; Xiao, Jun-Hua (May 2011). "The Godson Processors: Its Research, Development, and Contributions" (PDF). Journal of Computer Science and Technology. 26 (3): 363–372. doi:10.1007/s11390-011-1139-2. S2CID 9771321. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hu, Weiwu; Zhang, Yifu; Fu, Jie (January 2016). "An introduction to CPU and DSP design in China" (PDF). Science China Information Sciences. 59 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1007/s11432-015-5431-6. S2CID 15708234. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  9. ^ Yiu, Enoch (29 June 2021). "Loongson files US$542 million IPO in Shanghai to fund chip growth". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  10. ^ Ye, Josh (18 March 2020). "Meet the Chinese operating system that's trying to shift the country off Windows". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  11. ^ a b YINGZHE, GUO (30 June 2021). "Chinese CPU designer Loongson looks for $500m in STAR IPO". Nikkei Asia. Caixin. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d "The Loongson IPO brings out the three major technical camps of the six major Chinese core families, and how far is it to compete with the United States". iNews. 2 August 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  13. ^ China's Microprocessor Dilemma(subscription required)
  14. ^ "The Linley Group - China's Microprocessor Dilemma".
  15. ^ MIPS Technologies Licenses MIPS64 Architecture to STMicroelectronics Archived 19 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Newsroom - STMicroelectronics". Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
  17. ^ Godson-3 Emulates x86
  18. ^ China’s Institute of Computing Technology Licenses Industry-Standard MIPS Architectures Archived 7 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Loongson Licenses MIPS32® and MIPS64® Architectures for Embedded and Computing Applications Archived 4 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Loongson Licenses MIPS32(R) and MIPS64(R) Architectures for Embedded and Computing Applications". www.bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014.
  21. ^ a b c "Core Journey - 20 years of technical failure, is there still a chance for China's CPU?". ElectroDealPro. 14 June 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  22. ^ "一篇有关 LoongISA 的吐槽文". 知乎专栏 (in Chinese).
  23. ^ a b Hu, Weiwu; Wang, Jian; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Yunji; Liu, Qi; Li, Guojie (March 2009). "Godson-3: A Scalable Multicore RISC Processor with x86 Emulation". IEEE Micro. 29 (2): 17–29. doi:10.1109/MM.2009.30. S2CID 726798. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Morgan, Timothy Prickett (25 February 2011). "Godson: China shuns US silicon with faux x86 superchip". www.theregister.com. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  25. ^ a b Larabel, Michael (24 July 2021). "Loongson 3A5000 Benchmarks For These New Chinese CPUs Built On The LoongArch ISA - Phoronix". www.phoronix.com. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  26. ^ a b Tang, Yvonne (23 July 2021). "Loongson launches 3A5000, first processor to use its own LoongArch architecture". CnTechPost. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  27. ^ a b c d "First benchmarks of China's Loongson 3A5000 CPU surface". HEXUS. 26 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  28. ^ Chen, Huacai. "arch: Add basic LoongArch support [LWN.net]". lwn.net. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  29. ^ AUFRANC, JEAN-LUC (17 April 2021). "Loongson unveils LoongArch CPU instruction set architecture for processors made in China - CNX Software". CNX Software - Embedded Systems News. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  30. ^ a b c April 2021, Anton Shilov 16 (16 April 2021). "Loongson Technology Develops Its Own CPU Instruction Set Architecture". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  31. ^ Conill, Ariadne. "Real World Technologies - Forums - Thread: LoongArch". Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  32. ^ Larabel, Michael (25 August 2021). "Loongson Continues Working On LoongArch For Linux, But It's Mostly Copying MIPS Code - Phoronix". www.phoronix.com. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  33. ^ a b c "LoongArch Documentation | 龙芯架构文档". loongson.github.io.
  34. ^ "IP核_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". www.loongson.cn.
  35. ^ a b c d e Gao, Xiang; Chen, Yun-Ji; Wang, Huan-Dong; Tang, Dan; Hu, Wei-Wu (March 2010). "System Architecture of Godson-3 Multi-Core Processors". Journal of Computer Science and Technology. 25 (2): 181–191. doi:10.1007/s11390-010-9315-3. S2CID 6432719. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  36. ^ Fan, Bao-Xia; Yang, Liang; Wang, Jiang-Mei; Wang, Ru; Xiao, Bin; Xu, Ying; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ji-Ye (March 2010). "Physical Implementation of the 1GHz Godson-3 Quad-Core Microprocessor" (PDF). Journal of Computer Science and Technology. 25 (2): 192–199. doi:10.1007/s11390-010-9316-2. S2CID 357819.
  37. ^ a b c d Weiwu Hu, Yunji Chen. GS464V: A High-performance Low-Power Processor Core with 512-bit Vector Extension (PDF).CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  38. ^ a b Wang, HuanDong; Wang, WenXiang; Wu, RuiYang; Hu, WeiWu (1 April 2015). "Design of Loongson GS464E processor architecture". SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis. 45 (4): 480–500. doi:10.1360/N112014-00292.
  39. ^ a b c "你不曾见过的国产CPU:可能是最全的龙芯系列芯片家谱(下)". www.ijiwei.com (in Chinese). 1 June 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  40. ^ cpu-museum.de Forum: Godson-1 and 2 Microprocessor Chips, 2005-Apr-20[dead link]
  41. ^ zevanzhao (1 June 2019). "你不曾见过的国产CPU:可能是最全的龙芯系列芯片家谱(上) - IT之家". www.ithome.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  42. ^ Shuchang, Zhou (2009). "Open64 on MIPS: porting and enhancing Open64 for Loongson II" (PDF). Retrieved 29 July 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  43. ^ Kun, Ling (2012). "Loongcc-A Compiler based on Open64 for MIPS64 Compatible Loongson 3 Architecture" (PDF). Retrieved 29 July 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  44. ^ "linux-loongson/community (社区版龙芯Linux)". dev.lemote.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2014.
  45. ^ 福瓏電腦WinCE 5.0 圖片 Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ Fletcher, Owen (3 March 2010). "Company puts Android on laptop with China-backed chips". Computerworld.
  47. ^ "Build log for linux-2.6 (2.6.35~rc6-1~experimental.1) on mipsel". buildd.debian.org.
  48. ^ 龙芯 & Golang! Archived 2019-11-02 at the Wayback Machine,龙芯3A3000机器成为Golang语言官方mips64el的编译服务器。
  49. ^ "Maxim Kuvyrkov - [MIPS][LS2][4/5] Scheduling and tuning". gcc.gnu.org.
  50. ^ "GCC 4.6 Release Series Changes, New Features, and Fixes". Free Software Foundation (FSF). 25 March 2011.
  51. ^ "49611 – Need multiple errata workaround options for loongson". bugs.llvm.org.
  52. ^ Open64 on MIPS: porting and enhancing Open64 for Loongson II
  53. ^ HU Wei-Wu (2003). TANG Zhi-Min. "Architecture of the Godson-1 Processor". Chinese Journal of Computers (4).
  54. ^ 陈杰 (2007). 章军. "一种集成"龙芯1号"IP核的SoC的体系结构" (PDF). 计算机工程与应用 (19).
  55. ^ "成功研制以龙芯为内核的税控SOC芯片 苏州中科集成电路设计中心". szicc.com.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  56. ^ "龙芯1A_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  57. ^ "龙芯1B_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  58. ^ "龙芯1C_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  59. ^ "龙芯1C101_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  60. ^ "龙芯1D_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  61. ^ "龙芯2F_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  62. ^ "龙芯2G用户手册" (PDF).
  63. ^ "龙芯2K1000_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  64. ^ "龙芯3A1000_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". loongson.cn. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  65. ^ "龙芯3B1000用户手册" (PDF).
  66. ^ "龙芯3B1500_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". www.loongson.cn.
  67. ^ "Bonito 3c780e Start.S (1.5Ghz@1.35v)".
  68. ^ "龙芯3A2000/3B2000_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". www.loongson.cn.
  69. ^ "龙芯3A3000处理器芯片流片成功_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". www.loongson.cn.
  70. ^ "龙芯3A3000/3B3000_龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". www.loongson.cn.
  71. ^ 龙芯 3A4000/3B4000 处理器数据手册 v1 (PDF). 龙芯中科技术有限公司. 2020.
  72. ^ a b "龙芯官方网站-[龙芯官方网站]". www.loongson.cn.
  73. ^ "LinuxDevices article about the Municator". Archived from the original on 23 April 2006.
  74. ^ "Jisus subnotebook's Announcement". Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. (LinuxDevices, 8 April 2008)
  75. ^ Gdium subnotebook's Announcement Archived 20 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine (4 June 2008)
  76. ^ "Gdium in a fair at Berlin". Archived from the original on 15 September 2008.
  77. ^ "OLPH". Archived from the original on 28 February 2009.
  78. ^ "Yeelong Specs". Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. (LinuxDevices, 22 Octobjer 2008)
  79. ^ Yeelong 8.9" netbook at tekmote.nl for 335.50€
  80. ^ "Soon Loongson in 1.5 million computers".
  81. ^ 2011 Godson and the open source community development forum (Shanghai Station) extend the campus of Shanghai University Loongson 3A Mini-ITX motherboards & laptops introduced, configuration, spy photos
  82. ^ "龙芯3A笔记本原型机曝光-Sigma".
  83. ^ "Lemote Announced Yeeloong-8133 Laptop". Archived from the original on 15 September 2011.
  84. ^ KD-50-I Home page Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  85. ^ "基于龙芯2号国产万亿次高性能计算机KD-50-I简介 - 硬件". cnBeta.COM.
  86. ^ "首台基于"龙芯3A"国产万亿次高性能计算机诞生". www.360doc.com.
  87. ^ "我首台基于"龙芯3B"国产万亿次高性能计算机研制成功". www.360doc.com.

External linksEdit