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Lonnie McIntosh (July 18, 1941 – April 21, 2016), known by his stage name Lonnie Mack, was an influential American pioneer of blues-rock music and rock guitar soloing.

Lonnie Mack
LonnieMackRisingSun.jpg
Mack performing at Rising Sun, Indiana, in 2003
Background information
Birth nameLonnie McIntosh
Born(1941-07-18)July 18, 1941
West Harrison, Indiana, United States
DiedApril 21, 2016(2016-04-21) (aged 74)
Smithville, Tennessee, United States
GenresBlues-rock, blue-eyed soul, blues, country, Southern rock, rockabilly, gospel, bluegrass
Occupation(s)Musician, singer-songwriter
InstrumentsVocals, guitar
Years active1954–2004
LabelsFraternity, Elektra, Alligator, Capitol, Jewel, King, Ace, Epic, Flying V, Sage, Dobbs
Associated actsStevie Ray Vaughan

Mack emerged in 1963, with his proto-blues-rock debut LP, The Wham of that Memphis Man.[1] The album's vocals established Mack's renown as a blue-eyed soul singer,[2] but he is more widely recognized for the album's electric guitar instrumentals. In them, he introduced "edgy, aggressive, loud, and fast" blues solos to the prevailing chords-and-riffs format of early rock guitar.[3] The album's instrumentals played an early leadership role in the electric guitar's rise to the top of melodic soloing instruments in rock[3] and have been credited with raising the bar for rock guitar proficiency.[4] They served as a "model"[5] for the lead guitarists of two new genres, blues-rock[6] and Southern rock.[7]

Shortly after the album's release, the massively popular "British Invasion" dealt Mack a career setback.[8] He toured the roadhouse circuit and did R&B session work until the height of the blues-rock era, in 1968. At that point, Rolling Stone magazine rediscovered his pioneering debut album, and Los Angeles' Elektra Records signed him to a three-album contract. He immediately graduated to major performance venues, but his multi-genre Elektra recordings were only modestly successful.[9] In 1971, he left Elektra and spent the next fourteen years as a low-profile country music recording artist, roadhouse performer, sideman, and music-venue proprietor.[10]

In 1985, with encouragement from Stevie Ray Vaughan, Mack resurfaced[11] with the blues-rock LP Strike Like Lightning, a promotional tour featuring celebrity guitarist sit-ins,[12] and a concert at Carnegie Hall.[13] In 1990, he released another well-received blues-rock album, Lonnie Mack Live! Attack of the Killer V,[14] after which he retired as a recording artist. He continued to perform, mostly in smaller venues, until 2004.[1]

Contents

Early life and musical influencesEdit

Shortly before Mack's birth, his family moved from Appalachian eastern Kentucky to Dearborn County, Indiana, on the banks of the Ohio River.[15] One of five children, he was born to parents Robert and Sarah Sizemore McIntosh on July 18, 1941, in West Harrison, Indiana,[16] near Cincinnati, Ohio. He was raised nearby on sharecropping farms.

Using a floor-model radio powered by a truck battery, his family routinely listened to the Grand Ole Opry country music show. Continuing to listen after the rest of the family had retired for the night, Mack became a fan of rhythm and blues and traditional black gospel music.[17]

He began playing guitar at the age of seven, after trading his bicycle for a "Lone Ranger" model acoustic guitar.[18] His mother taught him basic chords,[19] and he was soon playing bluegrass guitar in the family band.[20] Mack recalled that when he was about ten years of age, an "old black man" named Wayne Clark introduced him to "Robert Johnson style guitar". He soon taught himself to merge finger-picking country guitar with acoustic blues-picking, to produce a hybrid style resembling, but prefiguring, rockabilly guitar.[21] About this time, he was also mentored by a local country gospel singer-guitarist, Ralph Trotto.[22]

His musical influences remained diverse as he refined his playing and singing styles. He considered country picker Merle Travis, pop/jazz guitarist Les Paul, and electric blues guitarist T-Bone Walker the most significant influences on his mature guitar style.[23] Significant vocal influences included R&B singers Jimmy Reed, Ray Charles, Bobby "Blue" Bland, and Hank Ballard, country singer George Jones, country-gospel singer Martha Carson and traditional black gospel singer Archie Brownlee.[24] As an adult, he recorded tunes associated with each of these artists.

CareerEdit

Mack enjoyed periods of commercial success as a rock artist during the 1960s and 1980s. Lasting commercial stardom eluded him, however, as his career-long pattern of switching and mixing within the entire range of white and black Southern roots music genres[25] made him "as difficult to market as he was to describe."[26] In addition, he was mostly absent from the rock spotlight for two long stretches of his career (1971-1985 and 1990-2004),[27] during which he continued to perform, but mostly in small venues as a low-profile "cult figure".[28]

At age 13, Mack dropped out of school after a fight with a teacher. Large and mature-looking for his age, he obtained a counterfeit ID and began performing professionally in bars around Cincinnati with a band led by drummer Hoot Smith.[29] As a 14-year-old professional guitarist in 1955, he "was earning $300. per week---more than most workers in the area's casket and whiskey factories."[30] He played guitar on several low-circulation recordings in the late 1950s.[31]

In the early 1960s he became a session guitarist with Fraternity Records, a small Cincinnati label. In 1963, he recorded two hit singles for Fraternity, the proto-blues-rock guitar instrumentals "Memphis" and "Wham!"[32] He soon recorded additional tunes to flesh out his debut album, The Wham of that Memphis Man (1963). Mack made some notable recordings later, particularly in the 1980s,[33] but his 1963 debut album became a perennial critics' favorite and is widely considered the centerpiece of his career:

  • 1968: Guitar: "...in a class by himself."...Vocals: "...sincerity and intensity that's hard to find anywhere."[34] - Rolling Stone, calling for re-issuance of Mack's discontinued 1963 debut album.
  • 1987: "With so many trying to copy this same style, this album sounds surprisingly modern. Not many have done it this well, though.[35] - Gregory Himes, The Washington Post
  • 1992: "The first of the guitar-hero records is also one of the best, and for perhaps the last time, the singing on such a disc is worthy of the guitar histrionics."[36] - Jimmy Guterman, ranking the album No. 16 in The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time
  • 2007: "...a spectacular feast of down-home blues, gospel, R&B, and country chicken-pickin'...a unique vision of American roots music [that was] five years ahead of the British blues-rockers."[37] - Dave Rubin, Inside the Blues, 1942-1982
  • 2016: "Of all the Mack material available this is the one [album] I'd regard as absolutely essential."[38] - Dave Stephens, Toppermost

He recorded many additional sides for Fraternity between 1963 and 1967, but only a few were released and none charted.[39] Their commercial prospects (and Mack's recording career, generally) were stymied during this period by Fraternity's persistent financial problems[40] and, even more, by the arrival of the overwhelmingly popular British Invasion only two months after release of The Wham of that Memphis Man. "It looked like the guitar wizard was ready to bust out when the music world was turned on its ear. [In] February 1964, The Beatles appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show, and Mack's [recording] career withered on the vine."[41] Most of Mack's recordings from the mid-'60s weren't released until Ace Records (UK) packaged the entirety of Mack's Fraternity output (previously released, unreleased, alternate takes, and demos) in a series of compilations beginning in 1992.[42] Meanwhile, in the mid-'60s, Mack criss-crossed the country with one-night stands. "To me, the '60s were one continuous road run. I performed with just about everybody, [from] Jimi Hendrix [to] The Everly Brothers, Chuck Berry, and Dick and Dee Dee."[43] During that time, he also took on session work with James Brown, Freddie King, Joe Simon, Albert Washington, and other R&B/soul artists.[44]

In 1968, at the height of the blues-rock era, Elektra Records bought out Mack's dormant Fraternity recording contract and moved him to Los Angeles to record three albums.[45] The newly founded Rolling Stone magazine helped with a rave review of his discontinued debut album, calling on Elektra to re-issue it.[46] He was soon performing in major rock venues, including the Fillmore East, the Fillmore West, and the Cow Palace. He opened for The Doors[47] and Crosby, Stills & Nash and shared the stage with Johnny Winter, Elvin Bishop and other popular rock and blues artists of the time.[48]

It was the hippie era, however, and Mack's rustic, blue-collar persona was an awkward fit with commercial rock's target demographic. John Morthland wrote: "[All] the superior chops in the world couldn't hide the fact that chubby, country Mack probably had more in common with Kentucky truck drivers than he did with the new rock audience."[49] In addition, after two multi-genre Elektra albums (both recorded in 1969) that downplayed his blues-rock strengths, including his guitar, Mack himself was dissatisfied: "My music wasn't working that good then. I ain’t really happy with a lot of the stuff I did there."[50] He temporarily set aside his own career to help recruit and develop other artists for Elektra.[51] In 1971, with one album left to complete his contract with Elektra, Mack moved to Nashville. There, he recorded The Hills of Indiana, a mostly-country LP with a vocal emphasis.[52] It included only one track showcasing his guitar virtuosity, Asphalt Outlaw Hero. Hills attracted little attention.

While under contract to Elektra, Mack tasted enough of rock celebrity status to conclude that he didn't like it. "[It had] a lot to do with how much value you put on money as opposed to what makes you happy. I wasn't happy. So one of the best-feeling moments I ever had was when that L.A. sign was in my rear-view mirror and I was free again."[53] Also: "Seems like every time I get close to really making it, to climbing to the top of the mountain, that's when I pull out. I just pull up and run."[54] Upon Mack's death in 2016, music historian Dick Shurman observed that Mack's country-boy temperament "wasn't suited to stardom. I think he'd rather have been hunting and fishing. He didn't like cities or the (music) business."[55]

In 1971, with his Elektra contract completed, Mack went home to southern Indiana, where, for more than a decade, he functioned as a low-profile country/bluegrass recording artist, roadhouse performer, and sideman.[56] During this period, he also owned and operated a nightclub in Covington, Kentucky and an outdoor country music venue in Friendship, Indiana.[57] In 1977, Mack was shot during an altercation with an off-duty police officer. The experience inspired Mack's tune, Cincinnati Jail, a rowdy, guitar-and-vocal rock number that he favored in live performances later in his career.

In 1983, Mack relocated to Austin, Texas for a collaboration with his blues-rock disciple, Stevie Ray Vaughan.[58] Vaughan convinced Mack to return to the studio, with Vaughan in production and backup roles. However, Mack's return was postponed by a lengthy illness requiring several hospitalizations.[59] In 1985, upon recovering his health, Mack staged a "full-fledged comeback"[60] with the blues-rock album, Strike Like Lightning (co-produced by Vaughan and Mack), a tour featuring guest appearances by Vaughan, Ry Cooder, Keith Richards, and Ronnie Wood, and a concert at Carnegie Hall.[61]

He released three more albums over the next four years, including his last, in 1990, Lonnie Mack Live! – Attack of the Killer V!. Then, worn from the constant touring required to sell records,[62] he ended his recording career.[63] However, he continued to play the roadhouse and festival circuits through 2004.

"Memphis" and "Wham!"Edit

On March 12, 1963,[64] at the end of a recording session backing up The Charmaines, Mack was offered the remaining twenty minutes of studio-rental time.[22] Not expecting it to be released, he recorded an energetic instrumental take-off on Chuck Berry's "Memphis, Tennessee".[65] He had improvised it a few years earlier, when his keyboardist, Denzil "Dumpy" Rice,[66] who normally sang and played the Berry tune, hadn't shown for a performance.[67] Mack didn't know the song's lyrics, but incorporated the basic melody into a greatly embellished electric guitar instrumental. He kept it as part of his live act, calling it simply "Memphis".

As recorded in 1963, "Memphis" featured a brisk melodic blues solo within a rockabilly framework, augmented by a rock drum-beat.[68] It represented a significant advance in rock guitar virtuosity, beyond both the prevailing chords-and-riffs standard of Chuck Berry and the "inherently simple" melodic guitar solos of such artists as Link Wray and Duane Eddy.[69]

Mack recalled that, upon recording the tune, "It didn't mean a thing to me. I left to go on the road. We hit every roadhouse between Cincinnati and Miami, but we didn't have time to listen to the radio, so I didn't know what was going on [until] we were backing Chubby Checker one night. [T]he disc jockey came runnin' up to me, saying, 'You got the No. 1 record on our station!'"[70] By late June, Memphis had risen to No. 4 on Billboard's R&B chart and No. 5 on Billboard's pop chart.[71] According to The Book of Golden Discs, it sold over one million copies.[72] The popularity of "Memphis" led to bookings at larger venues, at least one tour in the UK, and performances with Chuck Berry.[73][74]

Still in 1963, Mack released "Wham!", another guitar instrumental. It reached No. 24 on Billboard's Pop chart in September.[65] Although Memphis was Mack's biggest hit, many associate the faster-paced Wham! (and the lesser-known, but still faster Chicken-Pickin'[75] from 1964) with the guitar style he pioneered.[76] From Legends of Rock Guitar:[77]

[In Wham!, Mack] can be heard using the chordal licks of early rock guitar greats, but he infuses his breaks with string bends, pentatonic runs, and mature blues chops, all of which eventually became trademarks of Eric Clapton, Mike Bloomfield and Stevie Ray Vaughan...A tight chordal riff laid over a fast boogie-woogie rhythm sets the tone for the cut, which contains guitar breaks, vibrato arm highlights, echoey single-note lines, and the repetitive string-pushing licks that eventually became so prevalent in Jeff Beck's guitar style.

Mack's early guitar recordings are closely identified with the dawn of virtuoso blues-rock guitar.[78] Music critic Bill Millar: “The term ‘influential’ is applied to almost anyone these days but there's still a case for saying that the massively popular blues-rock guitar genre can be traced way back to the strength, power and emotional passion of Lonnie Mack.”[79]

Guitar style and techniqueEdit

By his late teens, Mack was well-versed in country and bluegrass guitar,[80][81] blues guitar, rockabilly guitar, and the percussive chordal riffing of early rock's most influential guitarist, Chuck Berry.[82]

In 1963, Mack's ability to rapidly "exploit the entire range of the instrument"[83] was unprecedented in rock music.[84] His six-string proficiency has been linked to his childhood mastery of fleet-fingered bluegrass and country guitar styles.[85] In Memphis, Wham!, Chicken Pickin', Suzie-Q, and other early-1960s instrumentals, he augmented rock guitar's then-prevailing chords-and-riffs accompaniment style with bluesy solos marked by unusually brisk melodies and runs, performance elements sometimes found in early rock saxophone and keyboard solos, but essentially unheard in rock guitar before Mack.[86] He repeatedly switched back-and-forth between agile melodic leads and rhythmic chordal riffs, a pattern soon emulated by other blues-rock guitarists, including Jeff Beck and Stevie Ray Vaughan.[87]

Mack enhanced his guitar sound with overlapping vibrato effects. He used a '50s-era Magnatone amplifier to produce a constant, electronically generated, "watery"-sounding vibrato, a technique pioneered by his friend, R&B guitarist Robert Ward (blues musician) of the Ohio Untouchables (later known as the Ohio Players).[88] In addition, he bent the pitch selectively with a mechanical vibrato arm. Guitarists typically toggle the device with the picking hand while sustaining the last note or chord of a passage. Mack, however, customarily cradled it in the fourth finger of his picking hand, toggling it while continuing to pick.[89] He often fanned it rapidly to the tempo of his simultaneous tremolo picking, to produce a machine-gunned, single-note, "shuddering" sound.[90] Guitarists nicknamed the device “whammy bar” in recognition of Mack's early demonstration of skill with it in Wham!.[91]

Usually accompanied by horns, drums, keyboards and bass guitar, Mack's early instrumentals broadly resembled the contemporary Memphis Soul instrumental style of Booker T and the M.G.s, but with rapid guitar solos that "blurred the lines between soul, rock, surf, and rockabilly."[92] Music critic Dave Stephens rated Mack's overall guitar sound as "highly distinctive, dare I say, unique; in the early rock era only Link Wray and Duane Eddy could match him for instant recognition."[93]

Mack's role in the evolution of rock guitarEdit

Although Mack's commercial success was periodic and fleeting, his early-'60s recordings became rock guitar trendsetters. They raised the bar for rock guitar proficiency, helped propel the electric guitar to the top of soloing instruments in rock, and are credited with early stylistic leadership roles in the genres of blues-rock and Southern rock:

Interviewed for a biography of Southern Rock guitar legend Duane Allman, guitarist and early Allman associate Mike Johnstone recalled the impact of Mack's unprecedented six-string proficiency:[94]

Now, [in 1963], there was a popular song on the radio called 'Memphis'—an instrumental by Lonnie Mack. It was the best guitar-playing I'd ever heard. All the guitar-players were [saying] 'How could anyone ever play that good? That's the new bar. That's how good you have to be now.'

Mack's "edgy, aggressive, loud, and fast" style is also credited with a key role in the electric guitar's rise to the top of soloing instruments in rock. Blues critic Shawn Hagood wrote:[3]

His playing was faster, louder, more aggressive than anything people were used to hearing. He essentially paved the way for the electric guitar to become a soloing instrument in rock music. A true blues-rock pioneer, the genre would not have been the same – indeed, much of rock music might not have been the same – without his innovative way of treating the electric guitar as a lead soloing instrument in rock – edgy, aggressive, loud and fast.

Former Elektra A&R executive James Webber agrees:[95]

Lonnie took rock guitar playing to a whole different level. You had to really play now. [B]efore Lonnie, the sax guys did all of the lead work. He made the guitar the preeminent lead instrument.

Mack's early recordings set the stage for "blues-rock" guitar and "Southern rock" guitar, styles that first enjoyed broad popularity a few years after Memphis and Wham!. From Legends of Rock Guitar (1997):[96]

[Mack] is essentially the missing guitar link between the twangy, multi-string riffing of rockabilly and the bluesy, string-pushing players of the mid-sixties. He also made the crucial bridge between the black blues and white hillbilly music via his lead work...In all, it is not an exaggeration to say that Lonnie Mack was well ahead of his time in 1963. His bluesy solos predated the pioneering blues-rock guitar work of Jeff Beck, Eric Clapton, and Mike Bloomfield by nearly two years. [Since] they are considered "before their time", the chronological significance of Lonnie Mack for the world of rock guitar is that much more remarkable.

Southern rock (Allman Brothers) lead guitarist Warren Haynes expressed a similar assessment:[97]

Guitar players, true musicians, and real music fans realize that Lonnie was the Jimi Hendrix of his time. Between the era of Chuck Berry and the era of Hendrix there were a handful of guitar players like Lonnie Mack who were making ground-breaking music that paved the way for the [lead guitar] Revolution. People like Dickey Betts and Stevie Ray Vaughan would tell you that without Lonnie they wouldn’t be who they were. That goes for all of us.

Mack's proto-blues-rock guitar recordings are said to have ushered in rock guitar's "modern" era.[98] In 1980, "Memphis" topped Guitar World magazine's list of rock guitar's "landmark" recordings, ahead of entire albums by popular guitar heroes Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, Elvin Bishop, and Mike Bloomfield,[99] whose own blues-infused solos exemplified the rock guitar "revolution"[97] of the late 1960s.

According to The New York Times, his early recordings were "a seminal influence on a long list of British and American" rock guitar soloists.[100] Reportedly, these included: Joe Bonamassa (blues-rock), Eric Clapton (blues-rock), Stevie Ray Vaughan (blues-rock), Jeff Beck (blues-rock; jazz-rock), Duane Allman (Southern rock), Gary Rossington (Southern rock), Steve Gaines (Southern rock), Mike Bloomfield (blues-rock), Jerry Garcia (psychedelic rock), Jimi Hendrix (psychedelic blues-rock), Keith Richards (blues-rock), Jimmy Page (blues-rock), Ted Nugent (hard rock), and Danny Gatton (blues rock; jazz rock).[101]

Vaughan, Beck, and Nugent have acknowledged Mack's influence, as have guitarists Dickey Betts (Southern rock), Warren Haynes (Southern rock), Ray Benson (Western swing), Bootsy Collins (funk), Adrian Belew (progressive rock), and Tyler Morris (multi-genre).[102]

Mack was proud of his role in the evolution of rock guitar. "It's a great honor to be able to [inspire other artists]. What you do in this business, your whole thing is givin' stuff away. But that makes you feel good, makes you feel like you've really done something."[103]

Mack's 1958 Gibson Flying V Guitar, "Number 7"Edit

Mack was closely identified with the distinctive, arrow-shaped Gibson Flying V guitar that first appeared in 1958. When he was seventeen, he bought the seventh Flying V off the first-year production line, naming it "Number 7". He became one of the Flying V's earliest players, and played it almost exclusively throughout his career.[104] Mack's final album, Attack of the Killer V, was named for it. Early in Mack's career, he added a Bigsby vibrato bar to the guitar. It required mounting a steel crossbeam approximately six inches below the apex of the "V", giving the guitar a unique appearance.

In 1993, Gibson Guitar Corporation issued a limited-run "Lonnie Mack Signature Edition" of Number 7.[105] In 2010, it was featured in Star Guitars: 101 Guitars That Rocked The World.[106] In 2011, Walter Carter, author of The Guitar Collection, named Number 7 one of the world's "150 most elite guitars".[107] In 2012, Rolling Stone magazine named it one of "20 iconic guitars".[108]

"Blue-eyed soul" vocalsEdit

Throughout his career, Mack's singing style seamlessly blended white country and black blues influences.[109] He is best-known for his gospel-inspired "blue-eyed soul" ballads. Most of these failed to chart,[110] but they have consistently drawn praise from critics and popular music historians:

  • 1968: "It is truly the voice of Lonnie Mack that sets him apart...primarily a gospel singer...sincerity and intensity that's hard to find anywhere."[111] - Alec Dubro, Rolling Stone
  • 1983: "Ultimately—for consistency and depth of feeling—the best blue-eyed soul is defined by Lonnie Mack's ballads and virtually everything The Righteous Brothers recorded. Lonnie Mack wailed a soul ballad as gutsily as any black gospel singer. The anguished inflections which stamped his best songs had a directness which would have been wholly embarrassing in the hands of almost any other white vocalist."[112] - Bill Millar, History of Rock
  • 1992: "The first of the guitar-hero records is also one of the best. And for perhaps the last time, the singing on such a disc was worthy of the guitar."[113] - Jimmy Guterman, The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records Of All Time
  • 2001: ""Why?", Mack wails, transforming it into a word of three syllables. "Why-y-y?" It's sweaty slow-dance stuff, with an organ intro, a stinging guitar solo, and, after the last emotional chorus, four simple notes on the guitar as a coda. There's no sadder, dustier, beerier song in all of Rock".[114] - James Curtis, Fortune
  • 2002: "For me, his vocal records became a metaphor for soul music; when I heard them, I finally understood what the term meant."[115] - Randy McNutt, Guitar Towns
  • 2009: "[Mack's "Why?" (1963) is] the greatest deep soul record ever made ... you can feel the ground shaking under [Mack's] feet ... a cry of anguish so extreme you have to close your eyes in shame over witnessing it ... Mack's scream at the end has never been matched. God help us if anyone ever tops it.[116] - Greil Marcus, The Ballad of Sexual Dependency
  • 2016: "Up to April the 21st 2016, the day he died, Lonnie Mack was the best living white soul singer in the world, so good that he could even be mentioned in the same sentence as some of the all-time great black stars of what is essentially a black genre, and yes, I'm talking about the likes of Bobby Bland, Wilson Pickett and others."[117] - Dave Stephens, Toppermost

Representative blue-eyed-soul vocals from his catalog include:

  • Why ("The Wham of that Memphis Man", 1963)
  • Where There's A Will ("The Wham of that Memphis Man", 1963)
  • Baby, What's Wrong? ("The Wham of that Memphis Man", 1963)
  • She Don't Come Here Anymore ("Glad I'm in the Band", 1969)
  • My Babe ("Whatever's Right", 1969)
  • Gotta Be An Answer ("Whatever's Right", 1969)
  • Stormy Monday (live, "Live at Coco's", rec. 1983, rel. 1999)
  • Why (live, "Live at Coco's", rec. 1983, rel. 1999)
  • The Things I Used To Do (live, "Live at Coco's", rec. 1983, rel. 1999)
  • Stop ("Strike Like Lightning", 1985)
  • I Found A Love (live, "Attack of the Killer V", 1990)
  • Stop (live, "Attack of the Killer V", 1990)

Final yearsEdit

Mack's last commercial performances were in the 2003–2004 touring season.[118] Although he soon found that he "miss[ed] the stage, performing, and making people happy",[119] he remained retired except for a handful of isolated special appearances over the next few years:

On February 17, 2007, he performed at a benefit concert for Pure Prairie League singer-bassist Michael Reilly.[120]

Mack's last major public performance was on November 15, 2008, at the State Theater (Cleveland, Ohio). There, he performed Wham! at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 93rd birthday salute to one of his own guitar heroes, Les Paul.[121] After his own, Les Paul's, and others' performances, he participated in a blues jam with a lineup of prominent rock guitarists.[122]

On April 4, 2009, at age 67, he spontaneously performed Cincinnati Jail at a rural Tennessee roadhouse, using an electric guitar borrowed from the house band's lead player, who wrote:[123]

[He] officially tore the roof off the place. His (my?) guitar was smoking. Sounded like the breathing of a very large, wild animal. His band leading skills were also awesome. Lots of pointing at people to change dynamics and cue solos. He owned the stage and had everybody doing exactly what he wanted. Crowd went nuts, people were taking pics with their camera phones. People were screaming, everybody started dancing, it was great. He cut my other lead player's head clean off when they were swapping licks. Bottom line - His playing is still awesome. Tone is very much in the fingers. He made my rig absolutely come alive in ways I've never heard.

In 2010, again with a borrowed a guitar, he performed "Memphis" at the final reunion of his Memphis-era band.[124] There is no account of Mack performing thereafter.

In 2011, he released a handful of kitchen-table acoustic recordings via the internet.[125] About that time, he was also reportedly working on a memoir[126] and engaged in a songwriting collaboration with award-winning country and blues tunesmith Bobby Boyd.[127]

In 2012, guitarist Travis Wammack asked Mack to join him on a proposed tour to be billed as "Double Mack Attack". Mack declined, saying that he “...wasn't in good shape. He said he can't play standing up any more [and] it's hard to hold a Flying V sitting down.”[128]

Mack died from "natural causes" on April 21, 2016 (age 74) near his home in rural Tennessee.[129] Burial was in Aurora, Indiana, a few miles from his birthplace.[130] He was survived by a large family of siblings, children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren.[131]

DiscographyEdit

Original Studio albumsEdit

Live albumsEdit

  • 1990: Lonnie Mack Live: Attack of the Killer V (recorded December, 1989)
  • 1998: Live At Coco's (recorded 1983)

Re-issues and compilationsEdit

  • 1970: "For Collectors Only" (Re-issue of "The Wham of that Memphis Man" with two additional tunes from 1964)

Session work (guitar)Edit

Year Artist Album
1965 Freddie King Freddie King Sings Again
1967 James Brown James Brown Sings Raw Soul
1970 The Doors Morrison Hotel (bass guitar)
1974 Dobie Gray Hey, Dixie
1981 Ronnie Hawkins Legend In His Spare Time
1986 Tim Krekel/The Sluggers Over The Fence
1996 Wayne Perkins Mendo Hotel
1998 Jack Holland The Pressure's All Mine
1999 Albert Washington Albert Washington with Lonnie Mack (rec. 1967)
2000 The Crudup Brothers Franktown Blues
2006 The Charmaines Gigi & The Charmaines (rec. 1962–1963)
2007 Stevie Ray Vaughan Solos, Sessions & Encores (live version of "Double Whammy" rec. 1985)

Career recognition and awardsEdit

Year Award or recognition
1992 Jimmy Guterman ranked Mack's 1963 debut album No. 16 in his book, The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time.[132]
1993 Gibson Guitar Corporation issued a limited-run "Lonnie Mack Signature Edition" of "Number 7".[105]
1998 The Cincinnati Enquirer gave Mack its Pop Music Award ("Cammy") for "Lifetime Achievement".[133]
2001 Southeastern Indiana Musician's Association Hall of Fame induction.[134]
2001 International Guitar Hall of Fame induction.[135]
2002 Mack's second "Lifetime Achievement" Cammy.[136]
2005 Rockabilly Hall of Fame induction.[137]
2006 The Southern Legends Entertainment & Performing Arts Hall of Fame induction.[138]
2010 Dave Hunter featured "Number 7" in his book, Star Guitars: 101 Guitars That Rocked The World[139]
2011 Walter Carter featured "Number 7" in his book, The Guitar Collection, calling it one of the world's 150 "most elite guitars".[140]
2012 Rolling Stone featured "Number 7" in an article entitled 20 Iconic Guitars.[141]

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Interviews:
  1. McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson Lifestyle on-line, 2007[142]
  2. Smith, "The Guitar Player's Guitar Player: Gritz Speaks With Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", June 2000[143]
  3. Larry Nager, "Guitar Greatness", Cincinnati Enquirer (Cincinnati.com), March 13, 1998[144]
  4. Greg Schaber, "Mule Train", Cincinnati Magazine, October 2000 issue, pp. 74–83[145]
  5. Randy McNutt, "McGonigal, Ohio: Lonnie on the Move", 2002.[146]
  • Guitar and gear
  1. O'Hara, "Lonnie Mack's Flying V", The Unique Guitar Blog, December 23, 2009[147]
  2. Forte, "Lonnie Mack: That Memphis Man is Back", 1978, p. 20, as quoted in Guitar Player staff, "We Lost Another Guitar Hero", Guitar Player magazine on-line, April 21, 2016[148]
  • Radio documentaries
  1. "Blues-rock Virtuoso Lonnie Mack Rambles On", with Ed Ward, NPR radio, July 31, 2008[149]
  2. "Lonnie Mack Special" with Lee Hay, WVXU Radio (Cincinnati), April 25, 2016[150]
  • Posthumous editorials
  1. New York Times: Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies At 74", New York Times on-line, April 22, 2018[151]
  2. Washington Post: McArdle, "Lonnie Mack, guitarist and singer who influenced blues and rock acts, dies at 74", Washington Post on-line, April 25, 2016[152]
  3. Houston Chronicle: Dansby, "Music and Death 2016", Houston Chronicle on-line, December 29, 2016[153]
  4. Rolling Stone: Kreps, "Lonnie Mack, Blues-Rock Guitar Great, Dead at 74", Rolling Stone online, April 23, 2018[154]
  5. Guitar World: "Pioneering Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dead at 74", Guitar World on-line, April 22, 2016[155]
  6. Downbeat: Reed, "Blues Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dies at 74", Downbeat on-line, April 22, 2016.[156]
  7. American Blues Scene: Kerzner, "Breaking: Pioneering Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dead at 74", April 22, 2016[157]
  8. Keeping The Blues Alive: Hagood, "Lonnie Mack: Remembering His Trailblazing Blues-Rock Guitar Virtuosity", Keeping the Blues Alive, April 29, 2016[158]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b See section below entitled "Career chronology".
  2. ^ See section herein entitled "Blue-eyed soul vocals", esp. Stephens, Lonnie Mack, TopperPost #522, April, 2016 at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/.
  3. ^ a b c Hagood, "Lonnie Mack: Remembering His Trailblazing Blues-Rock Guitar Virtuosity", Website:"Keeping the Blues Alive", April 29, 2016, at https://keepingthebluesalive.org/lonnie-mack-remembering-his-trailblazing-blues-rock-guitar-virtuosity/
  4. ^ Interviewed for Duane Allman's 2006 biography, guitarist Mike Johnstone recalled sixteen-year-old Allman's fascination with Memphis, saying: "Now, at that time, there was a popular song on the radio called 'Memphis'—an instrumental by Lonnie Mack. It was the best guitar-playing I'd ever heard. All the guitar-players were [saying] 'How could anyone ever play that good? That's the new bar. That's how good you have to be now.'" Poe, Skydog: The Duane Allman Story, Backbeat, 2006, at p. 10.
  5. ^ "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74", New York Times, April 22, 2016
  6. ^ (1) Guterman, "The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time", 1992, Citadel Publishing, p. 34; (2) Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 24-25; and (3) "Posthumous editorials" under the section below entitled "Further reading".
  7. ^ "I think of [Mack] as a prototype of...Southern rock". Music historian Dick Shurman, as quoted McCardle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html. Mack was a strong influence on several founders of Southern rock: (1) Allman Brothers lead guitarist Warren Haynes: "People like Dickey Betts would tell you that without Lonnie they wouldn't be who they were. That goes for all of us." April 23, 2016 posting on Official Warren Haynes website, preserved at http://www.warrenhaynes.net/news/detail/warren_haynes_reflects_on_lonnie_mack; (2) Before finding fame as lead guitarist of the Allman Brothers, seventeen-year-old Duane Allman honed his soloing skills by playing Memphis along with Mack's record, repeatedly stopping and starting the record with his foot, until he had mastered Mack's technique. (Poe, "Skydog: The Duane Allman Story", Backbeat, 2006, p. 10 et seq.). (3) Remembering the unchallenging simplicity of early rock guitar, Allman Brothers co-lead guitarist, Dickey Betts, observed: "I was really gettin' tired of all the beach songs, and "Louie, Louie". Those are great songs, but I'm talkin' about guitar-playing. And then, here come Lonnie Mack, right down the middle of it all. God, what a breath of fresh air that was for me." Betts video commentary at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ij-LTAFB9o8; (4) Mack was a significant influence on two founders of Lynyrd Skynyrd, Steve Gaines and Ed King. Odom, Lynyrd Skynyrd: Remembering The Free Birds Of Southern Rock, Broadway Books 2002, at p. 142. Before Gaines' rise to Skynyrd fame, he practiced "playing (Memphis) by ear until he could imitate" Mack, who was one of Gaines' "favorite artists". Id. Gaines can be heard singing and playing Mack's "Why" here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAXU_-q3srs.
  8. ^ Puterbaugh, "The British Invasion: From the Beatles to the Stones, The Sixties Belonged to Britain", Rolling Stone Magazine, July 14, 1988, preserved at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-news/the-british-invasion-from-the-beatles-to-the-stones-the-sixties-belonged-to-britain-244870/; (2) (a) Mack's own popularity had been built mostly on his 1963 instrumentals, Memphis and Wham!. Davis & Parker, Instrumentals: When no words were necessary, Pt. 2, Goldmine Magazine, December 29, 2010, preserved at http://www.goldminemag.com/features/instrumentals-when-no-words-were-necessary-pt-2. (b) "In February of 1964, the Beatles appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show, and Mack's career withered on the vine." Dave Rubin, Inside the Blues: 1942 - 1982, "Rockin' the Blues: Lonnie Mack & Michael Bloomfield", Hal Leonard (Updated Ed., 2007) at p. 124.
  9. ^ See, section of this article entitled "Career chronology".
  10. ^ See, section entitled "Career chronology".
  11. ^ "...full-fledged comeback...". Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 25.
  12. ^ Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies At 74", New York Times on-line, April 22, 2018, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html.
  13. ^ (1) Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies At 74", New York Times on-line, April 22, 2018, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html; (2) See also, section below entitled "Career chronology".
  14. ^ See, e.g., D'Onofrio, Don's Music Views, "Lonnie Mack/Live!-Attack of the Killer V", 1997, at djd3.tripod.com/mack.html: "...Great talent...exciting performance...responsive crowd...This is what live blues is all about!"
  15. ^ During the migration of refugees from the coal mine closures in Southern Appalachia before World War II, most sought jobs in industrialized cities. See, Wikipedia article entitled Hillbilly Highway. However, Mack's parents settled twenty miles downriver from Cincinnati, living and working on sharecropping farms.
  16. ^ "Lonnie Mack, July 18, 1941 – April 21, 2016". Alligator.com.
  17. ^ Sandmel, "Lonnie Mack is Back of the Track", Guitar World, May 1984, pp. 55–56.
  18. ^ (1) Forte, "Lonnie Mack: That Memphis Man is Back", 1978, p. 20; (2) Murrells, The Book of Golden Discs, Barrie & Jenkins, 1978, p.163
  19. ^ Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74", New York times, April 22, 2016, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html.
  20. ^ McCardle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html.
  21. ^ (1) Hear Mack interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mYxmVf6Xik (2) Van Matre, "Lonnie Mack Back In The Swing Of Things", Chicago Tribune, May 2, 1985, at http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1985-05-0 2/features/8501270055_1_mack-doesn-t-stevie-ray-vaughan-lonnie-mack. Chicago Tribune, Lifestyle Section. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  22. ^ a b Bill Millar, liner notes to Ace (UK) early Mack compilation album entitled "Memphis Wham!"
  23. ^ (1) Liner notes to Ace, UK, CD entitled "Memphis Wham!"; (2) Dahl, Bill. "Lonnie Mack profile at" (https://www.allmusic.com/artist/p438). allmusic.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  24. ^ (1) "Unsung Guitar Hero: Lonnie Mack" at http://www2.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lo[permanent dead link] nnie-Mack.aspx, July 14, 1985. Retrieved May 18, 2014; (2) McNutt, Guitar Towns, University of Indiana Press, 2002, p. 175.
  25. ^ His most popular albums, The Wham of that Memphis Man (1963), Strike Like Lightning (1985), and Attack of the Killer V (1990) were blues-oriented with a rock instrumental bent and a traditional black gospel vocal bent. Dueling Banjos (1973) was an album of traditional bluegrass tunes. Glad I'm in the Band (1969) and Whatever's Right (1969) were ecletic with an emphasis on country and soul. Hills of Indiana (1971) was almost entirely country, with a singer/songwriter emphasis. Coco's (1983) was a mix of traditional country, acoustic and electric blues, deep soul, blues-rock, and roots-rock. South (1978) was a mix of country-pop and bluegrass. Second Sight (1986) and Roadhouses and Dance Halls (1988) were eclectic mixes of rockabilly, roots-rock, and outlaw country. Home at Last (1977) was mostly country. Pismo (1978) was a mix of country, rockabilly and Southern rock.
  26. ^ Dansby, Music and Death 2016, Houston Chronicle, December 29, 2016, as preserved at https://www.houstonchronicle.com/entertainment/columnists/dansby/article/Music-and-death-2016-You-want-it-darker-10820590.php
  27. ^ 1971-1985 (became low-profile country artist) and 1990-2004 (ceased recording but sporadically appeared in small venues).
  28. ^ (1) Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74", New York Times, April 22, 2016. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html?_r=0; (2) In the 1980s, Mack was "elevated to cult status as a blues-rock guitar hero". Greg Schaber, "Mule Train", Cincinnati Magazine, October 2000 issue, pp. 74-83, as preserved at https://books.google.com/books?id=2O0CAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=schaber+mule+train&source=bl&ots=RvRWKnpiqs&sig=FbRq7LHkAnYBXnaJ70-m90WvOQI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmkc-bwpLcAhUoxFQKHcecCdYQ6AEIaTAQ#v=onepage&q=schaber%20mule%20train&f=false
  29. ^ Larry Nager, "Guitar Greatness", Cincinnati Enquirer (Cincinnati.com), March 13, 1998, as preserved at http://www2.cincinnati.com/freetime/weekend/031398_weekend.html. McNutt, Guitar Towns, Indiana University Press, 2002, p. 175.
  30. ^ McNutt, Guitar Towns, Indiana University Press, 2002, p. 175.
  31. ^ All but one have been unavailable for decades. "Hey Baby" (Sage, 1959), a bluegrass/rockabilly tune headlined by two of his older cousins, Aubrey Holt and Harley Gabbard, was reissued by Bear Family Records in 2010. It was included in the album "That'll Flat Git It! Vol. 27: Rockabilly & Rock 'n' Roll From The Vault Of Sage & Sand Records: Various Artists". ISBN 978-3-89916-577-7. On it, seventeen-year-old Mack can be heard providing a Travis-picking guitar accompaniment, punctuated by a brief rockabilly solo. It can be heard at Harley Gabbard & Aubrey Holt - Hey Baby ~ Rockabilly on YouTube
  32. ^ See, section below entitled "'Memphis' and 'Wham!'".
  33. ^ Strike Like Lightning (1985) and Lonnie Mack Live: Attack of the Killer V (1990), were commercially successful and drew critical acclaim.
  34. ^ Alec Dubro, Review of "The Wham of that Memphis Man",Rolling Stone magazine, November 23, 1968
  35. ^ Himes, "Lonnie Mack", The Washington Post, February 20, 1987
  36. ^ Guterman, "The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time", Citadel Publishing, 1992, p. 34 (ranking the album No. 16).
  37. ^ Rubin, "Inside the Blues, 1942-1982", Hal Leonard, 2007, at page 124.
  38. ^ Stephens, Lonnie Mack, TopperPost #522, April, 2016 at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/.
  39. ^ Apart from "Memphis" (Billboard #5) and Wham!" (Billboard #24), only two additional Mack Fraternity singles charted: "Honky-Tonk '65" (#78) and "Baby, What's Wrong?" (#93). See, Billboard's "Chart History" list for Mack at http://www.billboard.com/artist/307816/lonnie-mack/chart.
  40. ^ The label and its intellectual property rights were ultimately sold for $25,000. "The Fraternity of Wham" (http://rubbercityreview.com/2013/08/the-fraternity-of-wham/). Rubbercityreview.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  41. ^ Dave Rubin, Inside the Blues: 1942 - 1982, "Rockin' the Blues: Lonnie Mack & Michael Bloomfield", Hal Leonard (Updated Ed., 2007) at p. 124.
  42. ^ See, Ace's Lonnie Mack page and links at https://www.acerecords.co.uk/search?query=lonnie+mack. See also: Zero to 180 – Three Minute Magic - Discoveries of a Pop Music Archaeologist, October 18, 2018, at https://www.zeroto180.org/?cat=1271
  43. ^ McNutt, Guitar Towns, University of Indiana Press, 2002, at page 176.
  44. ^ See, Mack discography at http://wdd.mbnet.fi/lonniemack.htm. See also: Zero to 180 – Three Minute Magic - Discoveries of a Pop Music Archaeologist, October 18, 2018, at https://www.zeroto180.org/?cat=1271
  45. ^ Mack's three Elektra albums were Glad I'm in the Band (1969), Whatever's Right (1969), and The Hills of Indiana (1971). These were eclectic collections of country and soul ballads, blues tunes, and updated versions of earlier recordings. Both 1969 albums emphasized Mack's vocals and de-emphasized his guitar work. They were modest commercial successes. Mack's final Elektra effort, The Hills of Indiana, was a country album recorded in Nashville that attracted little attention.
  46. ^ (a) Alec Dubro, Rolling Stone magazine, November 23, 1968. (b) Elektra obliged, adding two bonus tracks from 1964 (Farther On Down The Road and Chicken-Pickin), under the title "For Collectors Only".
  47. ^ During that period, he famously played bass guitar on The Doors' hit record, "Roadhouse Blues". According to their drummer, John Densmore, author of the book "Riders on the Storm" (Dell, 1990), The Doors' personnel considered Mack a "living legend" of the blues. They recorded an instrumental in his honor, "Blues for Lonnie", that did not appear on any of their contemporary releases, but can be heard here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zpNnje-GRs
  48. ^ (1) Deccio, "Lonnie Mack Dead", April 24, 2016, http://www.inquisitr.com/3029420/lonnie-mack-dead-guitarist-and-vocalist-who-pioneered-blues-rock-dies-at-74/; (2) Poster for Mack's six-day run at the Fillmore West in July 1969 at http://www.classicposters.com/Johnny_Winter/poster/Bill_Graham/180; (3) Poster of Mack's Cow Palace appearance with the Doors and Elvin Bishop at http://www.classicposters.com/Lonnie_Mack; (4) Mack's reference to appearing with C, S &N at the Fillmore East in his 1985 Carnegie Hall interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CHAcMm8pxvo.
  49. ^ (1) Morthland, "Lonnie Mack", Output, March 1984; (2) "Lonnie was a real country boy". Elektra producer Russ Miller, in Holzman, Follow the Music, First Media, 1998, p. 367.
  50. ^ Mack, as quoted in McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson on-line, September 5, 2007, at http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lonnie-Mack.aspx.
  51. ^ Upon completing his 1969 albums, Mack assumed a "Chet Atkins-Eric Clapton role at Elektra, doing studio dates, producing and A&R." (Rolling Stone, "Random Notes", February 7, 1970, p. 4,) In that role, he helped to recruit a number of country and blues artists from Nashville, Memphis, and Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Elektra considered the launch of a specialty label to record them. (Holzman, Follow The Music, First Media, 1998, pp. 366–67.) Mack was instrumental in signing Mickey Newbury, but could not generate much interest in some other prospects, including Roberta Flack. (Houghton, Becoming Elektra, 1st Ed., 2010, Jawbone Press, pp.244–246.) He then tried to sign Carole King, but Elektra rejected her on the grounds that they already had Judy Collins. (Gettleman, Orlando Sentinel, "Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", as reprinted in Salt Lake Tribune, August 3–4, 1993, p. 3.) Frustrated, he finally attempted to interest Elektra in gospel singer Dorothy Combs Morrison, the former lead vocalist for the Edwin Hawkins Singers of "Oh Happy Day" fame. Mack had recorded Morrison singing a gospel-esque version of The Beatles' "Let It Be", and sought permission to release it; management's response was delayed, however, due to ongoing negotiations for the label's sale to Warner Brothers (Kot, Greg (December 13, 1989). "He Wrote The Book – tribunedigital-chicagotribune" (http://articles.chicagotribune.c om/1989-12-13/features/8903170595_1_doors-morrison-hotel-memphis-man-lonnie-mack). Articles.chicagotribune.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015.), allowing a competing label to seize the initiative and release Aretha Franklin's own gospel version first. "That bummed me out" (Gettleman, Orlando Sentinel, "Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", as reprinted in Salt Lake Tribune, August 3–4, 1993, p. 3), Mack said. According to a close associate, Mack "had no tolerance for the internal politics of the music business". (Hear, interview of Stuart Holman (Mack's bass-player in the early '70s), "Lonnie Mack Special", July 16, 2011 at http://wvxu.org/post/lonnie-mack-special#stream/0.) He resigned from his A&R job. (Sandmel, "Lonnie Mack is Back on the Track", Guitar World, May 1984, pp. 59–60.)
  52. ^ Stephens, Lonnie Mack, TopperPost #522, April, 2016 at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/
  53. ^ Greg Schaber, "Mule Train", Cincinnati Magazine, October 2000 issue, pp. 74-83, as preserved at https://books.google.com/books?id=2O0CAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=schaber+mule+train&source=bl&ots=RvRWKnpiqs&sig=FbRq7LHkAnYBXnaJ70-m90WvOQI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmkc-bwpLcAhUoxFQKHcecCdYQ6AEIaTAQ#v=onepage&q=schaber%20mule%20train&f=false. Mack's departure from the LA rock scene apparently also involved a threatening premonition. Towards the end of Mack's time at Elektra, the label had put together a musical whistle-stop touring group, including Mack, Don Nix, and others, billed as "The Alabama State Troupers and Mount Zion Choir". (Holzman, Follow The Music, First Media, 2000, p. 36.) According to Elektra producer Russ Miller, Mack disappeared six days before the tour was to begin. Miller found him hiding out on his rustic Kentucky farm. Mack refused to join the tour, citing a nightmare during his last night in Los Angeles, in which he and his family had been pursued by Satan. He had awoken in a sweat, finding his Bible opened to a passage warning him to "flee from Mount Zion". Miller, a former evangelist preacher (Houghton, Becoming Elektra, 1st Ed., 2010, Jawbone Press, pp.244–246), knew Mack's mind. Returning to California alone, Miller explained: "[Lonnie's] a real country boy. [T]hat was it for Lonnie". (Holzman, supra). Mack wrote a tune adverting to this experience. In "A Song I Haven't Sung" (1986), he equated the pursuit of "fortune and fame" with selling one's soul to Satan, allowing the "body to live while your soul is left to rot". The tune appears on Mack's 1986 Alligator album, "Second Sight".
  54. ^ Mack, as quoted in Guralnick, Pickers, "Lonnie Mack: Fiery Picker Goes Country", 1977, pp. 16–18).
  55. ^ (1) Dick Shurman, as quoted in McArdle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html.1). (2) Shurman's observation about Mack's dislike of cities finds support in the lyrics of two Mack tunes: (a) "L.A. made me sick." (A Long Way From Memphis, 1985); (b) (Country, 1976). (3) Shurman's observation about Mack's dislike of the music business was echoed by Stuart Holman, Mack's bass guitarist in the early 1970s: "Lonnie had no tolerance for the internal politics of the music business." Holman interview on the broadcast "Lonnie Mack Special", July 16, 2011, at http://wvxu.org/post/lonnie-mack-special#stream/0.
  56. ^ Mack went mostly unnoticed during this period, but he was not idle. (1) In 1973, Mack and Rusty York released an all-acoustic bluegrass LP, Dueling Banjos. (2) In 1974, Mack played lead guitar for country-soul artist Dobie Gray. Mack's guitar work from this period can be found on Gray's 1974 album Hey, Dixie. Mack wrote or co-wrote three tunes on the album, including the title track. See credits under "track listings"/"show track credits" for Hey Dixie at https://rateyourmusic.com/release/album/dobie-gray/hey-dixie/. In March 1974, he performed as Gray's lead guitarist at the last broadcast of The Grand Ole Opry from Nashville's Ryman Auditorium. (3) In 1977, Mack recorded Home at Last, an album of country ballads and bluegrass tunes. (4) A live version of "Cincinnati Jail" can be heard on Mack's final album, "Attack of the Killer V" (1990). (5) In 1978, he recorded Lonnie Mack with Pismo, a somewhat faster-paced album, of country, southern rock, and rockabilly tunes.
  57. ^ At the nightclub, Mack also served as bouncer. He broke up bar fights by swinging his guitar at the combatants. (See, posting of Mike Pumphrey near the bottom of comments at http://www.tributes.com/obituary/print_selections/103505970?type=6.) The outdoor music venue was known as "The Friendship Music Park". There, Mack hosted performances by local bluegrass and country artists. (Peter Guralnick, Pickers, "Lonnie Mack: Fiery Rock Picker Goes Country", 1977, p. 16.)
  58. ^ (1) Mack, as quoted in Gettleman, "Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack Is A Low-Key Yet Major Influence On Many Musicians", Orlando Sentinel, as reproduced in Desert News/The Salt Lake Tribune, Tues. PM/Wed. AM, August 3–4, 1993 at p.3. (2) Vaughan idolized Mack, calling him "the baddest guitar player I know" (Vaughan, as heard on DVD entitled "American Caravan: Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble", recorded in 1986 at the Orpheum Theatre in Memphis. It can be seen and heard here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkBqTWBIkKw.) and credited much of his own guitar style to Mack. ("Lonnie invented a lot of this stuff." Newton, "My First Interview With Stevie Ray Vaughan", at https://earofnewt.com/2015/08/26/my-first-interview- with-stevie-ray-vaughan-when-he-sang-me-three-lines-of-an-earl-king-song/.) Vaughan also said, "I got a lot of the fast things I do from Lonnie" (Menn, Secrets From The Masters, Miller-Freeman, Inc, 1992, p. 278, ISBN 0-87930-260-7). Three years before his death, Vaughan listed Mack first among the guitarists he had listened to, both as a youngster and as an adult. (Vaughan interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GcrkPrxj698). As a teen-ager, Vaughan honed his guitar skills by playing along with Wham!, starting and stopping the record-player repeatedly as he attempted to copy Mack's guitar. (Vaughan interview, https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GImi3eGVbSI, at counter 17:36; Patoski, "SRV: Caught in the Crossfire", 1993, Backbeat: 15–16.) In his teens, Duane Allman did the same with Memphis. (Poe, "Skydog: The Duane Allman Story", Backbeat, 2006, at p. 10 et seq.) Vaughan went on to record Wham! several times, and called his own instrumental, Scuttle-Buttin, "just another way of playin' [Mack's 1964 instrumental] Chicken-Pickin." (Vaughan, as quoted in review of the album Couldn't Stand The Weather at http://www.musicradar.com/news/guitars/stevie-ray-vaughan-couldnt-stand-the-weather-legacy-edition-album-review-265255. Musicradar.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.)
  59. ^ (1) Mike Joyce, "Lonnie Mack, Making His Mark On Music", Washington Post, July 9, 1985, as preserved at https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1985/07/09/lonnie-mack-making-his-mark-on-music/e91f0750-e622-4878-8040-3b037a60a19b/ (2) During Mack's recuperation, Vaughan put on a benefit concert to help pay his medical bills, and Vaughan and his bass-player, Tommy Shannon, personally installed an air-conditioner in Mack's house. "Michael Smith, "Gritz Speaks With Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", June 2000" (http://swampland.com/articles/view/all/50 1). Swampland.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  60. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 25.
  61. ^ (1) See, July, 1985 photo of Richards and the Wood backing Mack's performance at New York's Lone Star Cafe at https://www.iorr.org/talk/read.php?1,2317009; Attendees included Mick Jagger, Paul Simon, and Bob Dylan. See, review of Mack's appearance at the Lone Star, NY Times, Sunday, July 14. 1985. (2) The tour culminated in a Carnegie Hall concert with Collins and Buchanan. See: (a) Lonnie Mack - Satisfy Susie on YouTube; (b) Lonnie Mack Stop on YouTube; and (c) Lonnie Mack, Albert Collins & Roy Buchanan on YouTube
  62. ^ (1) Lonnie Mack, as quoted in Nager, "Guitar Greatness", Cincinnati Enquirer (Cincinnati.com), March 13, 1998, as preserved at [1] Archived July 29, 2017, at the Wayback Machine; (2) See also, Mack interview in Greg Schaber, "Mule Train", Cincinnati Magazine, October 2000 issue, pp. 74-83, as preserved at https://books.google.com/books?id=2O0CAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=schaber+mule+train&source=bl&ots=RvRWKnpiqs&sig=FbRq7LHkAnYBXnaJ70-m90WvOQI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmkc-bwpLcAhUoxFQKHcecCdYQ6AEIaTAQ#v=onepage&q=schaber%20mule%20train&f=false
  63. ^ Although he never recorded again as a solo artist, he made guest appearances on two albums of other artists. (1) Baber, Bo (May 31, 2000). "Review of Franktown Blues" (http://www.warehousecreek.com/frank/reviews.htm). Warehousecreek.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011. (2) "Lonnie Mack – Biography – Amoeba Music" (http://www.amoeba.com/lonnie-mack/artist/161293/bio). Amoeba.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  64. ^ 1963 Stewart Colman, liner notes to album From Nashville to Memphis, March 2001
  65. ^ a b "We Lost Another Guitar Hero on April 21—Lonnie Mack Passes at 74". GuitarPlayer.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  66. ^ Rice was a close friend of Mack's and a member of Mack's band for many years. He also played on "over 300 albums" and "countless singles" of other artists, including Conway Twitty, for whom he co-wrote the country hit (also recorded by Elvis Presley) "There's A Honky-Tonk Angel (Who'll Take Me Back In)".
  67. ^ McNutt, Guitar Towns, Indiana University Press, 2002, at page 178.
  68. ^ Interviewed in 2011, the recording engineer on "Memphis", Chuck Seitz, recalled that it took ten minutes to "set up" and less than ten minutes to record the tune twice. "Lonnie Mack Special", http://wvxu.org/post/lonnie-mack-special#stream/0
  69. ^ (1) "...chords-and-riffs...": See, (a) articles collected under "Posthumous editorials" in the section below entitled "Further reading"; and (b) Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, pp. 24-25. (2) Calling the pre-Mack melodic rock guitar solos "inherently simple": Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Instrumental and Surf Rock", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, p. 22. (3) Poe, Skydog: The Duane Allman Story, Backbeat, 2006, at p. 10.
  70. ^ McNutt, Guitar Towns, Indiana University Press, 2002, at page 175.
  71. ^ "Memphis" was the fourth rock guitar instrumental to reach Billboard's "Top 5", preceded by "Twang" and "Surf" classics, including The Virtues' "Guitar Boogie Shuffle" (1958), The Ventures' "Walk, Don't Run" (1960), and Duane Eddy's "Because They're Young" (1960).
  72. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. p. 163. ISBN 0-214-20512-6.
  73. ^ "Swampland:Lonnie Mack". Swampland.com. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  74. ^ "Remembering Lonnie Mack and his visits to Pike – Milford PA – Letters to the Editor". Pikecountycourier.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  75. ^ Years later, Stevie Ray Vaughan recorded a tribute to Chicken-Pickin entitled Scuttle-Buttin. The Rock Musician - 15 Years of Interviews, St. Martin's Press, 1994 (ed., Sherman), ISBN 0-312-30461-7 (pbk), at p. 216.
  76. ^ Brown, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997 at p.25.
  77. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, pp. 24–25.
  78. ^ See, e.g., (1) "Talkin' Blues: Lonnie Mack and the Birth of Blues-Rock". Guitar World. Retrieved May 18, 2014.; (2) Guitar Player, "101 Forgotten Greats and Unsung Heroes", 2/1/2007, at https://www.guitarplayer.com/players/101-forgotten-greats-andamp-unsung-heroes; and (3) Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997 at p.25. (4) They were not his only early demonstrations of soloing skill, however. Suzie Q (1963) and Lonnie on the Move (1965) are often mentioned, but the former was not promoted as a single and the latter was lost in the tidal wave of the British Invasion. A third, Chicken-Pickin (1964), widely considered Mack's greatest early demonstration of fret-board speed, suffered a similar fate. More recently, Jeff Beck regularly performed Lonnie on the Move during his 2015 and 2016 tours. He can be seen playing it at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RX4J0bbE5cY and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQa99- hWTnQ. It is a direct copy of Mack's own live, 1990 version, which can be heard here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PpU2UqaeULw. Beck probably first heard the tune when it was issued in Britain on the Stateside label in 1964. See, photo of that pressing with date 1964 at http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/Lonnie-Mack-Lonnie-On-The-Move-1964-UK- 45-STATESIDE-DEMO-/352182827062.
  79. ^ Bill Millar, as quoted in Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", Topperpost #522, April, 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/
  80. ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  81. ^ 2/features/8501270055_1_mack-doesn-t-stevie-ray-vaughan-lonnie-mack Matre, Van (May 2, 1985). "Lonnie Mack Back In The Swing Of Things". Chicago Tribune, Lifestyle Section. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  82. ^ Brown, Legends of Rock Guitar, entries on Chuck Berry and Lonnie Mack, Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at p. 13–14 (Berry) and 24–25 (Mack).
  83. ^ Richard T. Pinnell, Ph. D., "Lonnie Mack's Version of Chuck Berry's 'Memphis' — An Analysis of an Historic Rock Guitar Instrumental", Guitar Player Magazine, May 1979, p. 41.
  84. ^ Notably, however, Mack's name is conspicuously absent from Rolling Stone magazine's current and oft-updated list of "100 Greatest Guitarists". However, in 1968, when such artists as Jimi Hendrix and Eric Clapton were already household names, Rolling Stone proclaimed Mack "in a class by himself" as a rock guitarist. Alec Dubro, Review of "The Wham of that Memphis Man", Rolling Stone magazine, November 23, 1968.
  85. ^ (1) Bluegrass: (a) "I started off in bluegrass, before there was rock 'n' roll.". Grimes, "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74", New York times, April 22, 2016, at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/23/arts/music/lonnie-mack-singer-and-guitarist-who-pioneered-blues-rockdies-at-74.html. (b) "Mack began performing guitar in the family bluegrass band at 7." McCardle, "Lonnie Mack, Guitarist and Singer Who Influenced Blues and Rock Acts, Dies at 74", Washington Post, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html; (c) "...a guitar style that owes as much to Bluegrass as The Blues...". "Lonnie Mack", Website: "All About Blues Music", April 2016 at https://www.allaboutbluesmusic.com/lonnie-mack/. (2) country: (a) Mack interview at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mYxmVf6Xik. (b) Mack told this same story as early as 1985, when interviewed by the Chicago Tribune. See, "Lonnie Mack Back In The Swing Of Things", Chicago Tribune, Lifestyle Section, May 2, 1985.
  86. ^ (1) "Before Lonnie, the horn guys did all the lead work. He made the guitar the pre-eminent lead instrument". Former Elektra executive James Webber, in Schaber, "Mule Train", Cincinnati Magazine, October 2000 issue, pp. 74-83, preserved at https://books.google.com/books?id=2O0CAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=schaber+mule+train&source=bl&ots=RvRWKnpiqs&sig=FbRq7LHkAnYBXnaJ70-m90WvOQI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmkc-bwpLcAhUoxFQKHcecCdYQ6AEIaTAQ#v=onepage&q=schaber%20mule%20train&f=false; See also, Sandmel, Guitar World, May 1984, pp. 55–56. (2) Mack's lead guitar style did not go mainstream overnight. As late as November, 1968, a Rolling Stone reviewer found his use of runs in his solos "peculiar". Alec Dubro, Review of "The Wham of that Memphis Man!", Rolling Stone, November 23, 1968.
  87. ^ See, Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at pp. 24–25.
  88. ^ See, Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/.
  89. ^ Nixon, "It's Star Time!", Guitar World, November 1985 at p. 82.
  90. ^ Mack can be seen tugging on the device while continuing to pick at counter 2:09 and using the "shuddering" technique at counter 2:13 of the video of his Carnegie Hall concert, playing "Staisfy Suzie" at https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=xhX1lfWZaNw&ebc=ANyPxKpQ8Db4nyyibTLxE14xV4- KfgochEdNE8Cmg4OvLKjsjm7_E3llRU18Wnl25OTs5oXmtK30Md9-ROCrO0KfSUBVNRFHFw.
  91. ^ (1) Vitale, "RIP Lonnie Mack", Website: WTTW (Chicago Tonight column, April 22, 2016, at https://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2016/04/22/rip-lonnie-mack; (2) "Wayback Machine" (https://web.archive.org/web/20080510181805/http://www.gibson.com/en-us/Lifestyle/Features/ Unsung%20Guitar%20Hero%20Lonnie%20Mack/). Web.archive.org. May 10, 2008. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  92. ^ "Broaden Your Horizons" website, "Lonnie Mack - Stop", February 5, 2010, https://499songs.wordpress.com/2010/02/05/475-lonnie-mack-stop/: "He began his career releasing Booker T and the MG's style soul instrumentals, the most famous being “Wham!”. He continued to make albums blurring the lines between Soul, Rock N Roll, Surf and Rockabilly stylings."
  93. ^ Stephens, "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016, at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/. Mack's own assessment was self-effacing: "I got style, but it's oversimplified and pretty obvious." Mack, as quoted in McNutt, Guitar Towns, University of Indiana Press, 2002, at page 173.
  94. ^ Poe, "Skydog: The Duane Allman Story", Backbeat, 2006, at p. 10.
  95. ^ Greg Schaber, "Mule Train", Cincinnati Magazine, October 2000 issue, pp. 74-83, as preserved at https://books.google.com/books?id=2O0CAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=schaber+mule+train&source=bl&ots=RvRWKnpiqs&sig=FbRq7LHkAnYBXnaJ70-m90WvOQI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmkc-bwpLcAhUoxFQKHcecCdYQ6AEIaTAQ#v=onepage&q=schaber%20mule%20train&f=false
  96. ^ Brown & Newquist, Legends of Rock Guitar, "Lonnie Mack", Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, p. 24.
  97. ^ a b "Warren Haynes - news". Warrenhaynes.net. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  98. ^ (1) Kot, "He Wrote The Book", Chicago Tribune online, December 13, 1989 ("Lonnie Mack launched the modern guitar era 26 years ago."), at http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1989-12-13/features/8903170595_1_doors-morrison-hotel- memphis-man-lonnie-mack) and (2) Vinson, "Don't Procrastinate – Be Rock Solid", MurfreesboroPost.com, February 6, 2010 (calling Mack "the father of Modern Guitar"), at http://www.murfreesboropost.com/archive/2010/06/06.
  99. ^ "Landmark Recordings", Guitar World, July 1980, as republished in Guitar World, July 1990
  100. ^ "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74". Nytimes.com. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  101. ^ (1) As to most: (a) Brown, Legends of Rock Guitar, Hal Leonard Publishing, 1997, at pp. 24–25; (b) Herbert, "Lonnie Mack dead: Blues guitar great dies at 74, Joe Bonamassa says", April 22, 2016 at http://www.syracuse.com/celebrity-news/index.ssf/2016/04/lonnie_mack_dead_blues_guitarist_joe_bonamassa.html; (c) Santoro, "Double-Whammy", Guitar World, January 1986, p. 34; (d) "Landmark Recordings", Guitar World, July 1980, as republished in Guitar World, July 1990; (e) Eskow, "The Death of Prince and the Death of Lonnie Mack", Counterpunch.org, May 3, 2016, at http://www.counterpunch.org/2016/05/03/the-death-of-prince-and-the-death-of-lonnie-mack/; (2) As to Garcia: (a) Nash, "This Week In The Blues", American Blues Scene website, August 4, 2014 and (b) "Lost Live Dead" Blogspot, February 10, 2010, comment of Legs Lambert, March 15, 2010 at http://lostlivedead.blogspot.com/2010/02/grateful-deadjerry-garcia-tour.html; (3) As to Gaines: (a) Odom, Lynyrd Skynyrd: Remembering The Free Birds Of Southern Rock, Broadway Books 2002, at p. 142. (b) Gaines can be heard performing Mack's "Why" (1963) in 1974 here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAXU_-q3srs. (4) As to Hendrix: (a) Greg Schaber, "Mule Train", Cincinnati Magazine, October 2000 issue, pp. 74-83, as preserved at https://books.google.com/books?id=2O0CAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=schaber+mule+train&source=bl&ots=RvRWKnpiqs&sig=FbRq7LHkAnYBXnaJ70-m90WvOQI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjmkc-bwpLcAhUoxFQKHcecCdYQ6AEIaTAQ#v=onepage&q=schaber%20mule%20train&f=false. (b) Early in the period of Hendrix' celebrity, Hendrix came to see Mack play at a club in New York and ended up spending the after-hours jamming with Mack, Jerry Garcia and Janis Joplin. Vinson, Mike. " 'The Possum' has gone to heaven" (http://www.murfreesboropost.com/vinson-the-possum-h as-gone-to-heaven-cms-35390). The Murfreesboro Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. (5) As to Gatton: McArdle, Lonnie Mack, guitarist and singer who influenced blues and rock acts, dies at 74, Washington Post, April 25, 2016, as preserved at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html (6) As to Rossington: "Lonnie Mack - Stop - Influential Blues Guitar", August 3, 2016, on "Smokin' Guitar Blues" website at https://smokinbluesguitar.com/blues-legends/lonnie-mack-stop-influential-blues-guitar/.
  102. ^ Vaughan: (1) Joseph, "Before the Flood", Guitar World Magazine, September 1983; (2) "The Lost Stevie Ray Vaughan Interview" at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhffhhnibQY; Beck: Miller, "Jeff Beck's Guitar Magic Conquers Boston's Orpheum Theater", The Patriot Ledger on-line, April 20, 2015 at http://www.patriotledger.com/article/20150420/blogs/304209997; Nugent: Nugent interview at http://www.musicradar.com/news/guitars/ted-nugent-picks-the-11-greatest-guitarists-of-all-time-533304; Betts: Sandmel, "The Allman Brothers: Live at the Clifton Garage 1970" at http://www.spectratechltd.com/extrapages/Allman%20Brothers%20-%20Live%20at%20Ludlow%20Garage%20CD%20-%20cover%20&%20notes.pdf Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine; Haynes: http://www.warrenhaynes.net/news/detail/warren_haynes_reflects_on_lonnie_mack); Benson: Benson interview, VHS-DVD, "Further On Down the Road", Flying V, 1985; Collins: Collins interview, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=US1658nBJow; Belew: Munro, "Ex King Crimson Man Belew Pays Tribute to Lonnie Mack", April 29, 2016, at http://teamrock.com/news/2016-04-29/ex-king-crimson-man-belew-pays-tribute-to-lonnie-mack); Morris: Tyler Morris discussing Mack's influence on him at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cy-Yr9PrJ08.
  103. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  104. ^ McDevitt, "Unsung Guitar Hero Lonnie Mack", Gibson online at http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lonnie-Mack.aspx, 09/05/2007.
  105. ^ a b Meiners, Larry [2001-03-01], Flying V: The Illustrated History of the Modernistic Guitar, Flying Vintage Publishing, p. 13.
  106. ^ Hunter, Star Guitars: 101 Guitars That Rocked The World, "Lonnie Mack: 1958 Flying V", Voyageur Press 2010, at pp. 152, et seq.
  107. ^ Carter, "The Guitar Collection", Epic Ink Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-1603801690. A page from the book depicting Mack's guitar can be seen here: https://uncrate.com/the-guitar-collection/
  108. ^ Sullivan, "20 Iconic Guitars" Rolling Stone on-line, May 23, 2012, at https://www.rollingstone.com/music/pictures/20-iconic-guitars-20120523.
  109. ^ (1) Davis, The History of the Blues, Da Capo Press, 1995, at p. 246, describing Mack's vocals as those of "a white Hoosier with a touch of black Memphis in his soul." (2) Today, Mack's singing style might be described as "country-soul". See, Watrous, "Lonnie Mack in a Melange of Guitar Styles", New York Times, September 18, 1988 (describing his singing style as "country-esque" blues).
  110. ^ (1) "Baby, What's Wrong?" hit the low end of the charts at 93 in December, 1963. See, Billboard's "Chart History" list for Mack at http://www.billboard.com/artist/307816/lonnie-mack/chart. (2) The blue-eyed soul vocals on Mack's debut album, The Wham of that Memphis Man (1963) came at a time when the racial divide in American culture was epitomized by the difference between black and white pop music styles. (Kirkus Review of the book, Country Soul, by Charles L. Hughes, U. of North Carolina Press, 2015, at https://www.kirkusreviews.com/book-reviews/charles-i-hughes/country-soul/). When Mack's first vocal recordings were released in 1963, Mack's gospel-inspired version of the soul ballad "Where There's a Will" was played on R&B radio stations throughout the Deep South. Soon, he was invited to give a live radio interview with a prominent R&B disc jockey in racially polarized Birmingham, Alabama. Mack said that when he appeared at the radio station, the DJ said, "Baby, you're the wrong color" and canceled the interview on the spot. After that, Mack's vocals received little play on R&B radio stations. (a) "We Lost Another Guitar Hero on April 21—Lonnie Mack Passes at 74" (http://www.guitarplayer.com/artists/1013/we-lost-another-guitar-hero-on-april-21-lonnie-mack-passes-at-74/57726). GuitarPlayer.com. Retrieved October 28, 2017. (b) Sandmel (May 1984). "Lonnie Mack is Back on the Track". Guitar World. p. 59.
  111. ^ Retrospective review of Mack's 1963 debut album, Alec Dubro, Rolling Stone magazine, November 23, 1968.
  112. ^ Music critic Bill Millar, 1983 essay entitled "Blue-eyed Soul: Colour Me Soul" (https://web.archive.org/web/20071122194241/http://www.soul-s/ ource.co.uk/soul-words/blue-eyed-soul-colour-me-soul.htm). Excerpted from The History of Rock. Archived from the original (http://w Archived July 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine ww.soul-source.co.uk/soul-words/blue-eyed-soul-colour-me-soul.htm) on November 22, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2007.
  113. ^ Guterman, "The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time", 1992, Citadel Publishing, p. 34.
  114. ^ Curtis, Lost Rock & Roll Masterpieces Fortune, April 30, 2001
  115. ^ McNutt, Guitar Towns, University of Indiana Press, 2002, at page 174.
  116. ^ (1) The greatest deep soul ... shame over witnessing it: Music and cultural critic Griel Marcus, commenting on Mack's Why (1963), in essay entitled "Songs Left Out Of Nan Goldin's Ballad of Sexual Dependency", Aperture #197 (Winter 2009), as reproduced at https://aperture.org/blog/songs-left-nan-goldins-ballad-sexual-dependency/. (2) Mack's scream  ... tops it: From a Marcus lecture of the same year and title as the essay above; presented at The Experience Music Project Museum (now the Museum of Pop Culture) in Seattle. It is quoted in the comment immediately below the Why YouTube video, here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJgoZV0qiLE.
  117. ^ Dave Stephens, author of two books on rock music, in "Lonnie Mack", TopperPost #522, April 2016 at http://www.toppermost.co.uk/lonnie-mack/
  118. ^ The photo accompanying this article is from a performance during that season.
  119. ^ "Unsung Guitar Hero: Lonnie Mack" (http://www.gibson.com/News-Lifestyle/Features/en-us/Unsung-Guitar-Hero-Lon nie-Mack.aspx). gibson.com. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  120. ^ "Photo of Mack playing at concert" (https://web.archive.org/web/20110715132351/http://pureprairieleague.com/benefit/index. htm). Pureprairieleague.com. Archived from the original (http://pureprairieleague.com/benefit/index.htm) on July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  121. ^ The Official Rock Hall Blog, "Recap of 2008 American Music Masters week honoring Les Paul" November 19, 2008, @https://rockhallandmuseum.blogspot.com.
  122. ^ John Soeder, The Plain Dealer. "Guitar stars pay tribute to Les Paul in Cleveland concert". Cleveland.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011. These included Slash, Billy Gibbons, Richie Sambora, Duane Eddy, James Burton, Dennis Coffey, Jeff "Skunk" Baxter, Jennifer Batten, and Steve Lukather.
  123. ^ "Lonnie Mack sat in with my band Sat night..." Thegearpage.net. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  124. ^ Lawson Microphones. ""Memphis" with Lonnie Mack and Gene Lawson (original drummer)". Retrieved February 4, 2019 – via YouTube.
  125. ^ Two, "The Times Ain't Right" and "You Need A Little Help", can be heard here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOSCnUTb7Ds and here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wNrwmsE521s
  126. ^ "Lonnie Mack Comes Back to Life" (http://rockabillyhall.com/NewsArch02.html). Rockabillyhall.com. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  127. ^ "Bobby Boyd profile at" (https://web.archive.org/web/20110708075009/http://www.bobbyboydband.com/bio.html). Bobbyboydband.com. Archived from the original (http://www.bobbyboydband.com/bio.html) on July 8, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  128. ^ Travis Wammack, as quoted in Russ Corey, "Shoals musicians recall Lonnie Mack as great guitarist, singer", Florence (AL) Daily Times on-line, April 23, 2016, at http://www.timesdaily.com/news/shoals-musicians-recall-lonnie-mack-as-great-guitarist-singer/article_48a46f3e-8dae-5334-a3c7-1a6ec1260060.html.
  129. ^ Kreps, "Lonnie Mack, Blues-Rock Guitar Great, Dead at 74", Rolling Stone magazine on-line, April 23, 2016
  130. ^ WKRC (April 26, 2016). "Funeral arrangements for musician Lonnie Mack". WKRC. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  131. ^ McArdle, "Lonnie Mack, guitarist and singer who influenced blues and rock acts, dies at 74", Washington Post on-line, April 25, 2016, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html
  132. ^ Guterman, "The 100 Best Rock 'n' Roll Records of All Time", Citadel Publishing, 1992, p. 34)
  133. ^ Larry Nager, Cincinnati Enquirer, "Lonnie Mack Wins Lifetime Achievement Cammy", March 15, 1998
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  140. ^ Walter Carter, The Guitar Collection, Epic Ink Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-1603801690
  141. ^ "20 Iconic Guitars". Rolling Stone. May 23, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
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  143. ^ "Swampland:Lonnie Mack". www.swampland.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  144. ^ http://www2.cincinnati.com/freetime/weekend/031398_weekend.html
  145. ^ Communications, Emmis (October 1, 2000). "Cincinnati Magazine". Emmis Communications. Retrieved February 4, 2019 – via Google Books.
  146. ^ Book: McNutt, Guitar Towns, Univ. of Indiana Press, 2002, Ch. 12 at pp. 169-179.
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  148. ^ Staff, G. P. "We Lost Another Guitar Hero on April 21—Lonnie Mack Passes at 74". GuitarPlayer.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  149. ^ "Blues-Rock Virtuoso Lonnie Mack Rambles On". NPR.org. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  150. ^ hay, lee. "Lonnie Mack Special". www.wvxu.org. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  151. ^ Grimes, William (April 22, 2016). "Lonnie Mack, Singer and Guitarist Who Pioneered Blues-Rock, Dies at 74". Retrieved February 4, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
  152. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/music/lonnie-mack-guitarist-and-singer-who-influenced-blues-and-rock-acts-dies-at-74/2016/04/25/5c581f3c-0a44-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a_story.html
  153. ^ "Music and death 2016: You want it darker? - HoustonChronicle.com". www.houstonchronicle.com. December 27, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  154. ^ Kreps, Daniel; Kreps, Daniel (April 23, 2016). "Lonnie Mack, Blues-Rock Guitar Great, Dead at 74". rollingstone.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  155. ^ Artist, Guitar World Staff 2016-04-22T11:51:12Z. "Pioneering Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dead at 74". guitarworld. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  156. ^ "Blues Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dies at 74", Downbeat on-line, Bobby Reed, April 22, 2016 at http://downbeat.com/news/detail/blues-guitarist-lonnie-mack-dies-at-74
  157. ^ Kerzner, Barry (April 22, 2016). "BREAKING - Pioneering Guitarist Lonnie Mack Dead at 74". americanbluesscene.com. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  158. ^ https://keepingthebluesalive.org/lonnie-mack-remembering-his-trailblazing-blues-rock-guitar-virtuosity/