London Underground 1995 Stock
The London Underground 1995 Stock is a type of rolling stock used on the Northern line of the London Underground. A total of 106 six-car trains were built, entering service between June 1998 and April 2001, replacing the 1959 Stock, 1962 Stock and 1972 Stock. They are very similar to the 1996 Stock used on the Jubilee line.
A Northern line 1995 Stock at Hendon Central
The interior of a refurbished 1995 Stock
|In service||12 June 1998 – present|
|Manufacturer||GEC Alsthom (later Alstom)|
|Replaced||1959 Stock |
|Number built||636 cars|
|Formation||6 cars per train|
|Capacity||662 per train|
|Car length||17.77 m (58 ft 3.6 in)|
|Width||2.630 m (8 ft 7.54 in)|
|Height||2.875 m (9 ft 5.19 in)|
|Maximum speed||100 km/h (62 mph), limited to 72 km/h (45 mph) due to poor track condition in the underground sections of the line|
|Weight||DM 29.4 tonnes (28.9 long tons; 32.4 short tons)|
UNDM 27.9 tonnes (27.5 long tons; 30.8 short tons)
T 21.5 tonnes (21.2 long tons; 23.7 short tons)
|Traction motors||3 phase induction motor|
|Current collection method||Contact shoe|
|Bogies||Twin-transform flexible frame bogies|
|Stock type||Deep-level tube|
|London transport portal|
106 six-car trains were ordered by London Underground to replace the 1959 Stock, 1962 Stock and 1972 Stock in use on the Northern line at the time. The trains were built by GEC Alsthom (later Alstom) at their plant in Washwood Heath, Birmingham, although the bodyshells were manufactured in and imported from Spain.
Construction began in 1996, with one car going on public display as part of the Lord Mayor's Show on 9 November 1996. The first train was delivered to Ruislip depot on 20 December 1996, and testing began in early 1997. The first train entered passenger service on 12 June 1998, and the final train entered service on 10 April 2001.
The 1995 Stock is very similar to the 1996 Stock in operation on the Jubilee line. Both types share the same bodyshell design, and were built at the same factory at the same time. However, there are some major differences, mostly relating to equipment.
The most notable difference is the type of traction equipment used. The 1996 Stock design specification was "frozen" in 1991, meaning that despite the name, the 1995 Stock actually uses more modern equipment. The 1995 stock uses Alstom's "Onix" three-phase insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) drive, whereas the 1996 stock three-phase induction motors fed from a single-source inverter using a gate turn-off thyristor (GTO), derived from those on Class 465 Networker trains. This means that unlike the 1996 Stock, the 1995 Stock does not make the same "gear changing" noise when accelerating from rest.
Another major difference is the type of bogie used. The 1995 stock uses AdTranz bogies with air suspension to cope with the arduous track conditions of the underground portions of the Northern line, whereas the 1996 stock uses an Alstom bogie with a rubber suspension.
Other differences include tip-up seats in the centre of the cars, instead of perch seats on the 1996 stock, as well the use of orange LEDs for the passenger information displays, instead of the red LEDs used on the 1996 stock.
Each train is made up of two three-car units, coupled together, with each unit consisting of a Driving Motor car (DM), a Trailer car (T) and an Uncoupling Non-Driving Motor car (UNDM). The six-car trains are therefore formed DM-T-UNDM+UNDM-T-DM. Some trailer cars are equipped with a de-icing tank and applicators, in order to spray de-icing fluid on the current-collection rails along aboveground sections of track; these cars are distinguished by a small circle after their car number.
The 1995 Stock is the only deep-level tube stock to use selective door opening, necessitated by short platforms at stations such as Moorgate, Charing Cross, Hampstead and Clapham Common.
Starting in 2013, the 1995 Stock underwent refurbishment, some 15 years after being introduced. Internally, new flooring was fitted, with contrasting colours in the doorways, and the yellow grab rails were re-painted dark blue. The new standard London Underground "Barman" moquette was also introduced, and wheelchair backboards were installed in the trailer cars. The external door open/close buttons were plated over, and the internal buttons were replaced by a visual door open/close warning light. The windows were polished to remove graffiti, and the external livery was re-applied.
The refurbishment was carried out by Alstom, and the first refurbished train entered service on 30 May 2013. All 106 refurbished trains had entered service by 13 April 2015.
Alstom is responsible for maintaining the trains under a PFI contract which runs until 2033. The main depot is at Golders Green, with another large depot at Morden, and two smaller depots at Highgate and Edgware.
- Neil, Graham. "London Underground Rolling Stock Information Sheet" (PDF). WhatDoTheyKnow. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- "Rolling Stock Data Sheet 2nd Edition" (PDF). Transport for London. March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Northern Line (Hansard, 15 June 1998)". api.parliament.uk. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
- Hardy, Brian (2002) . London Underground Rolling Stock (15th ed.). Harrow Weald: Capital Transport. pp. 34–35. ISBN 1-85414-263-1.
- "In Pictures: Refurbishing the 95 Stock - London Reconnections". London Reconnections. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "Alstom completes Northern Line refurbishment project". railmagazine.com. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
- "Alstom partners with London Underground to complete the modernisation of Northern line trains". www.alstom.com. Retrieved 30 May 2017.