Liuboml

This page deals with a city in Ukraine. For the film named after this city, see Luboml (film).

Liuboml (Ukrainian: Любомль, romanizedLjuboml’; Russian: Любомль, Polish and German: Luboml, Yiddish: ליבעוונעLibevne) is a town located in the western part of Ukraine, in the Volyn Oblast (province); close to the border with Poland. It serves as the administrative center of Liuboml Raion (district). Population: 10,425 (2020 est.)[1]

Liuboml

Любомль
City
Railway station
Railway station
Flag of Liuboml
Flag
Coat of arms of Liuboml
Coat of arms
Liuboml is located in Volyn Oblast
Liuboml
Liuboml
Liuboml is located in Ukraine
Liuboml
Liuboml
Coordinates: 51°13′25″N 24°01′58″E / 51.22361°N 24.03278°E / 51.22361; 24.03278Coordinates: 51°13′25″N 24°01′58″E / 51.22361°N 24.03278°E / 51.22361; 24.03278
Country Ukraine
Oblast (province) Volyn Oblast
Raion (district)Liuboml Raion
Government
 • MayorRoman Jushchuk
Elevation
187 m (614 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total10 425

OverviewEdit

Liuboml is situated 200 miles (320 km) southeast of Warsaw and 290 miles (470 km) west of Kyiv, in a historic region known as Volhynia; not far from the border with Belarus to the north, and Poland to the west. Because of its strategic location at the crossroads of Central and Eastern Europe, Liuboml had a long history of changing rule, dating back to the 11th century. The territory of Volhynia first belonged to Kyivan Rus', then to the Kingdom of Poland, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire, interwar Poland, the USSR, and finally to sovereign Ukraine.[2]

HistoryEdit

 
Liuboml Synagogue before the Holocaust, historic photograph

The settlement was first mentioned in written documents from the 13th century.[3][4]

Until the Russian Revolution of 1917, it was a settlement in Vladimir-Volynsky Uyezd of Volhynian Governorate of the Russian Empire; from 1921 to September 1939 it was an administrative centre of an urban county in the Wołyń Voivodeship of Poland.

A local newspaper is published here since 1939.[5]

Before the ensuing Holocaust, Luboml was a town with the highest percentage of Jews anywhere in the country by 1931, exceeding 94% of the total population of over 3,300 people.[6]

In Yiddish, the town was called Libivne. During World War II, Liuboml was occupied twice. It remained under the German occupation from 25 June 1941 until 19 July 1944 in the years following the anti-Soviet Operation Barbarossa. It was administered as a part of the Nazi German Reichskommissariat Ukraine. The entire Jewish community of Liuboml was annihilated in a mass shooting action conducted in 1942 on the outskirts of town in the deadliest phase of the Holocaust. The town's Jews along with refugees from western Poland estimated at around 4,500 people, were taken by the German Einsatzgruppen aided by the local Ukrainian collaborators and Auxiliary Police to nearby pits and shot. There were 51 known survivors from the virtually eradicated town. Liuboml was repopulated during the postwar repatriations.[7]

In January 1989 the population was 10 124 people.[8][4]

Historical and Cultural Heritage MonumentsEdit

The town's landmarks include St. George's Church, built in the 16th century in place of a 13th-century Orthodox church which previously occupied the site, and the Trinity Church, which goes back to 1412, but was subsequently rebuilt, with a belfry from 1640. Prior to Second World War, the grand synagogue was a dominant landmark as well, before its meticulous destruction.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  2. ^ From the Luboml exhibit (1999). "Luboml". Remembering Luboml — Images of a Jewish Community. Minneapolis Jewish Community Center. Homepage. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  3. ^ Любомль // Советский энциклопедический словарь. редколл., гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров. 4-е изд. М., «Советская энциклопедия», 1986. стр.734
  4. ^ a b Любомль // Большой энциклопедический словарь (в 2-х тт.). / редколл., гл. ред. А. М. Прохоров. том 1. М., "Советская энциклопедия", 1991. стр.736
  5. ^ № 2640. Советская жизнь // Летопись периодических и продолжающихся изданий СССР 1986—1990. Часть 2. Газеты. М., «Книжная палата», 1994. стр. 346
  6. ^ Andrzej Gawryszewski (2005). Distribution of Jewish population (by religion) in Poland in 1921 and 1931 (PDF). Język, narodowość, wyznanie. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences. 282 (44/80 in PDF). Archived from the original on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2015.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  7. ^ Florida Chapter of the American Society for Yad Vashem (April 26, 2006). "U.S. Students Discover Holocaust Through Short Stories of Polish Shtetl". JTA: Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  8. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность городского населения союзных республик, их территориальных единиц, городских поселений и городских районов по полу
  • Luboml.org website in remembrance of the vanished Jewish community.