Liu Yin (Shu Han)

Liu Yin (190 – 269),[a] courtesy name Xiuran, was a military officer of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period of China.

Liu Yin
General of the Standard (牙門將)
In office
? (?)–? (?)
MonarchLiu Shan
Administrator of Ba (Commandary)
In office
? (?)–? (?)
MonarchLiu Shan
Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉)
In office
? (?)–? (?)
MonarchLiu Shan
Garrison Commander of Huangjin
In office
? (?)–263 (263)
MonarchLiu Shan
Consultant Gentlemam (議郎)
In office
264 (264)–266 (266)
MonarchCao Huan
Administrator of Xihe
In office
266 (266)–269 (269)
MonarchSima Yan
Personal details
Bornc. 190[a]
Chengdu, Sichuan
Died269 (aged 79)[a]
Xihe Commandery
  • Liu Chong
  • Liu Chu
Courtesy nameXiuran (休然)


Liu Yin was born in Chengdu, the capital of Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing). When he was young, Liu Yin was already famous along with his fellow natives Du Zhen and Liu Shen. He was known as someone who was forthright, sincere and bright. Moreover, he was a generous man to his friends. Thanks to those qualities, he became a successful military officer. Later, he was a supporter of Grand General Jiang Wei and accompanied him during his many northern campaigns. When he met the enemy into battles. Liu Yin showed skills in improvising plans, would fearlessly charge through the enemy lines and break their formations. His valour and cleverness made him popular in the army and a champion among the soldiers. For his exploits, he was nominated as General of the Standard (牙門將), Administrator of Ba commandary (巴郡太守) and Cavalry Commandant (騎都尉). Later, he was summoned back to be the new Garrison Commander of Huangjin (黃金圍督) in Hanzhong commandary.[1]

During Cao Wei's invasion of Shu Han in 263, Zhong Hui led his army to the Hanzhong region where most of the local garrisons surrendered to him without opposition. Only Liu Yin refused to surrender; he held onto his strong position and would not be displaced. Although Zhong Hui's generals were ordered to attack him, they were beaten back and could not capture his garrison. After his abdication to Deng Ai, Liu Shan sent Liu Yin a handwritten order commanding him to surrender, only then did he surrender to Zhong Hui. Sima Zhao heard of this, was greatly impressed and came to deeply respect Liu Yin for his loyalty.[2]

One year later, in 264, Liu Yin was summoned to Hedong where he was appointed as a Consultant Gentleman (議郎). When Sima Yan established the Jin dynasty, he assigned Liu Yin to be the Administrator of Xihe (西河太守). Liu Yin stayed in that office for the next three years before resigning his commission on account of his old age. Before his death, he asked for his remains to be sent back to his homeland in the Shu region. He died among his family at the age of 79 years old.[3]

Liu Yin's elder son, Liu Chong (柳充) later became Prefect of Liandao (連道令). While his younger son, Liu Chu (柳初) was recommended as an abundant talent candidate.[4]

Chang Qu in the Huayang Guo Zhi appraised Liu Yin as a fierce warrior possessing both righteousness and virtue.[5]

Du ZhenEdit

As previously mentioned, Du Zhen (杜禎), whose courtesy name was Wenran (文然), was born in Chengdu and was famous along with Liu Yin and Liu Shen. His father, Du Qiong was a reputed confucian scholar. During the Jianxing era (建興; 223–237) of Shu Han. He worked alongside Zhuge Liang and assisted him in managing the State's affairs.[6] After Jin conquered Shu, he became an official of Jin. He reached his highest position when he became the governor of both Liang and Yi provinces.[7] His son also named Du Zhen (杜珍), whose courtesy name was Bozhong (伯重), was known as a talented scholar later was appointed with greater responsabilties as an official whose role was to protect the army. He had a son, Du Mi (杜彌), whose courtesy name was Jingwen (景文).[8]

Liu ShenEdit

As previously mentioned, Liu Shen (柳伸), whose courtesy name was Yahou (雅厚), was born in Chengdu and was famous along with Liu Yin and Du Zhen. He was a veteran of Shu Han alongside Liu Yin and Du Zhen serving successively four emperors (Liu Bei, Liu Shan, Cao Huan and Sima Yan) and three dynasties. Like Du Zhen, during the Jianxing era (建興; 223–237) of Shu Han. He worked alongside Zhuge Liang and assisted him in managing the State's affairs.[6] After the fall of Shu, he served Jin as official and worked as Administrator of Hanjia (漢嘉) and Badong (巴東). As a well known scholar, he was later recommanded and appointed as assistant under Du Zhen (杜禎) to guard Liang and Yi provinces.[9] His son, Liu Chun (柳純), whose courtesy name was Weishu (偉叔) was famous as a man of virtuous moral character and greatly talented. He served many positions, among them were Administrator, Captain and Superintendant.[10]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Liu Yin's biography in the Huayang Guozhi recorded that he died at the age of 80 (by East Asian age reckoning) in 269. By calculation, his year of birth should be around 190.


  1. ^ (柳隱,字休然,蜀郡成都人也。少與同郡杜禎、柳伸並知名。隱直誠篤亮,交友居厚,達於從政。數從大將軍姜維征伐,臨事設計,當敵陷陣,勇略冠軍。為牙門將,巴郡太守,騎都尉。遷漢中黃金圍督。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  2. ^ (景耀六年,魏鎮西將軍鍾會伐蜀,入漢川,圍戍多下。惟隱堅壁不動。會別將攻之,不能克。後主既降,以手令敕隱,乃詣會。晉文帝聞而義之。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  3. ^ (咸熙元年,內移河東,拜議郎。武帝踐祚,以為西河太守。在官三年,以年老去官。乞骸還蜀。卒於家,時年八十。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  4. ^ (長子充,連道令。次子初,舉秀才。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  5. ^ (西河太守柳隱休然:西河烈烈,秉義居貞。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  6. ^ a b (杜禎,字文然。柳伸,字雅厚。州牧諸葛亮辟為從事。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  7. ^ (禎,符節令,梁益二州都督。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  8. ^ (禎子珍,字伯重,略陽護軍。大同後,並舉秀才。珍子「彌」〔弢〕,字景文。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  9. ^ (伸,度支、漢嘉、巴東太守。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.
  10. ^ (伸子純,字偉叔;有名德幹器,舉秀才,巴郡、宜都、建平太守,西夷、長水校尉,巴東監軍。) Huayang Guo Zhi vol. 11.