Lithuanians in the Chicago area
Lithuanians in Chicago and the nearby metropolitan area are a prominent group within the "Windy City" whose presence goes back over a hundred years. Today the Chicago area possesses the largest Lithuanian community outside Lithuania, who have dubbed the city as Little Lithuania, and many Lithuanian Americans refer to it as the second capital of Lithuania. Lithuanian Americans from Chicago have had a significant impact on politics in both the United States and Lithuania.
Lithuanians have been documented as arriving in the US since 1918, when Lithuania re-established its independence from Imperial Russia. Although this is the first official record, Lithuanians began arriving at least two decades earlier; however, they were listed as Russian citizens. This is compounded by the fact that, prior to Lithuanian independence, most if not all official documents were written in Russian, Polish or German. Thousands of Lithuanians have since moved to Chicago, providing a good source of labor for the growing city. The Lithuanian community in Chicago was most famously immortalized by Upton Sinclair in his 1906 novel about the treatment of workers in the Chicago stock yards, The Jungle, whose story revolves around telling the life of a Lithuanian immigrant named Jurgis Rudkus.
The first and most prominent Lithuanian enclave in Chicago was called "Lithuanian Downtown" which was located along Halsted street in Bridgeport and founded by Lithuanians who settled nearby their Old World neighbors, the Poles, who were located in a Polish Patch in the vicinity of St. Mary of Perpetual Help. It was here that the Lithuanian church of Saint George was founded as the first Lithuanian parish in the Midwest, foreshadowing the prominence that Bridgeport would play as one of the key centers of Lithuanian activity throughout the United States. A large number of the early buildings of this district were built by the first prominent Lithuanian community leader, Antanas Olšauskas (pronounced Ole-shau-skus), circa 1910. Centered on Thirty-third and Halsted, Bridgeport was Chicago's leading Lithuanian neighborhood from the 1890s through the 1950s.
Although Lithuanians initially settled in areas adjacent to the ethnic group most familiar from their European homeland, the Poles, a pattern consistent with most other immigrant groups in Chicago, the Lithuanian community today is found all over the Chicago metropolitan area. There have been a number of Chicago neighborhoods in which Lithuanian immigrants have clustered during the 20th century, including Bridgeport, Brighton Park, Marquette Park area, and the Back of the Yards. The adjacent near-western suburb of Cicero had an enclave of Lithuanians in the 20th century, especially around St. Anthony's Parish. The most recent wave of immigrants has settled in the Chicago suburbs of Lemont, Darien and Woodridge. There is a small enclave of Lithuanians around the Beverly Shores area in northwest Indiana at the southern coast of Lake Michigan, where there is an American-Lithuanian Club. Some Lithuanians moved on to work in Southern Illinois coal mines.
Today "Little Lithuania" is the center of Lithuanian culture in North America. It has a number of Lithuanian restaurants, bookstores, and other shops. The former president of Lithuania, Valdas Adamkus 1998-2003 and 2004–2009, is a former resident of the Chicago area as well. Chicago is home to the Consulate General of the Republic of Lithuania, and the city's large Lithuanian American community maintains close ties to what is affectionately called the Motherland. Chicago's Lithuanian heritage is visible in the cityscape through its Lithuanian-named streets such as Lituanica Avenue and Lithuanian Plaza Court as well as an Art Deco monument in Marquette Park commemorating pilots Stasys Girėnas and Steponas Darius who died in the crash of the aircraft Lituanica in 1933. The area just east of Marquette Park features such institutions as Maria High School, Sisters of St. Casimir Motherhouse, Holy Cross Hospital, and Nativity BVM Catholic Church, which have been associated with Lithuanians.
A number of the most architecturally significant churches of the Archdiocese of Chicago were built as national parishes by Lithuanian immigrants such as Holy Cross, Providence of God, Nativity BVM which is dedicated to Our Lady of Šiluva, and the now demolished St. George's in Bridgeport. Opulently decorated with a proclivity towards Renaissance and Baroque ornamentation, Lithuanian churches were designed in the spirit of the architecture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's heyday. Like Chicago's Polish Cathedral's, these churches were statements meant to recall an era when the Grand Duchy of Lithuania spanned from the Baltic to the Black Sea, having been built at a time when Lithuania was under Russian occupation and incorporating Lithuanian imagery in its decor such as the Vytis to invoke pride in Lithuanian culture.
Opened in 1966, the Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture is located in south Chicago, at 6500 South Pulaski Road. The purpose of the museum is to celebrate and preserve the Lithuanian culture. As a non-profit organization, the museum began its collections from donations from within the community—such as limited antiques from the Balzekas family. Today, the museum offers a variety of exhibits for both children and adults. Every two years the museum organizes tours to Lithuania, where the groups visit the most well-known places in Lithuania.
The Lithuanian Folk Art Institute of Chicago can be found at the Lithuanian World Center, which is located in Lemont. The museum contains a variety of wood carvings, amber jewelry, Lithuanian national clothing pieces, sculptures, and many other traditional folk art.
The Lithuanian cuisine options in Chicago are widespread. Opened in 1938, the Healthy Food restaurant was one of the first well-known Lithuanian restaurants in Chicago located on Halsted near 32nd street, in the Bridgeport neighborhood, a historically Lithuania community. The restaurant created an atmosphere that resembled Lithuania by decorating the place with a variety of traditional art. They were well known for making their meals "consistent, as mom used to make at home." The restaurant closed its doors in 2009.
About a block away from the now-closed Healthy Food restaurant is Bernice's Tavern which has been in the care of the Badauskas family for just over 50 years. To this day it is one of the few places you can find Švyturys beer in Chicago. The namesake of the bar passed away in 2017.
A more recent Lithuanian restaurant Grand Duke’s opened in 2005 located on Harlem Avenue. Grand Duke’s has created a special medieval Lithuanian environment. They are known for their traditional comfort food and the entertainment as well. Grand Duke’s has been featured on Check, Please!, PBS, ABC news Hungry Hound and Chicago’s Best. In 2012, Grand Duke’s opened up a sister restaurant Old Vilnius located in Darien.
There are a number of Lithuanian schools established in or near Chicago. At the Chicago Lithuanian Youth Center, the Lithuanian School of Chicago (Lith.: Čikagos Lituanistinė Mokykla), a private school for Lithuanian immigrant children, was founded in 1992. Other Lithuanian schools include Maironis in Lemont, Gediminas in Waukegan and Rasa in Naperville.
First published in 1903, the Draugas (Friend) is the first Lithuanian newspaper in the United States and is printed by the Lithuanian Catholic Press Society in Chicago. Other Lithuanian publications include Amerikos Lietuvis (Lithuanian American), Vakarai (The West), and Čikagos Aidas (Echo Chicago). These newspapers not only provide news and current events that involve Lithuanians living in Chicago, but also stories from around the entire world, such as economic, political and social trends relevant to Lithuanian-speaking peoples. These publications can most often be found in local stores in which Lithuanians shop at, some examples are Brookhaven in Darien, Peter’s Deli in Lemont, and Lassak Deli in Willowbrook and these are also found online.
Years ago, the Lithuanian Song festival (Dainų Šventė) and Dance Festival (Šokių Šventė) have been held at the now-demolished International Amphitheatre, originally near the Stockyards on the south side of Chicago. In 2015, the Song Festival has been held at the UIC Pavilion a couple of times and the Dance Festival held in the suburb of Rosemont, not far from Chicago O'Hare Airport.
The Lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago was founded by Lithuanian emigrants in 1956, and presents operas in Lithuanian. Lithuanian operas were sometimes held at Maria High School in Chicago, a school that has been associated with Lithuanians, and such operas are now sometimes held at Morton East High School in Cicero.
Lithuanian sites in the Chicago areaEdit
- Lithuanian World Center (Pasaulio Lietuvių Centras, 14911 127th St.) in Lemont, Illinois - a complex for Lithuanian culture including a sizeable Roman Catholic chapel, Matulaitis Mission, and classrooms for the Maironis Lithuanian School with classes held on Fridays and Saturdays, as well as various other facilities.
- Lithuanian Youth Center (Lietuvių Jaunimo Centras, 5620 S. Claremont Ave.) in Chicago's Marquette Park neighborhood on the Chicago south side. At this location, there is a Jesuit Residence for Catholic Fathers and Brothers, the Youth Center, a Roman Catholic chapel, the Čiurlonis Gallery (Čiurlionio Galerija), and the Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, Inc. [Lituanistikos tyrimo ir studijų centras (LTSC)]. For a photo, see here.
- Consulate General of the Republic of Lithuania in Chicago (Lietuvos Respublikos generalinis konsulatas Čikagoje in Suite 800 of the NBC Tower) just north of the main Chicago River in Chicago's Magnificent Mile area.
- Ateitis Foundation Center (Ateitininkų Namai, 1380 Castlewood Drive) in Lemont, Illinois - a facility for the Lithuanian youth organization whose members are Ateitininkai. For photos of the center building, see here and here.
- Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture (Balzeko lietuvių kultūros muziejus) on Chicago's south side.
- Draugas Publishing House (Draugo Redakcija) not far from the Midway Airport area on the Chicago west side - facility where the publication of the century-old Lithuanian language previously-daily newspaper Draugas takes place.
- St. Casimir Lithuanian Cemetery (Švento Kazimiero Kapinės at 4401 W. 111th Street) is a Lithuanian cemetery of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago on the edge of the southwest side of Chicago where many deceased Lithuanians are buried.
- Čikagos aidas. The Lithuanian Market. Retrieved on 2008-09-04
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-03. Retrieved 2008-09-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Markelis, Daiva (November 1, 2010). White Field, Black Sheep: A Lithuanian-American Life (Hardcover ed.). Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226505308.
- Deuchler, Douglas (2006). "Two - The Early 20th Century". Cicero Revisited. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 0738541079.
- The Town of Cicero-Colorful Cicero Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Beverly Shores Depot Exhibit Highlights Lithuanian Art, Culture and History by Mary Fox, The Beacher, August 19, 2004, issue, p. 48
- Sidabrienė, Rūta (August 15, 2015). "Ilgiausių metų Beverly Shores Lietuvių klubui". Draugas (in Lithuanian). Chicago: Lithuanian Catholic Press Society. p. 4.
- Cofounder Of Sisters Of St. Casimir by Kenan Heise, Chicago Tribune News, July 20, 1988
- "About – Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture". balzekasmuseum.org. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
- http://www.lcenter.org. "Lith. Folk Art Institute of Chicago - LWC | Organizations". Lithuanian World Center. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
- "Healthy Food Lithuanian (closed)". Check, Please! | WTTW. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- "Healthy Food Lithuanian Closing". Chicagoist. Archived from the original on 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- "Bernice never imagined she'd be running Bernice's Tavern". Chicago Reader. March 12, 2015. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
- "Grand Duke's". Check, Please! | WTTW. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- "About us". Old Vilnius Cafe. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- "About Us". DRAUGAS NEWS. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- "Lietuviška spauda JAV ● Lithuanian Press in USA". www.litua.com. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
- Giles, Audra M. (July 2015). "The Tenth North American Lithuanian Song Festival". Draugas News. Chicago: Lithuanian Catholic Press Society. pp. 8–9.
- "Čikaga uždainuos lietuviškai !". Draugas (in Lithuanian). Chicago, IL: Lithuanian Catholic Press Society. July 2–4, 2015. pp. 1–9.
- "About the Lithuanian Opera Company, Inc. in Chicago". Lithuanian Opera Co. Retrieved 2006-09-14.
- Maironio Lituanistinė Mokykla | Maironis Lithuanian School
- Pasaulio Lietuviu Centras | Lithuanian World Center |
- LTSC - Lituanistikos tyrimo ir studiju centras, Chicago, IL
- "Čikagos centre plevėsuoja trispalvė". Draugas (in Lithuanian). Chicago, Illinois: Lithuanian Catholic Press Society. August 15, 2015. p. 1.
- Ateitininku Namai
- Lithuanian Parishes of the Roman Catholic Diocese in America Archived 2009-01-30 at the Wayback Machine
- "Lithuanian National Cemetery". lithnatcemetery.com. Retrieved October 31, 2018.