Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.(H2O)n. Both the anhydrous and hydrated forms are white hygroscopic solids. They are soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. Both are available commercially. While classified as a strong base, lithium hydroxide is the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide.
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Melting point||462 °C (864 °F; 735 K)|
|Boiling point||924 °C (1,695 °F; 1,197 K) decomposes|
|Solubility in methanol|
|Solubility in ethanol|
|Solubility in isopropanol|
|Conjugate base||Lithium monoxide anion|
Refractive index (nD)
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||"ICSC 0913".|
"ICSC 0914". (monohydrate)
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|210 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Lithium carbonate routeEdit
- Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3
The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.
Lithium sulfate routeEdit
- α-spodumene → β-spodumene
- β-spodumene + CaO → Li2O + ...
- Li2O + H2SO4 → Li2SO4 + H2O
- Li2SO4 + 2 NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2 LiOH.
The main by-products are gypsum and sodium sulphate, which have some market value.
According to Bloomberg, Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd. (GFL or Ganfeng) and Albemarle were the largest producers in 2020 with around 25kt/y, followed by Livent Corporation (FMC) and SQM. Significant new capacity is planned, to keep pace with demand driven by vehicle electrification. Ganfeng are to expand lithium chemical capacity to 85,000 tons, adding the capacity leased from Jiangte, Ganfeng will become the largest lithium hydroxide producer globally in 2021.
in 2023 AVZ Minerals, an Australian company, are planning to produce the battery-grade high-purity Primary Lithium Sulphate (PLS) containing over 80% Lithium. PLS is a lithium chemical new to the market in the production of lithium hydroxide (a precursor to lithium-ion battery).
Lithium ion batteriesEdit
Lithium hydroxide is mainly consumed in the production of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and lithium iron phosphate. It is preferred over lithium carbonate as a precursor for lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides.
Carbon dioxide scrubbingEdit
- 2 LiOH•H2O + CO2 → Li2CO3 + 3 H2O
- 2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O
The latter, anhydrous hydroxide, is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. One gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. The monohydrate loses its water at 100–110 °C.
- LiOH + HF → LiF + H2O.
It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control. It is good radiation protection against free neutrons.
In 2012, the price of lithium hydroxide was about $5-6/kg.
In December 2020 it had risen to $9/kg
On 18 March 2021 the price has risen to US$11.50/kg
- Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
- Khosravi J (2007). Production of Lithium Peroxide and Lithium Oxide in an Alcohol Medium. Chapter 9: Results. ISBN 978-0-494-38597-5.
- Popov K, Lajunen LH, Popov A, Rönkkömäki H, Hannu-Kuure H, Vendilo A (2002). "7Li, 23Na, 39K and 133Cs NMR comparative equilibrium study of alkali metal cation hydroxide complexes in aqueous solutions. First numerical value for CsOH formation". Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 5 (3): 223–225. doi:10.1016/S1387-7003(02)00335-0. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- Chambers M. "ChemIDplus – 1310-65-2 – WMFOQBRAJBCJND-UHFFFAOYSA-M – Lithium hydroxide anhydrous – Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information". chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Wietelmann U, Bauer RJ (2000). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_393.
- "Proposed Albemarle Plant Site" (PDF). Albemarle. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- "Corporate presentation" (PDF). Nemaska Lithium. May 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
- "China's Ganfeng to Be Largest Lithium Hydroxide Producer". BloombergNEF. 10 September 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- "Ganfeng Lithium Group". Ganfeng Lithium. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- Stephens, Kate; Lynch, Jacqueline (27 August 2020). "Slowing demand for lithium sees WA's largest refinery scaled back". www.abc.net.au.
- "AVZ Minerals Limited". AVZ Minerals Limited . Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- "Metallurgical test work confirms Manono Primary Lithium Sulphate suitable for battery production Feedstock". www.avzminerals.com.au. 13 January 2021. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
- "Largest of its kind lithium hydroxide plant launched in Kwinana". Government of Western Australia. 10 September 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- Barrera, Priscilla (27 June 2019). "Will Lithium Hydroxide Really Overtake Lithium Carbonate? | INN". Investing News Network. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
- Jaunsen JR (1989). "The Behavior and Capabilities of Lithium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide Scrubbers in a Deep Sea Environment". US Naval Academy Technical Report. USNA-TSPR-157. Archived from the original on 2009-08-24. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
- Managing Critical Isotopes: Stewardship of Lithium-7 Is Needed to Ensure a Stable Supply, GAO-13-716 // U.S. Government Accountability Office, 19 September 2013; pdf
- "Lithium Prices 2012". investingnews.com. Investing News Network. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- "London Metal Exchange: Lithium prices". London metal exchange. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- "LITHIUM AT THE LME". LME The London Metal Exchange. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lithium hydroxide.|