Timeline of geopolitical changes (1900−present)

  (Redirected from List of world map changes)

This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world since 1900. It includes dates of declarations of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, and changes in territory such as the annexation, cession, concession, occupation, or secession of land. Territorial conquests as a result of war are included on the timeline at the conclusion of military campaigns, but changes in the course of specific battles and day-to-day operations are generally not included. Changes in airspace and maritime territory are included only when they are subject to a dispute.[a]

1900sEdit

Year Date Event
1900 1 January The Northern Nigeria Protectorate is established by the United Kingdom.
The Southern Nigeria Protectorate is established by the United Kingdom.
16 February The United States of America takes control of American Samoa under the terms of the Tripartite Convention.[1][2]
March The first Republic of Acre capitulates and is reabsorbed by the Republic of Bolivia. Later the same year, the second Republic of Acre is declared with Antimary as its capital, and it is again reabsorbed by Bolivia.
21 April The United Kingdom annexes the island of Niue, making it a British protectorate.[3]
28 May The United Kingdom occupies the Orange Free State.
5 September The colony of French Chad is established. Fort-Lamy is the capital.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the French colony of Guyane (French Guiana) is defined by arbitration. The French troops that advanced to the margins of the Araguari River repair to the Oiapoque River.
1901 1 January The Commonwealth of Australia is established by federation of the British colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania. Melbourne was the de facto (but not de jure) seat of government from 1901 to 1927.
23 March The First Philippine Republic dissolves.
11 June The United Kingdom transfers the Cook Islands and Niue to the Colony of New Zealand.[3]
26 September The United Kingdom occupies the Ashanti Empire and makes it a crown colony.[4][5]
1902 20 May The Republic of Cuba gains independence from the United States of America. Havana is the capital.
31 May The United Kingdom creates the Orange River Colony from the Orange Free State and the Transvaal Colony from the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal). Bloemfontein and Pretoria remains the respective capitals.
1 July The United Kingdom annexes Henderson Island.
10 July The United Kingdom annexes Oeno Island.
20 November King Edward VII of Britain adjusts borders in the Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case 1902 (Argentina, Chile).
19 December The United Kingdom annexes Ducie Island.
The Zaria Emirate and the Abuja Emirate are annexed into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate.
Kamerun annexes the Mandara Kingdom.
1903 27 January The third Republic of Acre declares its independence from Bolivia. The capital is Antimary.
23 February Cuba leases Guantanamo Bay to the United States of America in perpetuity.
12 May Mauritania becomes a protectorate of the French Republic. Saint-Louis is the capital.
29 July The Adamawa Emirate is annexed into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Kamerun.
20 October The Alaska boundary dispute is resolved between the United States of America and Canada.[6]
3 November The Republic of Panama secedes from the Republic of Colombia. Panama City is the capital.
11 November The Republic of Bolivia and the Republic of the United States of Brazil sign the Treaty of Petrópolis. Bolivia receives land in Mato Grosso from Brazil, and Brazil absorbs the Republic of Acre.
18 November The new Republic of Panama grants the United States of America control of the Panama Canal Zone. Balboa is the administrative center.
The United Kingdom secedes the Seychelles from the colony of Mauritius.
After the Aceh War, the Sultanate of Aceh is annexed by the Kingdom of the Netherlands and becomes part of the Dutch East Indies.
1904 13 February Following the Franco-Siamese Convention, the Kingdom of Siam concedes border territories to French Indochina in exchange for French-occupied Chantaburi.
4 May The United States of America annexed the Panama Canal Zone.[7]
4 October The Franco-Spanish Convention of Paris acknowledges formal control of Saguia el-Hamra (later northern Spanish Sahara) by the Kingdom of Spain.
The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and British Guiana is defined by arbitration. Approximately half of the disputed land goes to each side.
French Dahomey is established. Porto-Novo is the capital.
The Kingdom of Champasak is annexed by France and becomes part of the French protectorate of Laos.
1905 7 June The Kingdom of Norway declares its independence from the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway through dissolution of the personal union with Kingdom of Sweden.
5 September The Liaodong Peninsula and the Russian railway in south Manchuria are leased to the Empire of Japan following the Treaty of Portsmouth.
The Empire of Japan annexes Sakhalin Island south of 50° N following the Treaty of Portsmouth.
26 October The Kingdom of Sweden recognizes the union dissolution and the independence of Kingdom of Norway.
The United Kingdom moves the capital of the East Africa Protectorate from Mombasa to Nairobi.
1906 The French Republic divides its colony of French Congo into the colonies of Gabon and Middle Congo. Libreville remains the capital of Gabon. Brazzaville becomes the capital of Middle Congo.
The United Kingdom and France jointly administer the New Hebrides. Port Vila is the capital.
1907 23 March The Kingdom of Siam concedes territory to French Indochina in exchange for Trat.
24 April The border between the Republic of the United States of Brazil and the Republic of Colombia is defined by the Bogotá Treaty. Brazil gains lands on the margins of the Solimoes River at the area known as Cabeça de Cachorro ("The Dog's Head").
26 September New Zealand gains independence from the United Kingdom. Wellington is the capital.
17 December Ugyen Wangchuck establishes the Kingdom of Bhutan. Punakha is the winter capital and Thimphu is the summer capital.
1908 5 August The Kingdom of Bulgaria gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sofia is the capital.
6 October Austria-Hungary formally annexes the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia (under de facto Austro-Hungarian rule since the Treaty of Berlin 1878) as the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (causing the Bosnian crisis)
15 November King Leopold II of Belgium sells his private Congo Free State to the Kingdom of Belgium. The colony is renamed the Belgian Congo.
1909 9 July The Kingdom of Siam transfers its southernmost provinces to British Malaya in the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.

1910sEdit

Year Date Event
1910 15 January The French Republic creates French Equatorial Africa from its colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, and Oubangui-Chari. Libreville and Bangui yield to Brazzaville as the capital.
29 March 23 bancos are annexed by Mexico from the United States and 34 bancos are annexed by the United States of America from Mexico with the first application of the Banco Convention of 1905.[8][9]
31 May The Cape Colony, the Colony of Natal, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony unite as the Union of South Africa to gain independence from the United Kingdom.
20 August Canada rescinds its claim to Pope's Folly Island in a treaty with the United States of America.[10][11][12]
22 August The Korean Empire capitulates and is annexed by the Empire of Japan.
5 October The first Portuguese Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Portugal.
The Kasanje Kingdom is annexed to Portuguese Angola.
1911 4 November In the Morocco–Congo Treaty, Germany acquires the Neukamerun region from France in exchange for abandoning German claims in Morocco.
29 December The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia declares independence from the Qing dynasty of China. Niislel Khüree is the capital.
The capital of British India is moved from Calcutta to New Delhi.
1912 1 January The Republic of China overthrows the Qing dynasty of China in the Xinhai Revolution. Nanking is the provisional capital.
30 March The Treaty of Fez formally re-establishes Morocco as a French Protectorate.
7 November Mexico annexes 20 bancos from the United States and the United States of America annexes 11 bancos from Mexico.[8][9]
27 November The Treaty Between France and Spain Regarding Morocco assigns the northern and southern strips of Morocco to Spain.
28 November Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Tirana is the capital.
The Wadai Empire is disestablished and annexed into French Chad.
1913 13 February Tibet declares independence from the Republic of China.
May The Imamate of Oman rebels against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman. Nizwa becomes the capital after it is conquered on 5 June.[13][14]
10 August Following the Second Balkan War, the Treaty of Bucharest is signed, by the terms of which:
29 September Following the Second Balkan War, the Treaty of Constantinople is signed, by the terms of which:
1914 1 January The United Kingdom unites the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Lagos is the capital.
7 March Albania becomes the Principality of Albania.
17 April Tannu Uriankhai is officially made a protectorate of the Russian Empire.
28 July Following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, precipitating the First World War.
1 September The Russian Empire changes the name of its capital from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd.
The Kingdom of Kongo is annexed to Portuguese Angola.
1915 1 May The Panama Canal Zone border is redefined between Panama and the United States of America resulting in slight territory changes.[15][16][17]
27 May The United States of America annexes some more land around the Rio Chagres mouth in the Panama Canal Zone due to the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty.[18]
18 October The German Empire creates the Government General of Warsaw from the parts of Poland conquered by the Russian Empire.
8 December The United States of America annexes a triangle of island between the Rio Chagres, Caribbean Sea and the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
12 December Hongxian proclaims the Empire of China. Beijing is the capital.
1916 22 March The Empire of China is abolished.
5 November Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim the establishment of the Kingdom of Poland. Warsaw is the capital.
1917 15 March The Provisional Government of Russia supersedes the Russian Empire in the wake of the February Revolution.
31 March Under the Treaty of the Danish West Indies, the United States of America acquires the Danish West Indies (excluding Water Island) from the Kingdom of Denmark, renaming them the United States Virgin Islands.
12 April The Autonomous Governorate of Estonia is created from the Governorate of Estonia and some of the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.
1 July Xuantong is reinstalled as Emperor of China in an event now called the Manchu Restoration.
12 July End of the Manchu Restoration.
14 September The Russian Republic supersedes the Provisional Government of Russia.
7 November The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic supersedes the Russian Republic.
2 December The Emirate of Chechenia declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vedeno is the capital.
6 December The Republic of Finland gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Helsinki is the capital.
22 December The Independent State of Flanders declares its independence from the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels is the capital.
1918 22 January The Ukrainian People's Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Kiev is the capital.
16 February The State of Lithuania declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Vilnius is named the capital despite occupation by the Kingdom of Poland.
24 February The Republic of Estonia declares independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tallinn is the capital.
3 March The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk creates many new states out of the western Russian Empire.
12 March The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic moves its capital from Petrograd to Moscow.
25 March The Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia) gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Sukhumi is the capital.
The Belarusian People's Republic declares its independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Minsk and Hrodna are named the joint capitals.
27 March The Union of Bessarabia with Romania is proclaimed by the Treaty of Paris (1920).
19 April The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic annexes the Abkhazian Republic (Abkhazia).
22 April The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
11 May The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus annexes the Emirate of Chechenia.
26 May The Democratic Republic of Georgia secedes from the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tbilisi is the capital.
28 May Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic dissolve the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Yerevan and Baku are the respective capitals.
30 May Armenia changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Armenia.
9 July The Kingdom of Lithuania supersedes the State of Lithuania.
10 July The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic supersedes the Soviet Russian Republic.
12 July The United States of America annexes 2.6 hectares of land at Punta Paitilla for the Panama Canal Zone.
25 July The Kingdom of Belgium reabsorbs the Independent State of Flanders.
21 August The United States of America annexes land between Rio Chagres and Quebrada Majagual for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
29 October The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs proclaims independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Zagreb is the capital.
31 October The Kingdom of Hungary declares the monarchy abolished. Budapest is the capital.
1 November The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) gains independence from the Ottoman Empire. Sana'a becomes its capital.
The Banat Republic is proclaimed.
The short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic is proclaimed.
2 November The Republic of Lithuania supersedes the Kingdom of Lithuania.
10 November The Republic of Alsace-Lorraine is proclaimed. Strasbourg is the capital.
12 November The Republic of German-Austria is proclaimed.
14 November The Republic of Poland supersedes the Kingdom of Poland.
15 November The Kingdom of Serbia invades the short-lived Banat Republic and divides it between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and Romania.
16 November The Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Hungary.
18 November The Republic of Latvia gains independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Riga is the capital.
22 November France annexes the Republic of Alsace-Lorraine.
25 November The de facto province of Vojvodina votes to join with the Kingdom of Serbia.
28 November The Kingdom of Serbia annexes the Kingdom of Montenegro.
The Union of Bukovina with Romania is proclaimed.
29 November The Commune of the Working People of Estonia is established as a puppet state in Soviet-occupied Estonia.
1 December Iceland, a dependent territory of the Kingdom of Denmark with home rule, becomes the fully sovereign Kingdom of Iceland in personal union with Denmark. Reykjavík is the capital.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia unite to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Zagreb yields to Belgrade as the capital.
The Union of Transylvania with Romania is proclaimed.
1919 1 January The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Belarusian People's Republic. Minsk and Smolensk remain joint capitals.
1 February The Soviet puppet state Commune of the Working People of Estonia loses all territory to the Republic of Estonia.
27 February The Lithuanian-Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic supersedes the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Vilnius is the capital.
1 March The Oriental State of Uruguay changes its name to the Oriental Republic of Uruguay.
French West Africa is reorganized, with Upper Volta as a separate colony.
21 March The Hungarian Soviet Republic supersedes the Hungarian People's Republic.
6 April The Bavarian Soviet Republic supersedes the People's State of Bavaria.
19 April Poland occupies Vilnius, which is disputed by the Lithuanians.
3 May The Free State of Bavaria supersedes the Bavarian Soviet Republic.
6 May The Kionga Triangle is assigned to Portugal as a mandate.
Kamerun and Togoland are assigned to France and the United Kingdom as mandates, respectively.
7 May German New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago are assigned to Australia as a mandate.
German Southwest Africa is assigned to South Africa as a mandate.
German Samoa is assigned to New Zealand as a mandate.
The German Northern Pacific Islands are assigned to Japan as a mandate.
Nauru is assigned to the British Empire (eventually the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand) as a mandate.
30 May Ruanda and Urundi (minus Kisaka district) are assigned to Belgium as a mandate.
28 June In the aftermath of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles and the Little Treaty of Versailles are signed, by the terms of which:
10 July France and the United Kingdom agree on a frontier between their mandates in the Cameroons.
2 August The Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
8 August Afghanistan declares its independence from the United Kingdom.
The Hungarian Republic supersedes the Hungarian People's Republic.
11 August The Weimar Republic supersedes the German Empire.
10 September Austria signs the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, by the terms of which:
12 September The Bonin–Pichon agreement transfers two desert strips from French control to Italian Libya.
18 September The United States of America annexes the island of Largo Remo for the Panama Canal Zone.[19]
25 September Spitsbergen is awarded to Norway.
27 November Bulgaria signs the Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine, by the terms of which:

1920sEdit

Year Date Event
1920 10 January The United Kingdom officially takes over administration of German East Africa and changes its name to Tanganyika.
The League of Nations is founded.
2 February The Estonian War of Independence ends with the Treaty of Tartu, which awards areas around Ivangorod (Jaanilinn) and Pechory (Petseri) from Soviet Russia to Estonia.
29 February The Kingdom of Hungary supersedes the Hungarian Republic.
6 April The Far Eastern Republic is established. Chita becomes the capital.
26 April The Khorezm People's Soviet Republic supersedes the Khanate of Khiva.
28 April The Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
Late April Western Thrace is granted to Greece by the Triple Entente.
4 June Hungary signs the Treaty of Trianon, by the terms of which:
9 July Denmark officially incorporates Northern Schleswig following a plebiscite held earlier in the year.
25 September The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman is reunified through an agreement which grants substantial autonomy and self-government to the Imamate of Oman but recognizes the sovereignty of the Sultanate of Muscat.[20]
8 October The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic supersede the Emirate of Bukhara.
29 November The Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic supersedes the Democratic Republic of Armenia.
1921 25 February The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia supersedes the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
18 March The Peace of Riga defines new borders between Poland and Soviet Russia, Soviet Ukraine, and Soviet Belarus.
1 June France reorganizes French West Africa and the colony of Mauritania is established.
14 August The Tuvan People's Republic supersedes Tannu Uriankhai and changes the name of its capital from Belotsarsk to Kyzyl.
18 September The Rif Republic is declared in Spanish Morocco with no recognition.
12 October Upper Silesia is divided between Poland and Germany.
13 October In the Treaty of Kars, Turkey relinquishes claims to Armenia but gains the area around Kars and southern Achara.
Niger is established as a separate French colony. Zinder becomes the capital.
22 November The United Kingdom recognizes the independence of Afghanistan.
1922 28 February The Kingdom of Egypt gains independence from the United Kingdom. Cairo is the capital.
12 March The Socialist Conciliar Republic of Georgia, Azerbaijani Socialist Conciliar Republic, and the Armenian Socialist Conciliar Republic unite to form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. Baku and Yerevan yield to Tbilisi as the capital.
15 November The Far Eastern Republic is disestablished and merged with the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.
17 November The Ottoman Empire is dissolved. Its territories are mostly made protectorates of the victorious Allies of World War I.
6 December The Irish Free State is constituted as an independent dominion formed through the secession of the island of Ireland from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Dublin is the capital.
8 December Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State to again form a region of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
30 December The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic unite to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union). Tbilisi, Kharkov, and Smolensk yield to Moscow as the capital.
1923 1 February The United States of America annexes the future location of Madden Lake for the Panama Canal Zone.[21][22][23]
29 October The Republic of Turkey is established following the fall of the Ottoman Empire. Ankara is the capital.
15 November Honduras claims Swan Islands, creating a dispute with the United States of America.[24]
The Kingdom of Belgium moves the capital of its colony of the Congo from Boma to Leopoldville.
1924 17 February The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic joins the Soviet Union.
27 October The Khorezm People's Soviet Republic joins the Soviet Union.
26 November The Mongolian People's Republic is established. Ulan Bator is the capital.
1925 1 January The Kingdom of Norway changes the name of its capital from Kristiania to Oslo.
22 January The Republic of Albania supersedes the Principality of Albania.
4 March The United States of America annexes Swains Island as part of American Samoa.
29 June Britain transfers control of northern Jubaland to Italy, becoming the Italian colony of Oltre Giuba.
1 July The Republic of China relocates its provisional capital from Nanking to Canton.
17 July A treaty between the United States of America and Canada slightly adjusts the border between the two. Overall the United States gained between 30 and 35 acres.[25][26]
6 December Britain adjusts the Egyptian border in favor of Italian Libya, giving it the Jarabub and Kufra oases.
1926 27 May The Rif Republic is dissolved by Spanish and French occupation forces in Morocco.
9 June Afghanistan becomes the Kingdom of Afghanistan.
30 June Oltre Giuba is incorporated into Italian Somaliland.
1927 29 January Within the Nejd and Hejaz, the Sultanate of Nejd is renamed the Kingdom of Nejd and its Dependencies.
12 April The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland changes its name to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
9 May The Commonwealth of Australia moves its seat of parliament from Melbourne to the purpose-built capital of Canberra.[27]
18 July The United States of America annexes 38 hectares of Taboga and Taboguilla for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
26 October Two bancos along the Colorado River are ceded from Mexico to the United States of America.[28][29]
28 October The Republic of Ararat declares independence from Turkey.
In French Syria, the State of Souaida is renamed the Jabal Druze State.
1928 4 April The United States of America cedes Palmas, American Territory of Philippines to the Netherlands after the Island of Palmas Case.
23 April 41 bancos are exchanged between Mexico and the United States of America.[30]
26 May The United States of America annexes the Las Adjuntas banco from Mexico.[31]
1 September The Kingdom of Albania supersedes the Republic of Albania.
24 September The United States of America annexes three hectares of land at El Cerro de Doscientos Pies ("200-Foot Hill") near Las Minas Bay for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
29 December The Republic of China establishes Nanking as its official capital, later codified in the Constitution of the Republic of China.
1929 January The Emirate of Afghanistan supersedes the Kingdom of Afghanistan.
6 January The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes is renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
February Vatican City gains independence from the Kingdom of Italy. Vatican City itself is the capital.
2 February Norway claims Peter I Island.
3 June Tacna is returned to Peru by Chile.
October The Kingdom of Afghanistan supersedes the Emirate of Afghanistan.
3 October The Kingdom of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

1930sEdit

Year Date Event
1930 4 February The United States of America annexes the La Rana, El Pilon, Ojinaga, and El Mulato bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Galindo, Haciendita, and San Rafael bancos from the United States.[32]
19 February The United States of America annexes the Aguilar, Tabalopa, Quibira, and Los Puliques bancos from Mexico.[33]
3 March The United States of America annexes the Bermudez, Compania Agricola, Charles Davis, Calero, Diablo, and Guayuco bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Azcarate, Arroyo del Alamo, Newman, and Pruitt bancos from the United States.[34]
18 March The United States of America annexes the Weber banco from Mexico.[35]
21 March The United States of America annexes the San Lorenzo banco from Mexico.[36]
9 April The United States of America annexes the Gallego and Nunez bancos from Mexico.[37]
25 April The United States of America annexes the La Cachanilla, Rincon de Marcelino, and Camp Rice bancos from Mexico.[38]
28 April The United States of America annexes the El Carino banco from Mexico.[39]
1 May The United States of America annexes the Las Piedras and Max Muller bancos from Mexico.[40]
22 July The United States of America annexes 25 hectares on Jicarita Island and 60 hectares at Punta Morro de Puercos for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
11 November Norway rescinds its claim to the Sverdrup Islands; in return, the United Kingdom recognizes the Norwegian claim to Jan Mayen.
1931 15 January The Belgian concession within the city of Tientsin is returned to China.
28 January France officially annexes Isla de la Pasión as Clipperton Island.
14 April The Second Spanish Republic supersedes the Monarchy of Spain. The Catalan Republic subsequently declares independence from Spain.
15 April The United States of America annexes small areas around the Madden Dam for the Panama Canal Zone.[18]
28 April The Catalan Republic is taken over by Spain.
20 May The United States of America annexes the La Pascualilla and Morales bancos from Mexico.[41]
22 May Mexico annexes the Ochoa and El Jazmin bancos from the United States of America.[42]
12 June The Australian territories of North Australia and Central Australia merge to form the Northern Territory.
10 July Norway claims territory in eastern Greenland as Erik the Red's Land.
7 November The Chinese Soviet Republic is established by the Communist Party of China as a group of discontiguous territories within the larger Republic of China.
11 December By the Statute of Westminster 1931, Canada gains full control over its foreign policy and thus independence from the United Kingdom.
1932 18 February The Empire of Japan takes over northeastern China and establishes Manchukuo. Hsinking becomes its capital.
25 February The United States of America annexes the El Morillo banco from Mexico.[43]
12 May The United States of America annexes the Diablo Segundo banco from Mexico.[44]
17 May Panama annexes a small area of land at Punta Paitilla from the United States' Panama Canal Zone.[45]
4 June The Republic of Chile changes its name to the Socialist Republic of Chile.
13 September The Socialist Republic of Chile changes its name back to the Republic of Chile.
23 September The personal union of the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz unify to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
3 October The Iraqi Kingdom (Iraq) gains independence from the United Kingdom. Baghdad is the capital.
13 December The United States of America annexes the Mangsee Island and seven of the Turtle Islands into the Commonwealth of the Philippines from the United Kingdom.
1933 23 March Nazi Germany supersedes the Weimar Republic.
5 April Erik the Red's Land in Greenland is ceded by Norway to Denmark.
13 June The United Kingdom cedes Enderby Land and Victoria Land to Australia as the Australian Antarctic Territory.
17 July Mexico annexes the Hollinsworth banco from the United States of America.[46]
12 November An Uyghur independence movement creates the Islamic Republic of East Turkistan. Kashgar is the capital.
1934 1 January Italy creates Italian Libya with the merger of the colonies of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan. The capital is Tripoli.
6 February The Islamic Republic of East Turkistan is taken over by the Republic of China.
27 February The United States of America annexes the Villarreales Segundo banco from Mexico.[47]
1 March Manchukuo is renamed Manchutikuo.
6 April Spain establishes a protectorate in Ifni, in territory it had claimed since 1860.[48][49]
6 October The Catalan State proclaims itself independent of the Spanish Republic. Barcelona is the capital.
7 October The Catalan State is disestablished and reabsorbed into the Spanish Republic.
15 October The Chinese Soviet Republic is annexed by the Republic of China.
1935 21 March Reza Shah Pahlavi changes the name of the Imperial State of Persia to the Imperial State of Iran.
26 March Jarvis Island is transferred from the United Kingdom to the United States.
1 April The Territory of the Saar Basin is taken over by Nazi Germany.
3 November The Hellenic Republic is renamed the Kingdom of Greece after a coup d'état and a referendum staged by Georgios Kondylis restore the monarchy.
15 November The United States territory of the Philippines becomes the semi-independent Commonwealth of the Philippines.
25 November The East Hebei Autonomous Government is created in China after the invasion of eastern Hebei by the Empire of Japan. Tongzhou is the capital.
1936 9 May The Ethiopian Empire is taken over by Italy as Italian Ethiopia following the Italian victory in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
1 June The Italian colonies of Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Italian Somaliland merge to form Italian East Africa.
17 July Spanish Nationalist forces take over Spanish Morocco, starting the Spanish Civil War.
23 July The Spanish State under Nationalist rebel leader Francisco Franco proclaims itself the sole government of Spain.
6 August The United Kingdom claims Enderbury Island and McKean Island and reasserts its claim to Kanton Island.
September Ifni and Spanish Sahara are taken over by Spanish Nationalist forces.
14 October Spanish Guinea is taken over by Spanish Nationalist forces.
2 December In the French Mandate of Syria, the Jabal ad-Druze is integrated into the Syrian Republic.
5 December In the French Mandate of Syria, the Sanjak of Latakia is integrated into the Syrian Republic.
22 December The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 is ratified and all British troops are withdrawn from Egypt, except for within the Suez Canal Zone.
The former colony of Curaçao and Dependencies is renamed the Territory of Curaçao following the implementation of several laws resulting from the 1922 abolition of colonies in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
1937 1 April The Aden Settlement is separated from British India and changed into the Aden Colony and Protectorate. The city of Aden becomes the capital.
British Burma is separated from the British Raj.
22 November The Mongol Military Government is renamed the Mongol United Autonomous Government.
5 December The Japanese invade Shanghai, creating the Dadao Municipal Government of Shanghai.
14 December The Japanese invasion of China continues with the creation of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China.
29 December The Irish Free State changes its name to Ireland.
1938 12 January Tristan da Cunha becomes a dependency of Saint Helena, a crown colony of the United Kingdom.
14 January Norway lays claims in Antarctica as Queen Maud Land, which lies between 20° west and 45° east.
8 March The United States claims the Canton and Enderbury Islands.
13 March Nazi Germany annexes the Federal State of Austria in the Anschluss. Vienna yields to Berlin as the capital.
28 March The Reformed Government of the Republic of China is formed after Japan invades northeastern China.
29 July The Australian Federal Capital Territory is renamed the Australian Capital Territory.
7 September The area known as Hatay gains independence from Syria as the Hatay State.
30 September The Munich Agreement transfers the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany and gives parts to Hungary and Poland.
The Czechoslovak Republic is renamed the Czecho-Slovak Republic.
1939 14 March Czechoslovakia is dissolved as the Slovak state was proclaimed.
15 March Carpatho-Ukraine is proclaimed but remains unrecognized, and the same day is occupied and annexed by Hungary.
16 March The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia is proclaimed as a German protectorate.
1 April The Spanish State supersedes the Second Spanish Republic with the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War.
3 April The United States of America annexes the Lozano banco from Mexico.[50]
6 April The islands of Canton and Enderbury are put under the Canton and Enderbury Islands condominium of the United States and the United Kingdom.
12 April Italy annexes the Albanian Kingdom.
23 June The Kingdom of Siam changes its name to the Kingdom of Thailand.
10 July Nazi Germany changes its name to the Greater German Empire.
23 July Turkey fully annexes the Republic of Hatay.
27 July Panama annexes a corridor of land connecting both separated pieces of the United States' Panama Canal Zone.[51]
16 August The United States of America claims Fakaofo, Funafuti, Hull Island, Niulakita, Nukufetau, and Nukulaelae.[52]
1 September World War II begins with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany.
Japanese-occupied Mengjiang is renamed the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government.
2 September The Free City of Danzig is annexed by Nazi Germany. Danzig yields to Berlin as the capital.
14 September The colonies of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Inini, Martinique, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon merge into the colony of the French Antilles and Guiana.
17 September The Soviet Union invades the Republic of Poland.
28 September The government of the Republic of Poland collapses, inviting military occupation by Nazi Germany.
6 October The former territory of the Republic of Poland is partitioned between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, per the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.
12 October The General Government for the Occupied Polish Territories is created after the invasion of the Republic of Poland by Nazi Germany.
1 December The Finnish Democratic Republic is created after the invasion of Finland by the Soviet Union. Terijoki is the de facto capital.

1940sEdit

Year Date Event
1940 12 March The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic is formed when Soviet forces invade the Finnish Democratic Republic. Petrozavodsk is the capital.
30 March The Provisional Government of the Republic of China and the Reformed Government of the Republic of China merge to form the Reorganized National Government of China.
9 April The Kingdom of Denmark is invaded by Germany, while Greenland is granted autonomy.
12 April The Faroe Islands are put under British occupation.
10 May The Military Administration of Luxembourg and the Civil Administration Area of Luxembourg are created when German forces invade the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Luxembourg City is the capital.
14 May The Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories is created when German forces invade the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Amsterdam is the capital.
17 May The Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France and the Realm Commissariat of Belgium and Northern France are created when German forces invade the Kingdom of Belgium. Brussels is the capital.
6 June Mexico annexes the Progreso and Las Flores bancos from the United States.[53]
7 June The Realm Commissariat for the Occupied Norwegian Territories is created when Germany invades the Kingdom of Norway and its possessions. Oslo is the capital.
15 June The Soviet Union invades the Republic of Lithuania.
Nazi Germany annexes Alsace-Lorraine from France.
17 June The Soviet Union invades the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Latvia.
22 June The French Republic is renamed the French State (Vichy France).
28 June The Soviet Union occupies regions of Romania.
30 June The Bailiwick of Guernsey is occupied by Nazi Germany.
1 July The Bailiwick of Jersey is occupied by Nazi Germany.
21 July The Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republics are declared in Soviet-occupied Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Most of the international community does not recognize Soviet rule in these occupied countries and some continue to recognize their diplomatic legations abroad.
31 July The General Government for the Occupied Polish Territories is renamed the General Government.
2 August The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic is created from a larger part of Bessarabia, a region annexed from Romania, and integrated into the Soviet Union as the 13th union republic.
3 August The Lithuanian SSR is illegally annexed into the Soviet Union as the 14th union republic. This move is not recognized by the United States, United Kingdom, or the international community.
5 August The Latvian SSR is illegally annexed into the Soviet Union as the 15th union republic. This move is not recognized by the United States, United Kingdom, or the international community.
6 August The Estonian SSR is illegally annexed into the Soviet Union as the 16th union republic. This move is not recognized by the United States, United Kingdom, or the international community.
19 August British Somaliland is taken over by Italian forces and becomes a part of Italian East Africa.
2 September French Oceania is taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
9 September French India is taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
22 September New Caledonia and Dependencies are taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
4 November The international city of Tangier is taken over by the State of Spain.
12 November French Equatorial Africa is taken over by forces loyal to the Free French Forces (FFF).
1941 February Cyrenaica is taken over by the United Kingdom.
18 February The United States annexes the San Antonio and Angostura bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Casner and Ruidosa bancos from the United States.[54]
26 February Allied forces take over Italian Somaliland, which is placed under the protection of the United Kingdom.
16 March The British Somaliland protectorate is taken over by Allied forces.
6 April The Kingdom of Greece is taken over by Axis forces.
9 April Greenland and the Kingdom of Iceland are put under United States protection from the Danish government-in-exile.
17 April The Kingdom of Yugoslavia is dissolved due to Axis invasions.
30 April The Military Administration in Serbia is created after Nazi Germany invades Serbia.
2 May The United States annexes the Las Ruelas banco from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Nogales banco from the United States.[55]
5 May The Ethiopian Empire is revived after being under Italian control.
19 May Eritrea is taken over by the United Kingdom.
July The French agree to share French Indochina with the Empire of Japan.
12 July After Italy invades Montenegro, it creates the protectorate of the Kingdom of Montenegro.
17 July After the invasion of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, Nazi Germany creates the Reichskommissariat Ostland.
After the invasion of Ukraine, Nazi Germany creates the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.
28 November Italian East Africa is taken over by Allied forces.
8 December The Japanese begin the invasion of Malaya in the State of Perlis Indera Kavangan, eventually occupying it as Japanese Malaya.
10 December The Territory of Guam is taken over by Japan from the United States as Omiya Jima.
11 December The Japanese take the State of Terengganu Darul Iman from the United Kingdom and incorporate it into Japanese Malaya.
14 December Within British Malaya, the State of Kedah Darul Aman is taken over by Japan.
21 December Mexico annexes the Las Antonias and El Comedor bancos from the United States.[56]
22 December Within British Malaya, the State of Kelantan Darul Naim is taken over by Japan.
23 December Wake Island is taken over by Japan from the United States as Otori Jima.
24 December The Japanese occupy the Kingdom of Sarawak as Sarawak.
25 December The Japanese occupy British Hong Kong as the Hong Kong Occupied Territory.
1942 2 January The Japanese occupy the Commonwealth of the Philippines from the United States as the Philippines.
6 January The Japanese occupy the State of Brunei Darussalam from the United Kingdom.
18 January The Japanese occupy Bourneo Kita from the United Kingdom.
31 January The Japanese occupy the State of Johor Darul Ta'zim and the Federated Malay States from the United Kingdom as part of Japanese Malaya.
15 February The Japanese occupy Singapore from the United Kingdom as Syonan-to.
20 February The Japanese occupy Portuguese Timor and Dutch Timor as Timor.
27 February The United States annexes the Las Palomas banco from Mexico.[57]
8 March The Japanese occupy the Netherlands East Indies from the Netherlands as Indonesia.
23 March The Japanese occupy the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from the United Kingdom.
31 March The Japanese occupy Christmas Island and the Straits Settlements from the United Kingdom as part of Japanese Malaya.
7 June The Japanese occupy Atsuta Jima and Narukami Jima from the United States.
1 August The Japanese occupy Burma from the United Kingdom.
26 August The Japanese occupy Banaba Island and Nauru from the United Kingdom.
9 October The Commonwealth of Australia ceases to be a dominion within the British Empire.
23 October Allied forces take Tripolitania from Italy, and it becomes an occupied territory of the United Kingdom.
November The British Military Administration of Libya begins when British forces invade Cyrenaica from Egypt.
Allied forces take French West Africa from Vichy France.
1 November The Karafuto Prefecture is integrated into Mainland Japan.
8 November Allied forces take the Kingdom of Morocco from Vichy France.
11 November Italy occupies Corsica in Operation Anton.
28 November Allied forces take Réunion from Vichy France.
14 December Allied forces take Madagascar from Vichy France.
28 December Allied forces take French Somaliland from Vichy France.
1943 January The French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames is created when Free French Forces from Chad invade southern Italian Libya. Sabha is the capital.
February Kouang-Tchéou-Wan is conquered by Japan.
30 May Attu Island is reconquered by the United States.
26 June The German Reich is officially renamed the Greater German Reich.
30 July The Shanghai French Concession and the Tientsin French Concession are taken over by Japan.
1 August Burma is given independence under Japanese occupation as the State of Burma.
15 August Kiska is reconquered by the United States after an Allied invasion.
September The French Antilles and Guiana is split into French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Inini, Martinique, and Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
8 September The Albanian Kingdom becomes a protectorate of Nazi Germany from Italy.
9 September Corsica becomes an occupied territory under Nazi Germany.
10 September The Kingdom of Montenegro becomes a protectorate under Nazi Germany.
11 September The Dodecanese Islands become an occupied territory under Nazi Germany.
23 September The part of Italy under German occupation is made into a separate country as the National Republican State of Italy.
14 October The Japanese-occupied Philippines is given independence as the Republic of the Philippines.
23 October The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are taken over by Allied forces.
22 November The State of Greater Lebanon and the Syrian Republic, which together comprise the Mandate of Syria, are given independence as the Lebanese Republic and the Syrian Republic, respectively.
1 December The National Republican State of Italy is renamed the Italian Social Republic.
15 December The United States annexes the Rock Bend, La Parida, and Los Fresnos bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Orrbe banco from the United States.[58]
1944 2 February The Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Ukraine) is taken back by the Soviet Union from German occupation.
3 February The Marshall Islands are taken over by the United States from the Empire of Japan.
5 June The United States annexes the Cerros Colorados, Farias, EL Bano, Grande, Fierro, Adalberto, Martinez, Bonifacio, Pilares, Pilarito, and Cajoncitos bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the Bosque Bonito banco from the United States.[59]
17 June The Kingdom of Iceland ends its personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark, becoming the Republic of Iceland.
19 June The United States purchases Water Island in the Caribbean from the East Asiatic Company, a private shipping company based in Denmark (which at the time was under German occupation).[60]
9 August Vichy France is disestablished by ordinance of the newly created Provisional Government of the French Republic during the Liberation of France by Allied forces. The Vichy administration nominally continues to govern from Sigmaringen in Germany, but no longer controls any territory in Mainland France.
10 August Omiya Jima is taken over by the United States from the Empire of Japan.
20 August Clipperton Island is returned to the Provisional Government of the French Republic.
3 September The Military Administration in Belgium and North France is liberated from Nazi Germany. The Kingdom of Belgium is reformed, and the Belgian Congo is put under the Belgian government's control after having remained loyal to the government-in-exile.
8 September The Independent State of Macedonia is created in Bulgarian-controlled Macedonia.
11 September The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is liberated from Nazi Germany.
11 October The Soviet Union annexes the Tuvan People's Republic.
13 October The Kingdom of Greece returns to power after Athens is recovered.
The Reichskommissariat Ostland is completely taken over by Allied forces and integrated into the Soviet Union.
16 October In the Kingdom of Hungary, the Government of National Unity is established with the support of Nazi Germany, though the boundaries of the state itself remain unchanged.
20 October The Albanian Kingdom is liberated from the Axis Powers as the Democratic Government of Albania.
The Military Administration in Serbia is liberated from the Axis Powers, and Yugoslavia resumes control of it.
3 November The Hellenic State is completely liberated from Axis forces. The Kingdom of Greece takes over the rest of it.
12 November The East Turkestan Republic declares independence from the Republic of China.
13 November The Independent State of Macedonia is liberated from Axis forces, and Yugoslavia resumes control of it.
15 December The Kingdom of Montenegro, a puppet state of the Italian Social Republic (itself a puppet state of Nazi Germany), is taken over by Allied forces.
21 December The Weil and Las Antonias bancos are annexed by Mexico from the United States.[56]
31 December The Republic of Poland gains independence.
1945 17 January The Polish area of the General Government is liberated from Nazi Germany by Allied forces.
8 March The Kingdom of Hungary is liberated from Nazi Germany.
11 March The Empire of Vietnam declares independence from Japan under its occupation.
16 March The United States annexes the Candelaria, Candela, Tascate, Chinati, Mimbres, La Quemada, and Buenavista bancos from Mexico and Mexico annexes the El Comedor, Kilpatrick, Palo Blanco, Guadelupe, and Gleim bancos from the United States.[61]
18 March The Kingdom of Cambodia declares independence from Japan under its occupation.
20 March France regains Alsace-Lorraine.
27 March The State of Burma is taken back over by Allied forces and becomes the British crown colony of Burma.
3 April The Czechoslovak Republic is liberated from Nazi Germany.
The United States takes over the Ryukyu Islands and administers it as the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands.
4 April The Slovak Republic is liberated and given to the Czechoslovak Republic.
8 April The Kingdom of Laos declares independence under Japanese occupation, while Japanese Indochina ceases to exist as a political entity.
25 April The Italian Social Republic is recovered from Nazi Germany and given to the Kingdom of Italy.
27 April The second Republic of Austria is established in occupied Austria. Vienna is the capital. Its independence is recognised by the Allies.
1 May Following the death of Adolf Hitler and the Allied victory in the Battle of Berlin, the government of Nazi Germany is moved to Flensburg and the Flensburg Government is created.
5 May The occupation of the Kingdom of Denmark by the Flensburg Government ends. Greenland is returned to Denmark from United States protection.
The Reichskommissariat Niederlande (the Netherlands) is liberated and merged with the colonies of Curaçao and Dependencies and the Surinam, which had remained loyal to the government-in-exile, to form the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
7 May The Dodecanese Islands are taken over by Allied forces and given to Greece.
8 May Nazi Germany formally surrenders to Allied forces, ending World War II in Europe.
The Independent State of Croatia is taken over by Allied forces and given back to Yugoslavia.
9 May Reichskommissariat Norwegen (Norway) is liberated by Allied forces and its possessions are returned (Bouvet Island, Peter I Island, and Queen Maud Land).
The Channel Islands are liberated from Nazi Germany to the United Kingdom as the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey.
13 May The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia is integrated back into Czechoslovakia.
14 June The State of Brunei is retaken by the United Kingdom and is classified as a protectorate.
29 June A treaty is signed between the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia by which the Soviet Union annexes Subcarpathian Ruthenia.
Two bancos are annexed by both the United States and Mexico from one another.[62]
11 August The Japanese-occupied Empire of Vietnam is taken back by France.
15 August Korea gains independence from the Empire of Japan. Seoul is the capital.
The Great Empire of Manchuria is taken over by the Soviet Union.
French Indochina is recovered by France.
16 August Hong Kong is liberated from Japan by Allied forces and put under British rule.
17 August The de facto Republic of Indonesia declares independence under Japanese and Allied occupation.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines takes over the Japanese-occupied independent Republic of the Philippines.
18 August The Japanese create a separate political entity for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
22 August The Kwantung Leased Territory is returned to the Republic of China.
28 August British Hong Kong becomes a crown colony.
30 August Bảo Đại abdicates. End of the Nguyễn dynasty in Vietnam.
31 August The United States captures Minami-Tori-shima from the Empire of Japan.
September The concessions in Shanghai, Tientsin, and Kouang-Tchéou-Wan are re-controlled by France.
2 September The Empire of Japan formally surrenders to Allied forces, ending World War II in the Pacific.
The Democratic Republic of Vietnam declares its independence from the French Republic. Hanoi is the capital.
The capital of the Republic of China is moved from Chungking back to Nanking.
3 September The United States occupies the Bonin Islands and Volcano Islands from Japan.
4 September The United States occupies Wake Island from Japan.
8 September The Kingdom of Thailand changes its name back to the Kingdom of Siam.
The following states are freed from the Empire of Japan (which becomes occupied by Allied forces) and become their own states from Malaya:
9 September The Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China is taken over by the Republic of China.
10 September Bourneo Kita and the occupation of the British protectorate of the Kingdom of Sarawak are taken back over by the United Kingdom as North Borneo.
11 September In occupied Japan, Timor is split between the Portuguese East Timor and the Dutch West Timor.
12 September Malaya is given back to the United Kingdom from occupied Japan and is split into the Federated Malay States and the State of Johor Darul Ta'zim.
Syonan-to is taken back over by the United Kingdom from Japan as the Straits Settlements. Singapore is the capital.
13 September Nauru is taken over by Allied forces and placed under a United Nations trusteeship administered by Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
15 September The Soviet Union's occupation of the People's Republic of Korea ends.
16 September The British occupation of the Faroe Islands ends and is handed back to Denmark.
23 September The Kingdom of Laos, which was under Japanese occupation, is taken back by France as part of French Indochina.
October In occupied Japan, Christmas Island is given back to the United Kingdom.
7 October In occupied Japan, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are given back to the British Raj.
10 October In occupied Japan, Banaba Island is given back over by the Gilbert and Ellice Islands under the United Kingdom.
16 October The Japanese puppet state of the Kingdom of Cambodia is taken over by France and put back under French Indochina.
17 October The Soviet Union annexes northern East Prussia.
25 October Taiwan is returned to the Republic of China.
November The Soviet Union invades northwest Iran and creates the puppet state of the Azerbaijan People's Government.
29 November France withdraws from Guangzhouwan after agreeing on 18 August to return the leased territory to the Republic of China.
The Democratic Federal Yugoslavia is renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
2 December The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
26 December The Republic of Poland becomes independent.
29 December The Netherlands New Guinea is separated from the Dutch East Indies.
1946 4 January The Republic of Indonesia moves its capital from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.
11 January The People's Republic of Albania supersedes the Democratic Government of Albania.
22 January The Soviet Union occupies part of northwestern Iran, and that area forms the puppet state of the Republic of Mahabad.
1 February The Hungarian Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Hungary.
28 February The following French concessions are ceded to the Republic of China:
19 March The Provisional Government of the French Republic elevates its colonies of Algeria and Réunion to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique to overseas departments.
The French Republic elevates its colony of Guyane (French Guiana) to an overseas department.
1 April The colony of the Malayan Union is formed from the following protectorates:
25 May The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan gains independence from a British League of Nations Mandate. Amman is the capital.
2 June The Kingdom of Italy is renamed the Italian Republic.
4 July The Republic of the Philippines gains independence from the United States. Manila is the capital.
In the Soviet Union, the city of Königsberg is renamed Kaliningrad.
13 July In Montenegro (then part of Yugoslavia), the city of Podgorica is renamed Titograd.
26 July The Spanish colonies of Ifni and Spanish Sahara merge to form Spanish West Africa.
15 September The People's Republic of Bulgaria supersedes the Tsardom of Bulgaria. Sofia is the capital.
14 October The Provisional Government of the French Republic is renamed the French Republic.
The United States annexes the Culebron banco from Mexico.[63]
22 October In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous Federation of West Kalimantan is established.
27 October The French Republic elevates its uninhabited possession of Adélie Land to an overseas territory.
The French Republic elevates its colonies of French Equatorial Africa, French West Africa, and Madagascar to overseas territories; the French colony of Comoros is separated from Madagascar; and French Somaliland is renamed the Territory of French Somaliland.
The French Republic elevates its French Establishments in India to an overseas territory.
The French Establishments in Oceania are renamed the French Settlements in Oceania.
New Caledonia and Dependencies is renamed the Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon is renamed the Territory of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
November The Soviet-occupied area of the Azerbaijan People's Government is returned to Iran.
December Several League of Nations Mandates in Africa are transferred as United Nations Trust Territories:
7 December In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of Dayak Besar is established.
8 December The League of Nations Mandate of the Territory of New Guinea is transferred as a United Nations Trust Territory, administered by Australia.
10 December In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous Belitung Council is established.
15 December The Soviet-occupied area of the Republic of Mahabad is returned to Iran.
24 December In the Dutch East Indies, the State of Great East is established.
27 December In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous State of Great East is renamed the State of East Indonesia.
1947 8 January In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of the Federation of South Kalimantan is established.
25 January The New Zealand-administered League of Nations Mandate of Western Samoa is transferred as a United Nations Trust Territory.
10 February The Italian Republic returns its concession in Tientsin to the Republic of China.
3 May The new Constitution of Japan is adopted, dissolving the Greater Japanese Empire.
12 May In the Dutch East Indies, the Federation of West Kalimantan is renamed the Special Territory of West Kalimantan.
12 July In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous states of Bangka Council and Riau Council are created.
18 July The South Pacific (League of Nations) Mandate, governed by Japan, is transferred to the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, administered by the United States.
12 August Balochistan (Kalat State) gains independence from the United Kingdom.
14 August The Dominion of Pakistan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Karachi is the capital.
15 August The Dominion of India gains independence from the United Kingdom. New Delhi is the capital.[64]
27 August In the Dutch East Indies, the Siak Besar Territory is created.
15 September The Free Territory of Trieste is created in Central Europe.
8 October In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of the Special Territory of East Sumatra is created.
16 October Seven of the Turtle Islands are ceded to the Philippines by the United Kingdom.
27 October The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan.[65]
1 November The League of Nations Mandate of Nauru is transferred as a United Nations Trust Territory.
25 November The Dominion of New Zealand ceases to be a dominion of the British Empire.
14 December The Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Bulgaria, ending a three-year-long occupation.[66]
15 December France claims the Saar as a protectorate from occupied Germany.
25 December In the Dutch East Indies, the Special Territory of East Sumatra is renamed the State of East Sumatra.
26 December Sovereignty over the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands is transferred from the United Kingdom to Australia.
30 December The Romanian People's Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Romania.
1948 4 January The Union of Burma gains independence from the United Kingdom. Yangon (British Rangoon) is the capital.
14 January In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of the Territory of Banjar is created.
23 January In the Dutch East Indies, the states of Bangka Council, the Belitung Council, and the Riau Council are merged as the Bangka Belitung and Riau Federation.
In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous State of Madura is created.
30 January In the United Kingdom, the Malayan Union is renamed the Federation of Malaya.
4 February The Crown Colony of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Ceylon. Colombo remains the capital.
In the Dutch East Indies, the Siak Besar Territory is renamed the Federation of East Kalimantan.
26 February In the Dutch East Indies, the State of West Java is created.
27 March Kalat State is integrated into the Dominion of Pakistan.
1 April The Faroe Islands becomes a self-governing dependency.
18 April Ireland is declared a republic.
25 April In the Dutch East Indies, the State of West Java is renamed the Sundanese State.
14 May The State of Israel is established upon the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine. Tel Aviv is the capital.[67]
17 July The Republic of the Philippines moves its capital from Manila to Quezon City.
15 August The Republic of Korea is established from British/American/United Nations-occupied South Korea.
30 August In the Dutch East Indies, the State of South Sumatra is established.
9 September Korea is divided between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Pyongyang and Seoul are the respective capitals.
12 September The State of Hyderabad is annexed by India.
20 September The Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies is renamed the Netherlands Antilles, as the dependencies gain equality in level of sovereignty.
26 November In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of East Java is established.
25 December The Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from North Korea, ending a three-year-long occupation.[68]
The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) moves its capital from Sana'a to Taiz.
1949 1 January New Zealand annexes the Tokelau Islands, which creates a dispute with the United States over its claims of Atafu, Fakaofo, and Nukunono.[69]
1 March The Emirate of Cyrenaica is created from part of the British Military Administration of Libya. The capital is Benghazi.
2 March In the Dutch East Indies, the autonomous state of Central Java is established.
10 March As a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Israel captures half of the land allotted to an Arab state under the Partition Plan, Jordan occupies the West Bank, and Egypt occupies the Gaza Strip.
31 March The Dominion of Newfoundland joins Canada as the Province of Newfoundland following the Newfoundland referendums. St. John's yields to Ottawa as the capital.
3 April The Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan is renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
22 April The Republic of China government evacuates Nanjing the day before the capital city falls to the Communists. Canton becomes the de facto capital.
11 May The Kingdom of Siam changes its name back to the Kingdom of Thailand.
23 May The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and West Berlin are established in the American, British, and French occupation zones of Germany. Bonn is the capital.
14 June The area of Vietnam in French Indochina becomes a separate entity under France as the State of Vietnam, though North Vietnam still claims independence.
20 June The 1948 Arab–Israeli War ends, resulting in the former territory of Mandatory Palestine being split among Israel, Jordan, and Egypt.
19 July The area of Laos in French Indochina becomes a separate entity under France as the Kingdom of Laos.
8 August The Indian protectorate of the Kingdom of Bhutan declares independence.
20 August The Hungarian People's Republic supersedes the Hungarian Republic.
9 September The Kingdom of Tripura merges with India.
26 September The United States annexes the Don Juan Cross banco from Mexico and Mexico annexes Ringgold banco from the United States.[70]
1 October Mao Zedong proclaims the People's Republic of China. Beijing is the capital.
7 October The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is established in Soviet-occupied eastern Germany. East Berlin is the capital.
13 October The Republic of China government evacuates Canton. Chongqing becomes the de facto capital.[71]
6 November The Australian-administered Territory of New Guinea and the Territory of Papua merge to form the Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
8 November The remains of French Indochina form the French-administered Kingdom of Cambodia.
21 November The British-administered protectorates of the Emirate of Cyrenaica, the occupied territory of Tripolitania, and the French-occupied territory of Fezzan merge to form a jointly administered Libya.
29 November The Republic of China government evacuates Chongqing. Chengdu becomes the de facto capital.[72]
5 December The State of Israel declares Jerusalem its official capital. Tel Aviv continues to serve as the de facto capital.
10 December The Republic of China government in Chengdu evacuates Mainland China for Taiwan. Taipei becomes the de facto capital.[73]
22 December The People's Republic of China completes the conquest of the East Turkestan Republic in Xinjiang, after Republic of China forces in the region ally with the Communists in September.[74]
27 December The forces of the People's Republic of China enter Chengdu, ending the Southwest Campaign against the Republic of China and completing the conquest of major continental Han-inhabited territories.
The Republic of Indonesia becomes a federation as the Republic of the United States of Indonesia and its independence is formally recognised by the Netherlands, comprising most of the former Dutch East Indies. The capital returns to Jakarta from Yogyakarta. The Dutch remaining possession in Western New Guinea becomes Netherlands New Guinea.

1950sEdit

Year Date Event
1950 26 January India adopts a republican constitution and changes its name to the Republic of India.
19 February The People's Republic of China completes the conquest of southern Yunnan, expelling the Republic of China from all of continental China Proper.
1 April The British-occupied territory of Italian Somaliland is transferred to Italy as the Trust Territory of Somalia.
7 April The People's Republic of China completes the conquest of Xikang, defeating the last regular forces of the Republic of China in continental Mainland China.
25 April The unrecognized Republic of South Maluku declares independence from Indonesia.
1 May The People's Republic of China completes the conquest of Hainan Island from the Republic of China.
7 August The People's Republic of China completes the conquest of the Wanshan Archipelago from the Republic of China, concluding the main period of hostilities in the Chinese Civil War.
17 August The Republic of the United States of Indonesia becomes a unitary state and changes its name back to the Republic of Indonesia.
5 November Indonesia reconquers Ambon, the last stronghold of the Republic of South Maluku, reducing the separatist movement to a minor insurgency.
5 December The Kingdom of Sikkim signs a treaty to become a protectorate of India.
15 December The United States reorganizes the United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands as the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands.[75]
1951 27 April Denmark leases Thule Air Base in Greenland to the United States in perpetuity and cedes exclusive jurisdiction over the base area.[76]
23 May The People's Republic of China annexes the de facto independent state of Tibet after the military conquest of its Chamdo Region in October 1950.
5 June The Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union exchange territory along their common border.
11 June Due to Portuguese colonies being reorganized as overseas provinces, Portuguese East Africa is renamed Mozambique and Portuguese West Africa is renamed Angola.
24 December The United Kingdom of Libya gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship, previously having been divided into the independent Emirate of Cyrenaica, British-administered Tripolitania, and the French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames. Tripoli is the capital.
1952 28 April The Allied occupation of Japan ends.
22 July The Republic of Poland changes its name to the Polish People's Republic.
15 September Italian Eritrea is federated within the Ethiopian Empire.
Spain incorporates the protectorate of Ifni as a region of Spanish West Africa.
1953 1 January The Republic of Maldives supersedes the Sultanate of Maldives.
12 January The Estonian Government in Exile is established, in parallel to Estonian diplomatic legations abroad. Both are later declared keepers of the legal continuity of the restored Republic of Estonia.
15 April The United States of Venezuela is renamed the Republic of Venezuela.[77]
13 June The Egyptian Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Egypt.
27 July The Korean Armistice Agreement is signed, establishing the Korean Demilitarized Zone along the border between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea).
1 August The British colonies of Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland merge to form Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
22 October The Kingdom of Laos gains independence from France. Vientiane is the capital.
9 November The Kingdom of Cambodia declares its independence from France. Phnom Penh is the capital.
1954 7 March The Sultanate of Maldives supersedes the Republic of Maldives.
15 April The Geneva Accords grant independence to Vietnam, which is provisionally divided into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
20 July France recognizes the independence of Vietnam divided between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). Hanoi and Saigon are the respective capitals.
27 July The Free Dadra declares independence from Portugal, but is officially recognized only by India.
2 August The capital of Free Dadra is moved from Dadra to Silvassa.
11 August The Republic of India annexes Dadra and Nagar Haveli from Portuguese India.
26 October The Free Territory of Trieste is divided between Italy and Yugoslavia.
25 November Amidst a civil war, the Imamate of Oman declares the dissolution of the union of Muscat and Oman and applies for membership in the Arab League as the independent Kingdom of Oman. Nizwa remains the capital.[78]
15 December The Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Territory of Curaçao one of its three constituent countries as the Netherlands Antilles. Willemstad on Curaçao remains the capital.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Territory of Surinam one of its three constituent countries as Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
20 December France recognizes the independence of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
1955 20 January The People's Republic of China conquers the Yijiangshan Islands from the Republic of China after the Battle of Yijiangshan Islands.
8–26 February The People's Republic of China takes control of the Dachen Islands, Yushan Islands, Pishan Islands, and Nanji Islands after the Republic of China withdraws from these territories judged indefensible.[79]
11 April The corridor of Panama inside the Panama Canal Zone, part of the United States of America, is slightly shifted by territorial exchanges due to bridges and highways.[80][81]
15 May The Republic of Austria regains its independence with the end of Allied occupation. Vienna is the capital.
28 July Following the withdrawal of French forces in August 1954, the People's Republic of China conquers Bạch Long Vĩ Island from the Republic of China.[82]
6 August The French overseas territory of Adélie Land and the Malagasy dependencies of the Crozet Islands, the Kerguelen Islands, and Saint-Paul and Amsterdam merge to form the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
23 August The border between Panama and the United States' Panama Canal Zone is redefined, resulting in several border changes. Punta Paitilla, the land held on Taboga Island, and the remaining American holdings in Colón and Panama City are ceded to Panama.[83]
18 September Rockall is officially claimed by the United Kingdom.
26 October The State of Vietnam is renamed the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
23 November The United Kingdom gives the Cocos (Keeling) Islands to Australia.
20 December Cardiff is recognised as the capital of Wales. It is the country's first official capital since 1689.
The Kingdom of Bhutan moves its capital from Punakha to Thimphu.
1956 1 January The Republic of Sudan gains independence from the United Kingdom. Khartoum is the capital. Egypt relinquishes its claim to Sudan.
14 January The United States of America annexes the San Felipe banco from Mexico.[84]
2 March The Kingdom of Morocco gains independence from France. Rabat is the capital.
20 March The Tunisian Republic gains independence from France. Tunis is the capital.
23 March Pakistan adopts a new constitution and changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
7 April Spanish Morocco becomes part of the Sherifian Empire.
18 June The Egyptian Republic declares its complete independence from the United Kingdom.
29 October The Tangier International Zone, under the joint administration of France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, and Belgium, is reintegrated into the Sherifian Empire.
13 December British Togoland is merged into the Gold Coast.
1957 1 January Saar is given to West Germany as the state of Saarland.
16 January The People's Republic of China transfers Bạch Long Vĩ Island to North Vietnam.
6 March The Republic of Ghana gains independence from the United Kingdom. Accra is the capital.
25 July The Tunisian Realm is renamed the Tunisian Republic.
14 August The Sherifian Empire is renamed the Kingdom of Morocco.
31 August The Federation of Malaya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuala Lumpur is the capital.
23 October Morocco invades Ifni, conquering most of the region beyond the vicinity of Sidi Ifni from Spain by December, and occupying it until Spain cedes the entire region in 1969.
1958 3 January The United Kingdom establishes the West Indies Federation as a federation of most of the British West Indies, excluding the British Virgin Islands and the Bahamas. The de jure capital is Chaguaramas on Trinidad and the de facto capital is Port of Spain on Trinidad.
10 January Ifni is separated from Spanish West Africa as Ifni Province.
14 February The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan unite to form the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Amman yields to Baghdad as the capital.
22 February The Egyptian Republic and the Syrian Arab Republic unite to form the United Arab Republic. Damascus yields to Cairo as the capital.
The French-administered United Nations Trust Territory of French Togoland is renamed Togo.
8 March The United Arab States is formed as a confederation between the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria) and the Kingdom of Yemen.[85]
10 April Spanish West Africa is disestablished:
14 May The French Territory of the Comoros votes to move its capital from Dzaoudzi to Moroni. The actual move occurs gradually by 1966.[86][87]
14 July The Republic of Iraq and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan are created from the dissolution of the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. Baghdad remains the capital of Iraq. Amman is again the capital of Jordan.
1 October Sovereignty over Christmas Island is transferred from the United Kingdom to Australia.
2 October The Republic of Guinea gains independence from France. Conakry is the capital.
4 October The French Fifth Republic succeeds the French Fourth Republic.[88]
15 October The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains autonomy within the French Community. Antananarivo is the capital.
26 October The People's Republic of China completely withdraws its forces from North Korea, ending its eight-year-long military presence in the Korean Peninsula.[89]
15 November The Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Romania, ending a 14-year-long occupation.[90]
28 November The following French colonies join the newly created French Community:
1 December The French colony of Ubangi-Shari joins the French Community as the Central African Republic.
4 December The French colony of Dahomey joins the French Community.
The French colony of Ivory Coast joins the French Community.
8 December Sovereignty over Gwadar is transferred from the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman to Pakistan.
11 December The French colony of Upper Volta joins the French Community.
19 December The French colony of Niger joins the French Community.
1959 3 January The United Suvadive Republic secedes from the Sultanate of Maldives. Hithadhoo is the capital.
30 January The forces of the United Kingdom and the Sultanate of Muscat conquer the last strongholds of the Kingdom of Oman, reincorporating the Imamate into Muscat and Oman. Muscat effectively becomes the joint capital.[91]
4 April In French Africa, the colonies of Senegal and Soudan merge to form the Mali Federation.
30 June Fernando Pó and Río Muni are merged to form Spanish Guinea.

1960sEdit

Year Date Event
1960 1 January The Republic of Cameroun gains independence from the French Republic. Yaoundé remains the capital.
1 April France detaches the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean from the Malagasy Republic shortly before its independence. In September the administration of the Scattered Islands is delegated to the Prefect of Réunion.[92][93]
21 April The Republic of the United States of Brazil moves its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.
27 April The Togolese Republic (Togo) gains independence from the French Republic. Lomé remains the capital.
14 June South Kasai declares independence from the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville).
20 June Independence of French Sudan from France with Senegal as the Mali Federation.
26 June The Malagasy Republic (Madagascar) gains independence from the French Republic. Antananarivo remains the capital.
British Somaliland gains independence from the United Kingdom temporarily as the State of Somaliland, in preparation for union with the Trust Territory of Somaliland. Hargeisa remains the capital.
30 June The Belgian Congo gains independence from the Kingdom of Belgium as the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville). Léopoldville remains the capital.
1 July The Somali Republic is created through the merger of the Trust Territory of Somaliland and the State of Somaliland. Mogadishu becomes the capital.
11 July The Czechoslovak Republic changes its name to the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
The State of Katanga declares independence from the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) with no recognition.
1 August The Republic of Dahomey gains independence from the French Republic. Porto-Novo remains the capital.
The capital of Pakistan is moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi.
3 August The Republic of Niger gains independence from the French Republic. Niamey remains the capital.
5 August The Republic of Upper Volta gains independence from the French Republic. Ouagadougou remains the capital.
7 August The Côte d'Ivoire gains independence from the French Republic. Abidjan remains the capital.
11 August The Republic of Chad gains independence from the French Republic. N'Djamena remains the capital.
13 August The Central African Republic gains independence from the French Republic. Bangui remains the capital.
15 August The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) gains independence from the French Republic. Brazzaville remains the capital.
16 August The Republic of Cyprus gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lefkosia (Nicosia) remains the capital. The United Kingdom retains control of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
17 August The Gabonese Republic (Gabon) gains independence from the French Republic. Libreville remains the capital.
20 August The Republic of Senegal gains independence from the French Republic. Dakar remains the capital.
22 September The Republic of Mali gains independence from the French Republic. Bamako remains the capital.
1 October The People's Republic of China is ceded 132 square miles (340 km2) of territory and Burma is ceded 85 square miles (220 km2) of territory in a boundary treaty delimiting the borders between the two countries.[94]
The Federation of Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lagos remains the capital.
28 November The Islamic Republic of Mauritania gains independence from the French Republic. Nouakchott remains the capital.
The British Virgin Islands becomes a separate crown colony with the abolition of the office of the Governor of the British Leeward Islands.[95]
1961 14 January India annexes Portuguese India, and Portugal maintains its claims to it.
27 April The Republic of Sierra Leone gains independence from the United Kingdom. Freetown remains the capital.
31 May The Union of South Africa ceases to be a Commonwealth realm and changes its name to the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria, Cape Town and Bloemfontein remain the capitals.
Northern British Cameroon joins Nigeria.
19 June The State of Kuwait gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kuwait City remains the capital.
23 June The Antarctic Treaty System enters force to administer the continent of Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south.
28 September In the United Arab States, Syria leaves the United Arab Republic and returns to the name of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli joins India, as Portugal ceases to claim it.
Portugal cedes São João Baptista de Ajudá to Dahomey.
Portuguese fort São João Baptista de Ajudá (now Ouidah) is annexed by Dahomey.
1 October The southern portion of the British Cameroons gains independence from the United Kingdom and unites with the Republic of Cameroun to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaoundé remains the capital.
1 December The Netherlands New Guinea is renamed West Papua.
9 December The Republic of Tanganyika gains independence from the United Kingdom. Dar-es-Salaam remains the capital.
19 December The Republic of India annexes Goa, Daman and Diu from Portuguese India.
28 December The Syrian Arab Republic secedes from the United Arab Republic, leaving Egypt as the sole member of the federation. Cairo remains the capital of the UAR. Damascus is again the capital of Syria.
30 December South Kasai is taken back by Congo (Léopoldville).
1962 1 January The Independent State of Western Samoa gains independence from New Zealand. Apia remains the capital.
3 March The United Kingdom officially gives the territory claimed in Antarctica an entity, the British Antarctic Territory, although this is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.
31 May The West Indies Federation is dissolved and member states return to their status as parts of the British West Indies. Chaguaramas yields to London as the capital. Changes include the following:
1 July The Kingdom of Burundi and the Republic of Rwanda gain independence from the Kingdom of Belgium. Bujumbura and Kigali are the respective capitals.
3 July The French overseas department of Algeria gains independence from the French Republic. Algiers remains the capital.
6 August The United Kingdom creates the Crown Colony of the Cayman Islands. George Town is the capital.
The Crown Colony of Jamaica gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingston remains the capital.
31 August The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port of Spain remains the capital.
25 September Algeria becomes the People's Democratic Algerian Republic.
26 September The capital of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen is moved from Ta'izz to Sana'a.
27 September Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (North Yemen) is overthrown by the Yemen Arab Republic. San'a becomes the capital.
1 October West Papua is transferred from the Netherlands to UN authority as West New Guinea.
9 October The Republic of Uganda gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kampala remains the capital.
14 November Eritrea becomes a province of the Ethiopian Empire, losing the autonomy it had under federation.
21 November The People's Republic of China imposes a ceasefire after conquering all of Aksai Chin. India continues to claim the territory.
9 December Tanganyika is renamed the Republic of Tanganyika.
1963 15 January Katanga is taken back by Congo (Léopoldville).
3 March The People's Republic of China is ceded the Trans-Karakoram Tract by Pakistan. India continues to claim the territory.
7 April The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
25 April The Kingdom of Libya supersedes the United Kingdom of Libya.
1 May West New Guinea is provisionally transferred from United Nations Temporary Executive Authority to Indonesian administration as the province of Irian Barat, pending the fulfillment of the New York Agreement.[96]
30 June The Kingdom of Rwenzururu declares independence from Uganda with no recognition.
31 August The Republic of Singapore gains independence from the United Kingdom.
16 September The Federation of Malaya unites with the British colonies of Singapore, Sarawak, and British North Borneo (Sabah) to form Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur remains the capital.
23 September The United Suvadive Republic is reunited with the Sultanate of Maldives. Hithadhoo yields to Male as the capital.
1 October The Federation of Nigeria is renamed the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
10 December The Sultanate of Zanzibar gains independence from the United Kingdom. Zanzibar City remains the capital.
12 December The Republic of Kenya gains independence from the United Kingdom. Nairobi remains the capital.
15 December The Spanish colonies of Fernando Pó and Río Muni merge to form Spanish Guinea.
31 December The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is divided into Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland.
1964 12 January The Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba is established after a revolution overthrows the Sultanate of Zanzibar.
14 January The Chamizal is split between Mexico and the United States of America.[97]
4 March The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is established in the Republic of Cyprus between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities.
26 April The Republic of Tanganyika and the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba unite to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Zanzibar City yields to Dar-es-Salaam as the capital.
6 July Malawi gains independence from the United Kingdom. Lilongwe remains the capital.
1 August The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Léopoldville) changes its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
21 September The Crown Colony of Malta gains independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta. Valletta remains the capital.
24 October Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zambia. Lusaka remains the capital.
1 November The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar changes its name to the United Republic of Tanzania.
12 December Kenya is renamed the Republic of Kenya.
1965 18 February The Gambia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of the Gambia. Banjul remains the capital.
8 March The first 3,500 U.S. combat troops land in Da Nang, beginning an eight-year United States occupation of South Vietnam.[98]
26 July The British Protectorate over the Sultanate of Maldives ends. Male remains the capital.
4 August The Cook Islands become a state in free association with New Zealand, sharing citizenship.
9 August The Republic of Singapore is expelled from Malaysia and becomes independent. Singapore remains the capital.
Jordan and Saudi Arabia sign a treaty significantly revising their mutual borders and resolving the territorial dispute over Ma'an.[99]
21 August The Romanian People's Republic changes its name to Socialist Republic of Romania.
8 November The United Kingdom creates the British Indian Ocean Territory from the Chagos Archipelago in Mauritius and the islands of Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches from Seychelles, as Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago.[100]
11 November The Cabinet of Southern Rhodesia issues its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom as Rhodesia, which goes unrecognized. Salisbury remains the capital.
1966 24 May The Federal Republic of Nigeria changes its name to the Republic of Nigeria.[101]
26 May The Crown Colony of British Guiana gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Co-operative Republic of Guyana. Georgetown remains the capital.
30 June The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes the name of its capital from Léopoldville to Kinshasa.
6 July Nyasaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Malawi. Lilongwe remains the capital.
31 August The Republic of Nigeria changes its name back to the Federal Republic of Nigeria.[101]
30 September Bechuanaland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Botswana. Gaborone remains the capital.
4 October The Crown Colony of the Territory of Basutoland gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Kingdom of Lesotho. Maseru remains the capital.
12 October Guyana discovers that Venezuela had sometime before occupied and effectively annexed Ankoko Island in the disputed Guayana Esequiba region.[102]
24 November The Río Encuentro-Alto Palena Dispute between the Republic of Chile and the Argentine Republic is defined by arbitration by Elizabeth II.
28 November The Republic of Burundi supersedes the Kingdom of Burundi.
30 November Barbados gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bridgetown remains the capital.
1967 24 January The Republic of the United States of Brazil changes its name to the Federative Republic of Brazil.
30 May The Republic of Biafra secedes from the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Enugu is the capital. Recognized by Gabon, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Zambia.
10 June Israel captures the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from the United Arab Republic (Egypt), the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria as a result of the Six-Day War.
5 July French Somaliland is renamed the French Territory of the Afars and Issas.
12 July Following a referendum the day before, the Republic of Anguilla declares independence from the associated state of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla while seeking to remain a territory of the United Kingdom. The Valley becomes the capital.[103]
14 August The capital of Pakistan is moved from Rawalpindi to Islamabad.
17 August Biafra takes over the Benin region.
8 September Uganda is renamed the Republic of Uganda.
19 September The Republic of Benin becomes a puppet state that has no recognition from the parent state (Biafra).
20 September The Republic of Benin is taken over by Nigeria.
7 November South Yemen declares its independence from the United Kingdom as the People's Republic of South Yemen. Aden is the capital.
30 November The United Kingdom transfers the Khuriya Muriya Islands to Muscat and Oman.[104]
1968 31 January Nauru gains independence from a United Nations trusteeship jointly administered by the Commonwealth of Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom as the Republic of Nauru. Yaren remains the de facto capital.
12 March The Mauritius gains independence from the United Kingdom. Port Louis remains the capital.
18 May Mexico annexes the Los Indios banco from the United States of America.[105]
26 June The Allied-occupied Bonin-Volcano Islands are given back to Japan.
6 September The Kingdom of Swaziland gains full independence from the United Kingdom. Mbabane is the capital.
12 October Spanish Guinea gains independence from the Spanish State as the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. Malabo remains the capital.
11 November The Republic of Maldives supersedes the Sultanate of Maldives.
1969 7 February Following a referendum the day before, the Republic of Anguilla declares independence from the United Kingdom. The Valley remains the capital.[106]
19 March The Republic of Anguilla is overthrown by British forces and reincorporated into the associated state of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla.[107]
10 May The United Kingdom changes the name of the Colony of the Bahama Islands to the Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands.[108]
25 May Following a coup, the Democratic Republic of the Sudan supersedes the Republic of the Sudan. Khartoum remains the capital.[109][110]
30 June Spain transfers Ifni to Morocco.[111]
1 September Following a coup, the Libyan Arab Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Libya. Tripoli becomes the sole capital.[112]
21 October Following a coup, the Somali Democratic Republic supersedes the Somali Republic. Mogadishu remains the capital.[113]
19 November The UN General Assembly formally recognizes Indonesia's annexation of West New Guinea 'in accordance' with the New York Agreement.[114]
31 December The Republic of the Congo changes its name to the People's Republic of the Congo.[115]

1970sEdit

Year Date Event
1970 15 January The Republic of Biafra capitulates and is reabsorbed by Nigeria.[116]
18 January Kuwait and Saudi Arabia ratify an agreement to partition the Neutral Zone between the two.[117]
23 February Guyana changes its name to the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[118]
18 March Following the deposition of Prince Norodom Sihanouk, the Kingdom of Cambodia changes its name to the State of Cambodia.[119]
24 April Following a referendum, The Gambia changes its name to the Republic of The Gambia and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[120]
1 May British Honduras begins to move its capital from Belize City to Belmopan.[121][122]
4 June The Kingdom of Tonga gains full independence from the United Kingdom, withdrawing from its protectorate agreement. Nukuʻalofa remains the capital.[123]
27 July Mexico annexes 15 bancos from the United States, and the United States annexes 4 bancos from Mexico, under the terms of the Banco Convention of 1905; Mexico acquires a net 507.6 hectares (1254.1 acres).[124]
9 August The Sultanate of Muscat and Oman changes its name to the Sultanate of Oman.[125]
9 October The State of Cambodia changes its name to the Khmer Republic.[126]
10 October The Colony of Fiji gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Dominion of Fiji. Suva remains the capital.
29 October Mexico annexes the Panales and Loma del Pinto Segundo bancos from the United States under the terms of the Banco Convention of 1905, acquiring 72 hectares (177.8 acres).[127]
30 November The People's Republic of South Yemen changes its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.[128]
1971 26 March Amidst a military crackdown by West Pakistani forces, East Pakistan declares independence from Pakistan as the People's Republic of Bangladesh, sparking the Liberation War. Dhaka becomes the capital.
19 April Sierra Leone changes its name to the Republic of Sierra Leone and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
14 August The protectorate of Bahrain and Its Dependencies declares independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Bahrain; its special treaties with the UK are abrogated the next day. Manama remains the capital.[129]
1 September The protectorate of Qatar declares independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Qatar; its special treaties with the UK are abrogated two days later. Doha remains the capital.[130]
11 September Following a referendum, the United Arab Republic changes its name to the Arab Republic of Egypt.[131]
25 October The People's Republic of China replaces the Republic of China in China's seat in the United Nations.
27 October The Democratic Republic of the Congo changes its name to the Republic of Zaire.
29 November Following the withdrawal of British forces, Iran conquers Greater and Lesser Tunbs from the Trucial State of Ras Al Khaimah.[132]
30 November Following the withdrawal of British forces, Iran conquers Abu Musa from the Trucial State of Sharjah.
1 December The United Kingdom ends its protectorate over the Trucial States.
2 December The United Arab Emirates is established between six of the seven emirates of the former Trucial States: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah, and Umm Al Quwain. Abu Dhabi city becomes the capital.
The Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah temporarily becomes independent, as it rejects the terms of the agreement between the other former Trucial States. Ras Al Khaimah City remains the capital.[133][134]
13 December Australia changes the name of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea to Papua New Guinea.[135]
1972 1 January Following simultaneous referendums on 1 September 1971 in Egypt, in Libya, and in Syria, the Federation of Arab Republics is formed as a confederation working toward state unification.
10 February The Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah joins the United Arab Emirates. Ras Al Khaimah City yields to Abu Dhabi as the capital.
The United Kingdom formally incorporates Rockall as part of Scotland.
15 May The United States transfers the Ryukyu Islands, including the Daitō Islands, back to Japan as Okinawa Prefecture.[136]
20 May Following a referendum, the Federal Republic of Cameroon changes its name to the United Republic of Cameroon.[137]
22 May Ceylon changes its name to the Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[138]
17 August Indonesia changes the name of its capital from Djakarta to Jakarta.[139][140]
1 September The United States removes its claims over the Swan Islands, ending part of its territorial dispute with Honduras.[141]
1973 First Half Libya invades the Aouzou Strip in northern Chad, formally annexing the region in 1975 and occupying it until 1994.[142]
1 January Portugal reorganizes the Overseas Province of Angola as the State of Angola.[143]
Portugal reorganizes the Overseas Province of Mozambique as the State of Mozambique.[144]
29 March The last U.S. combat troops are flown out of Tan Son Nhut Air Base, ending the eight-year United States occupation of South Vietnam.[145]
24 April The Gambia changes the name of its capital from Bathurst to Banjul.[146]
1 June The Kingdom of Greece changes its name to the Hellenic Republic.[147]
The United Kingdom changes the name of the Crown Colony of British Honduras to the Crown Colony of Belize.[148]
10 July The Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas. Nassau remains the capital.[149]
17 July Following a coup, the Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Kingdom of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.
24 September PAIGC rebels declare the independence of Portuguese Guinea from Portugal as the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Madina do Boe is the de facto capital.[150][151]
25 October A ceasefire is imposed in the Yom Kippur War, with Israel occupying 1600 km2 (620 mi2) of Egyptian and 500 km2 (190 mi2) of Syrian territory conquered since 6 October.
2 November The UN General Assembly recognizes the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, the first sub-Saharan African state to unilaterally declare independence without the consent of its colonial power (Portugal).[152][151]
19 November Uruguay relinquishes its claim to Martín García Island to Argentina.
1974 1 January Malawi moves its capital from Zomba to Lilongwe.[153]
3 January The Union of Burma changes its name to the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma.[154]
20 January China conquers the contested Paracel Islands after a naval battle against South Vietnam.
7 February The associated state of Grenada gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. George's remains the capital.
21 February Israel completely withdraws from Egyptian territory west of the Suez Canal occupied in the Yom Kippur War, as part of the January Separation of Forces Agreement between the two states and the UN Security Council.[155]
22 February Pakistan recognizes the independence of Bangladesh, relinquishing its claims to the former East Pakistan.[156]
24 March The Nation of Tanna declares independence from the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
26 June Israel completely withdraws from Syrian territory occupied in the Yom Kippur War and 25 km2 (9.7 mi2) occupied in the Six Day War, implementing the May 1974 agreement creating a 235 km2 (91 mi2) UNDOF buffer zone.
29 June The Nation of Tanna is overthrown and reincorporated into the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
16 August Turkey imposes a ceasefire after conquering 37% of Cyprus since 20 July. UN peacekeepers on the island since 1963 are deployed along the ceasefire line to create an expanded United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus.
21 August Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates agree on a new mutual border, though the UAE subsequently disputes the Saudi interpretation of the new boundary line.
5 September The Parliament of India passes a constitutional amendment incorporating the Kingdom of Sikkim as an "associate state".[158]
10 September Following an agreement to end the war on 26 August, Portugal dissolves Portuguese Guinea and recognizes the independence of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau. Bissau becomes the capital.
12 September Following a Derg coup amidst popular unrest, the Provisional Military Government supersedes the Ethiopian Empire, though the monarchy is formally abolished only on 21 March 1975. Addis Ababa remains the capital.[159][160]
1 October The Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration is established as a nominally autonomous state in the Turkishoccupied territories of Cyprus. North Nicosia becomes the de facto capital.
19 October Following a referendum, the status of Niue is upgraded to self-government in free association with New Zealand. Alofi remains the capital.
13 December The State of Malta changes its name to the Republic of Malta and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
20 December Following the proclamation of "Ethiopian socialism", the Derg Provisional Military Government begins using the name Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia.[161][162]
1975 13 February The Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration is reorganized as the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, with the intention of forcing federation upon Cyprus. North Nicosia remains the capital.
9 April India invades the Kingdom of Sikkim, organizing a referendum on abolishing the monarchy five days later.[163]
17 April Following the victory of the Khmer Rouge in the Cambodian Civil War, Kampuchea supersedes the Khmer Republic. Phnom Penh remains the capital.
30 April Following the Fall of Saigon, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam supersedes the Republic of Vietnam. Saigon remains the capital.
16 May India officially annexes the Kingdom of Sikkim as the State of Sikkim.
25 June In accordance with the Lusaka Accord, the State of Mozambique gains independence from Portugal as the People's Republic of Mozambique. Lourenço Marques remains the capital.
5 July The Overseas Province of Cape Verde gains independence from Portugal as the Republic of Cape Verde. Praia remains the capital.
6 July Following a referendum in December 1974, the Territory of the Comoros unilaterally declares independence from France as the State of Comoros. Moroni remains the capital.[164]
Due to its "no" vote in the December 1974 referendum, Mayotte separates from the Comoros upon the latter's independence and remains part of France, though its exact status is undefined. Dzaoudzi becomes the capital.
12 July The Overseas Province of São Tomé and Príncipe gains independence from Portugal as the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. São Tomé remains the capital.
1 September Two weeks before Papua New Guinea's independence, Bougainville Island declares independence from the territory and from Australia as the Republic of North Solomons. Arawa becomes the capital.[165][166]
4 September In a treaty with Egypt, Israel agrees to withdraw from western Sinai and create a United Nations Emergency Force buffer zone in the region.[167]
16 September Papua New Guinea gains independence from Australia as the Independent State of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby remains the capital.
1 October Following a referendum, the British Colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands is de jure divided into the Colony of Gilbert Islands and the Colony of Tuvalu. Tarawa remains and Funafuti becomes their respective capitals.[168]
11 November In accordance with the Alvor Agreement, the State of Angola gains independence from Portugal as the People's Republic of Angola. Luanda remains the capital.
14 November A week after Morocco organized the Green March into Spanish Sahara, Spain agrees to decolonize Western Sahara through a temporary tripartite administration with Mauritania and Morocco.
25 November Suriname gains full independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands as the Republic of Suriname. Paramaribo remains the capital.
28 November The Fretilin party unilaterally declares the independence of Portuguese Timor as East Timor. Dili remains the capital. The UN continues to recognize Portugal as the legitimate administrative power until May 2002.[169][170]
30 November The Republic of Dahomey changes its name to the People's Republic of Benin.[171]
2 December Following the victory of the Pathet Lao in the Laotian Civil War, the Lao People's Democratic Republic supersedes the Kingdom of Laos. Vientiane remains the capital.
7 December Indonesia invades East Timor, beginning a twenty-four-year occupation.[172]
8 December Portugal completely withdraws its forces from East Timor.[169]
11 December Morocco occupies Laayoune, the capital of Western Sahara, beginning an occupation which continues to the present; fighting immediately breaks out with Polisario Front rebels demanding the territory's independence.[173]
22 December Mauritania conquers La Güera and Tichla after a two-week battle against the Polisario Front, beginning a four-year occupation of the southern part of Western Sahara.
26 December Iran and Iraq complete the demarcation of their border in the Shatt al-Arab on the basis of the March treaty which resolved their dispute over the waterway.[174]
30 December Following a referendum, the Malagasy Republic changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Madagascar.[175]
1976 1 January The de facto division of the British Colony of Gilbert and Ellice Islands into the Colony of Gilbert Islands and the Colony of Tuvalu occurs, with the separation of the old administration and introduction of new state symbols.[168]
5 January Kampuchea changes its name to Democratic Kampuchea.[176]
8 January The United States annexes the Carranza, Macum, La Oficina, Vado de Pierda, Las Viboras, and Rancho Texas bancos from Mexico under the terms of the Banco Convention of 1905, acquiring 19.9 hectares (49.2 acres).[177]
26 February Spain completely withdraws its forces and relinquishes its status as the administrative power in Western Sahara.[173][178]
27 February The Polisario Front proclaims the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as an independent state Western Sahara with its capital in Laayoune. 84 UN member states recognize its independence at different times.
13 March The People's Republic of Mozambique changes the name of its capital from Lourenço Marques to Maputo.[179]
14 April Amidst a war against the Polisario Front, Mauritania and Morocco partition Western Sahara, with Mauritania annexing the southern third as Tiris al-Gharbiyya and Morocco annexing the rest as its Southern Provinces.[180]
23 June The United Kingdom detaches Aldabra, Desroches and the Farquhar Group from the British Indian Ocean Territory and returns the islands to the Seychelles days before the latter's independence.[100]
24 June The Philippines moves its capital from Quezon City back to Manila; the new Metro Manila becomes the official seat of government. Baguio is no longer recognized as the summer capital.
29 June The Crown Colony of the Seychelles gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of the Seychelles. Victoria remains the capital.[181]
2 July The Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam unite to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Saigon yields to Hanoi as the capital.
17 July Indonesia annexes East Timor as the province of East Timor, although much of the mountainous interior remains under the control of the Fretilin resistance movement.[182]
19 July France incorporates the Overseas Territory of Saint Pierre and Miquelon as the Overseas Department of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[183]
1 August Trinidad and Tobago changes its name to the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.[184][185]
9 August The Republic of the North Solomons surrenders to Papua New Guinea in an agreement promising Bougainville Island autonomy as North Solomons Province.[165]
26 October The Bantustan Republic of Transkei is declared independent by South Africa. Mthatha becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.
7 November Argentina occupies Southern Thule in the South Sandwich Islands, territory internationally recognized as part of the United Kingdom.[186]
4 December The Central African Republic changes its name to the Central African Empire.
24 December After confirming its decision to break with the Comoros and remain part of France in two referendums held in February and April, Mayotte is reorganized as the Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte.[187]
28 December The People's Republic of Albania changes its name to the People's Socialist Republic of Albania.[188]
1977 11 February Mayotte moves its capital from Dzaoudzi to Mamoudzou.[189]
1 March The United States claims maritime borders west of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, within the Dixon Entrance, and in the Beaufort Sea that conflict with the claims of Canada.[190]
2 March The Libyan Arab Republic changes its name to the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.[191]
31 March The United Kingdom officially turns over its military bases in Masirah Island and Salalah to Oman, fulfilling a demand of the United Nations for the UK to end its "colonial policies" in Oman.[192][193]
26 May Mexico and the United States complete the implementation of the Boundary Treaty of 1970, resulting in several parcels of land being swapped.[194]
27 June Following a referendum, the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas gains independence from France as the Republic of Djibouti. Djibouti City remains the capital.
13 July Somalia invades Ethiopia, conquering most of the ethnic-Somali region of Ogaden by mid-September[195]
5 December The Federation of Arab Republics effectively ceases to exist as Libya and Syria dissolve the Federation Presidential Council, though Egypt does not formally withdraw from the confederation until 1 October 1984.[196][197]
6 December The Bantustan Republic of Bophuthatswana is declared independent by South Africa. Mmabatho becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.[198]
1978 23 March Ethiopia reconquers more than two-thirds of Ogaden, though for several more years Somalia continues to intervene in the region directly and in support of the Western Somali Liberation Front. [195][199][200]
30 April Following the Saur Revolution, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan supersedes the Republic of Afghanistan. Kabul remains the capital.[201]
7 July The British Solomon Islands Protectorate gains independence from the United Kingdom as Solomon Islands. Honiara remains the capital.
7 September The Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka changes its name to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.[202]
1 October Tuvalu gains independence from the United Kingdom. Funafuti remains the capital.
Following the ratification of a new constitution by referendum, the State of Comoros changes its name to the Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros.[203]
3 November The associated state of Dominica gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Commonwealth of Dominica. Roseau remains the capital.
25 December Vietnam invades Democratic Kampuchea, beginning an occupation of Cambodia lasting more than ten years.
29 December Following the transition to democracy and the ratification of a new constitution by referendum, the Spanish State changes its name to the Kingdom of Spain.
1979 7 January Vietnam conquers Phnom Penh effectively overthrowing Democratic Kampuchea, though it remains the UN-recognized government of Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge continues as an insurgency until June 1998.
8 January The People's Republic of Kampuchea is established by the pro-Vietnamese Salvation Front. Phnom Penh remains the capital of Cambodia.[204]
11 February Following the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty, Iran supersedes the Imperial State of Iran. Tehran remains the capital.
22 February The associated state of Saint Lucia gains independence from the United Kingdom. Castries remains the capital.
1 April Following a referendum, Iran changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Iran.[205]
1 June Rhodesia changes its name to Zimbabwe Rhodesia, implementing an unsuccessful bid for international recognition through a settlement between the white government and moderate African nationalists.
12 July The Colony of Gilbert Islands gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Kiribati; it includes most of the Phoenix and Line Islands claimed by the United States until 1983. South Tarawa remains the capital.
The United KingdomUnited States condominium of Canton and Enderbury Islands is effectively dissolved into Kiribati, as the UK cedes its claims and US forces evacuate the territory ahead of the Treaty of Tarawa.[206][207]
5 August Failing to defeat the Sahrawi insurgency despite French support, Mauritania relinquishes all territorial claims in Western Sahara in a peace treaty with the Polisario Front.[208]
11 August Morocco annexes the southern third of Western Sahara following Mauritania's withdrawal. No UN member state has formally recognized Morocco's annexation of any part of Western Sahara.[209]
13 September The Bantustan Republic of Venda is declared independent by South Africa. Thohoyandou becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.
21 September The Central African Empire is overthrown by rebel forces supported by France, and a proclamation is made restoring the Central African Republic.[210]
1 October The United States dissolving the Panama Canal Zone, transferring its territory to Panama except for 44 US enclaves which will be returned later in stages, and joint control of the canal which continues until 31 December 1999.
27 October The associated state of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines gains independence from the United Kingdom. Kingstown remains the capital.
11 December Zimbabwe Rhodesia temporarily returns under the rule of the United Kingdom as the Republic of Southern Rhodesia, implementing the Lancaster House Agreement.
25 December The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan, overthrowing its government two days later and beginning an occupation lasting more than nine years.

1980sEdit

Year Date Event
1980 1 January Tafea declares independence from the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
18 April The Republic of Southern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Republic of Zimbabwe. Salisbury remains the capital.[211]
26 May Tafea is overthrown by British forces and reincorporated into the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[157]
28 May The Republic of Vemerana declares independence from the AngloFrench New Hebrides Condominium.[212]
28 July Peruvian Republic changes its name to the Republic of Peru.[213]
30 July Israel passes the Jerusalem Law, annexing East Jerusalem and expanding its capital of Jerusalem to encompass the annexed area. The United Nations Security Council declares the law null and void.
The New Hebrides Condominium gains independence from France and the United Kingdom as the Republic of Vanuatu. Port Vila remains the capital.
28 August The Republic of Vemerana is overthrown by the forces of Vanuatu supported by those of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.[214]
22 September Iraq invades Iran capturing more than 15,000 km2 (5800 mi2) by December, much of which it occupies for almost two years.
19 December The United Kingdom divides the associated state of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla into Saint Christopher and Nevis and the Crown Colony of Anguilla. Basseterre remains and The Valley becomes their respective capitals.
1981 17 September The United States removes its claims over Roncador Bank, Serrana Bank, and Quita Sueño Bank, ending part of its territorial dispute with Colombia.[215]
21 September The Crown Colony of Belize gains independence from the United Kingdom. Belmopan remains the capital.
1 November The associated state of Antigua and Barbuda gains independence from the United Kingdom. St. John's remains the capital.
4 December The Bantustan Republic of Ciskei is declared independent by South Africa. Bhisho becomes the capital. No other county recognizes its independence, widely seen as part of the institution of apartheid.
14 December Israel annexes the Golan Heights.[216]
1982 28 January Iraq approves a treaty of 26 December with Saudi Arabia to partition the Neutral Zone between the two. The actual division of the territory occurs thereafter, though the new border is made public only in June 1991.[217][218]
1 February Senegal and The Gambia unite to form the Senegambia Confederation. Dakar becomes the confederation capital, though most government powers remain with the separate states.
29 March Canada becomes a fully sovereign state with the promulgation of the Canada Act, eliminating all remaining powers in the country of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
2 April Argentina conquers the Falkland Islands from the United Kingdom, renaming the territory Islas Malvinas and the capital from Stanley to Puerto Argentino during a two-month-long occupation.
3 April Argentina conquers South Georgia from the United Kingdom.
18 April Zimbabwe changes the name of its capital from Salisbury to Harare.[219]
25 April The United Kingdom reconquers South Georgia from Argentina.
26 April Israel completes the sixth and final step of withdrawal, begun on 25 May 1979, from the remaining territory it occupied in the Sinai, fulfilling the terms of its March 1979 peace treaty with Egypt.[220]
29 April Sri Lanka moves its capital from Colombo to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte.[221]
14 June The United Kingdom reconquers the Falkland Islands from Argentina, ending the Falklands War.
20 June The United Kingdom reconquers Southern Thule in the South Sandwich Islands from Argentina.
30 June Iraqi forces are completely expelled from Iran amidst the ongoing Iran–Iraq War.[222]
15 August The unrecognized Kingdom of Rwenzururu disbands and surrenders to Uganda as part of an agreement promising the region a degree of local autonomy, eventually leading to its revival as a subnational kingdom.[223][224]
1983 1 January The United Kingdom changes the title of its Crown colonies and self-governing colonies to that of British Dependent Territories.
21 March Ivory Coast moves its capital from Abidjan to Yamoussoukro.[225]
3 September The United States removes its claims over Atafu, Fakaofo, and Nukunono, ending part of its territorial dispute with Tokelau.[226]
8 September The United States removes its claims over Pukapuka, Manihiki, Penrhyn, and Rakahanga, ending its territorial dispute with the Cook Islands.[227]
19 September The associated state of Saint Christopher and Nevis gains independence from the United Kingdom as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis). Basseterre remains the capital.
23 September The United States removes its claims over Birnie, Canton, Caroline, Christmas, Enderbury, Flint, Gardner, Hull, Malden, McKean, Phoenix, Starbuck, Sydney, and Vostok Islands, ending its territorial dispute with Kiribati.[228][229]
The United States removes its claims over Funafuti, Niulakita, Nukufetau, and Nukulaelae, ending its territorial dispute with Tuvalu.[230]
15 November The Turkish Federated State of Cyprus declares independence from Cyprus as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. North Nicosia remains the capital. Only Turkey, which occupies Northern Cyprus, recognize it.
1984 1 January The Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace gains independence from the United Kingdom. Bandar Seri Begawan remains the capital.
4 February The United Republic of Cameroon changes its name to the Republic of Cameroon.[231]
4 August The Republic of Upper Volta changes its name to Burkina Faso.[232]
29 November A treaty, approved in Argentina by referendum, resolves the Beagle conflict by awarding the disputed Picton, Lennox and Nueva Islands to Chile and most of the adjacent maritime territory to Argentina.
1985 6 June Israel withdraws from other territory it had captured in Lebanon since 1982 to a self-declared "security zone" of formal occupation covering 850 km2 (330 mi2) of southern Lebanon.[233][234]
11 June France restores autonomous government to the Overseas Department of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, reorganizing it as the Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[235]
3 October The United Kingdom detaches the Falkland Islands Dependencies from the Falkland Islands as the separate territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. King Edward Point becomes the capital.[236]
10 October The Democratic Republic of the Sudan changes its name to the Republic of the Sudan.
14 October The Republic of Ivory Coast changes its official English name to the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire.[237]
1986 1 January Aruba withdraws from the Netherlands Antilles and becomes a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Oranjestad becomes the capital.
3 March Australia becomes a fully sovereign state with the promulgation of the Australia Act, eliminating all remaining powers in the country of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
15 April The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya changes its name to the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
30 September The United States returns almost half of its concession at Thule Air Base to the jurisdiction of Greenland and Denmark.[238]
21 October The Republic of the Marshall Islands withdraws from the US–administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and becomes independent in free association with the United States. Majuro remains the capital.
3 November The Federated States of Micronesia withdraws from the US–administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and becomes independent in free association with the United States. Kolonia remains the capital.
4 November The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands withdraws from the US–administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands and becomes an insular area of the United States. Saipan remains the capital.
1987 1 January New Zealand becomes a fully sovereign state with the promulgation of the Constitution Act, eliminating all remaining powers in the country of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
22 February The Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia (Derg) changes its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
7 October Following a coup, the Dominion of Fiji changes its name to the Republic of Fiji and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
30 November The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan changes its name to the Republic of Afghanistan.[239]
1988 14 March China conquers Johnson South Reef in the Spratly Islands from Vietnam.
16 July Iran withdraws from Iraqi Kurdistan after having been evicted from territory it occupied further south, as Iraq returns to the offensive and once more invades Iran; precipitating a ceasefire in the Iran–Iraq War on 20 August.[240]
18 September The Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Burma, with the SLORC junta's suspension of the 1974 Constitution.[241]
15 November The State of Palestine declares independence from Israel, with East Jerusalem as its capital. While its actual control over territory is limited, the declaration is made amidst a popular uprising in the Israeli-occupied territories.[242]
1989 15 February The Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Afghanistan, ending a nine-year-long occupation.
1 May The People's Republic of Kampuchea changes its name to the State of Cambodia.
19 June The Union of Burma changes its name to the Union of Myanmar. The official English name of its capital is changed from Rangoon to Yangon.[243]
26 September Vietnam completely withdraws its forces from Cambodia, ending a more than ten-year-long occupation.
30 September The Senegambia Confederation between Senegal and The Gambia is dissolved.
23 October The Hungarian People's Republic changes its name to the Hungarian Republic.
3–4 November The Federated States of Micronesia moves its capital from Kolonia to Palikir.[244]
28 December Following the Romanian Revolution, the Socialist Republic of Romania changes its name to Romania.[245]
31 December The Polish People's Republic changes its name to the Republic of Poland.[246]

1990sEdit

Year Date Event
1990 19 January Armenian forces conquer Karki, an exclave of the Azerbaijan SSR. It remains Azerbaijani territory only de jure.[247]
1 March The People's Republic of Benin changes its name to the Republic of Benin.
8 March The Socialist Republic of Slovenia changes its name to the Republic of Slovenia.
11 March Following democratic elections, the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic declares independence from the Soviet Union as the restored Republic of Lithuania. Vilnius remains the capital.
Chile moves its legislative capital from Santiago to Valparaíso. Santiago remains the administrative capital.[248]
21 March South West Africa gains independence from South Africa as the Republic of Namibia, fulfilling the terms of the Tripartite Accord. Windhoek remains the capital.
30 March Following grassroots elections, the Estonian SSR announces a transitional period to restore the independence of the Republic of Estonia from the Soviet Union.
23 April The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic changes its name to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
4 May Following democratic elections, the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic declares independence from the Soviet Union as the restored Republic of Latvia, while also announcing a transitional period to achieve independence.
8 May The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Estonia.
17 May The Republic of Bougainville declares independence from Papua New Guinea. Arawa becomes the capital.[249]
22 May The Republic of Yemen is formed through the unification of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic. Aden yields to Sanaa as the capital.
23 June The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova.
25 July The Republic of Fiji changes its name to the Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji.[250]
2 August Iraq invades Kuwait, beginning a seven-month-long occupation.
4 August The State of Kuwait changes its name to the Republic of Kuwait as a Provisional Government is installed by Iraq.
19 August The Gagauz Republic declares independence from the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova as a separate republic within the Soviet Union. Comrat becomes the capital.
20 August Iraq completely withdraws its forces from the territory of Iran occupied during the last weeks of the Iran–Iraq War, returning to the internationally recognized borders established by the 1975 Algiers Agreement.[251]
23 August The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan remains the capital.
28 August Iraq annexes the Republic of Kuwait as the Kuwait Governorate and Saddamiyat al-Mitla' District.[252]
2 September The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic declares independence from the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova as a separate republic within the Soviet Union. Tiraspol becomes the capital.
20 September The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast changes its name to the South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic and declares its independence from the Georgian SSR inside the Soviet Union. Tskhinvali becomes the capital.[253]
28 September The Socialist Republic of Serbia changes its name to the Republic of Serbia.
3 October Germany is reunified through the merger of the German Democratic Republic into the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn yields to Berlin as the capital.
30 October The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Socialist Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
15 November The People's Republic of Bulgaria changes its name to the Republic of Bulgaria.
18 November The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Georgia.
28 November The South Ossetian Soviet Democratic Republic changes its name to the South Ossetian Soviet Republic.[254]
30 November The People's Republic of Mozambique changes its name to the Republic of Mozambique.[255]
15 December The Socialist Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes its name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.
22 December The Socialist Republic of Croatia changes its name to the Republic of Croatia.
1991 13 January The forces of the Soviet Union withdraw from Lithuania's cities following a failed attempt to overthrow the unrecognized Republic of Lithuania.
5 February The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
The Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes the name of its capital from Frunze to Bishkek.
11 February Iceland becomes the first UN member state to recognize the independence of a Republic of the Soviet Union, Lithuania, when its parliament votes that the 1940 Soviet annexation is legally void. Other states soon follow.[256]
28 February Kuwait regains its independence, with the complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces.
15 March Germany becomes fully sovereign, as the Four Powers (France, the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States) renounce their rights in the country dating from the post-war occupation in the Two Plus Four Agreement.
9 April The Republic of Georgia secedes from the Soviet Union following a referendum. Tbilisi remains the capital.
29 April The People's Socialist Republic of Albania changes its name to the Republic of Albania.
4 May The Assembly of the South Ossetian Soviet Republic votes to return to the status of a South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast; the Supreme Council of Georgia had dissolved the autonomous region on 10 December.[257]
18 May The Republic of Somaliland declares independence from Somalia. Hargeisa becomes the capital. All other countries continue to officially recognize Somaliland as part of Somalia.[258][259]
23 May The Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova changes its name to the Republic of Moldova.
24 May The State of Eritrea gains de facto independence from the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia following a decades-long War of Independence.
7 June The Socialist Republic of Macedonia changes its name to the Republic of Macedonia.[260]
19 June The Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Hungary, ending an occupation begun in 1944.
25 June The Republic of Slovenia secedes from Yugoslavia. Ljubljana remains the capital.
The Republic of Croatia secedes from Yugoslavia. Zagreb remains the capital.
27 June The Soviet Union completely withdraws its forces from Czechoslovakia, ending an occupation begun in 1968
4 July Colombia changes the name of its capital from Bogotá, Distrito Capital to Santa Fe de Bogotá with the promulgation of a new constitution.
21 July The Somali Republic supersedes the Somali Democratic Republic, as rebel factions agree to restore the Constitution of 1960. Mogadishu remains the capital, though its authority is limited amidst ongoing civil war.[113][261]
22 July Following the victory of the EPRDF in the civil war, Ethiopia supersedes the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa remains the capital.[262]
2 August The Socialist Republic of Montenegro changes its name to the Republic of Montenegro.[263]
20 August In response to the Soviet coup d'état attempt, the Republic of Estonia announces the end of the transitional period and declares complete independence from the Soviet Union. Tallinn remains the capital.
21 August In response to the Soviet coup d'état attempt, the Republic of Latvia announces the end of the transitional period and declares complete independence from the Soviet Union. Riga remains the capital.
24 August The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as Ukraine. Kiev remains the capital.
25 August The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union. Minsk remains the capital.
27 August The Republic of Moldova secedes from the Soviet Union. Chişinău remains the capital.
30 August The Republic of Azerbaijan secedes from the Soviet Union. Baku remains the capital.
31 August The Republic of Kyrgyzstan secedes from the Soviet Union. Bishkek remains the capital.
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent remains the capital.
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Tajikistan.
1 September The South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast changes its name to the Republic of South Ossetia and annuls the law of 4 May, reverting to the status of independence from Georgia within the Soviet Union.[264]
2 September The Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and Shahumyan district councils jointly declare independence from Azerbaijan as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic within the Soviet Union. Stepanakert becomes the capital.[265]
6 September The first meeting of the State Council of the Soviet Union recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.[266]
A ceasefire is imposed in the war in Western Sahara, with Morocco controlling 80% of the territory within a defensive wall and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic governing the remaining Free Zone from Tifariti.[173]
8 September The Republic of Macedonia secedes from Yugoslavia. Skopje remains the capital.
9 September The Republic of Tajikistan secedes from the Soviet Union. Dushanbe remains the capital.
19 September The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Belarus.
23 September Following a referendum, the Republic of Armenia reaffirms its August 1990 declaration of independence from the Soviet Union.
27 October The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic secedes from the Soviet Union as Turkmenistan. Ashgabat remains the capital.
1 November The Chechen Republic declares independence from the Soviet Union after elections. Grozny becomes the capital. The Russian SFSR declares the election illegal the next day.[267]
5 November The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria).
2 December The Russian SFSR recognizes the independence of Ukraine the day after it is affirmed by a referendum.
8 December The Russian SFSR, the Republic of Belarus, and Ukraine form the Commonwealth of Independent States as a successor organization to the Soviet Union.
10 December The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic changes its name to the Republic of Kazakhstan.
12 December Nigeria moves its capital from Lagos to Abuja.
16 December The Republic of Kazakhstan secedes from the Soviet Union. Alma-Ata remains the capital until 1997.
19 December The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina declares its independence from Croatia and loyalty to Yugoslavia as the Republic of Serbian Krajina . Knin becomes the capital.
21 December The Republic of South Ossetia declares independence from the Soviet Union. Tskhinvali remains the capital. Georgia continues to claim South Ossetia as part of its own territory.[268]
25 December The Russian Federation supersedes both the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Moscow remains the capital.
26 December The Soviet Union is formally dissolved at the final meeting of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet.
1992 6 January The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic declares its complete independence following a referendum. Azerbaijan, which abolished the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast on 26 November, continues to claim its territory in full.[269]
The Iraqi Republic changes its name to the Republic of Iraq.[270][271]
12 February The Mongolian People's Republic changes its name to Mongolia upon the promulgation of a new constitution.
26 February The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia and the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia join the Republic of Serbian Krajina.
3 March Following an independence referendum, the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina secedes from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Sarajevo remains the capital.
12 March Mauritius changes its name to the Republic of Mauritius and severs all ties to the British monarchy as a Commonwealth realm.
The Chechen Republic changes its name to the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria upon the promulgation of a new constitution.[272]
15 March The State of Cambodia cedes all government powers to the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia tasked with organizing constituent assembly elections, in fulfillment of the 1991 Paris Peace Agreements.[273][274]
The People's Republic of the Congo changes its name to the Republic of the Congo following the promulgation of a new constitution by referendum.
7 April The Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina declares independence from the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Pale becomes the capital.
8 April The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina changes its name to the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
24 April An accord between Mujahideen and Afghan Army factions ends the civil war and creates the Islamic State of Afghanistan, superseding the Republic of Afghanistan. The new state immediately plunges into a new civil war.
27 April The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia supersedes the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Belgrade remains the capital.
Armenia conquers Barxudarlı and Sofulu, two exclaves of Azerbaijan. They remain Azerbaijani territory only de jure.[275]
8 June Armenia conquers Yukhari Askipara, an exclave of Azerbaijan. It remains Azerbaijani territory only de jure.[275]
24 June A ceasefire is imposed in the war between the unrecognized Republic of South Ossetia and Georgia, with Georgia losing control of over 60% of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast which it continues to claim in full.
21 July A ceasefire is imposed in the war between the unrecognized Transnistria and Moldova, with Moldova losing control of Bender and most of the Transnistria region both of which it continues to claim in full.
23 July The Abkhaz faction of the Abkhazia Supreme Soviet effectively declares independence from Georgia by reinstating the 1925 constitution, precipitating a Georgian military response and the outbreak of war.[276]
8 August Azerbaijan conquers Artsvashen, an exclave of Armenia. It remains Armenian territory only de jure.[277]
12 August The Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina changes its name to Republika Srpska.
27 August The People's Republic of Angola changes its name to the Republic of Angola with the enactment of constitutional revisions.[278]
15 September Russia completely withdraws its forces from Mongolia, ending its military presence in the country since 1967.[279]
18 September The Democratic Republic of Madagascar changes its name to the Republic of Madagascar upon the promulgation of a new constitution.[280][281]
22 September The Republic of Kosova declares independence from Yugoslavia, though it only ever exercises partial control over most of the territory it claims and receives no international recognition. Pristina is the declared capital.
1 October Oman and Yemen resolve their border dispute, in particular over the Khuriya Muriya Islands which are confirmed as part of the territory of Oman.[282]
1993 1 January The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic gain full independence with the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic. Prague and Bratislava remain the respective capitals.
28 January Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Alma-Ata to Almaty.
13 February Papua New Guinea reconquers Arawa, the capital of the Republic of Bougainville. The Bougainville Revolutionary Army wages an insurgency until the 1997–98 agreements leading to a 2019 independence referendum.[249]
8 April The Republic of Macedonia becomes a member state of the United Nations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)" due to Greece's objection to its official name.
5 May The Republic of Kyrgyzstan changes its name to the Kyrgyz Republic.
24 May The independence of Eritrea is internationally recognized following a referendum.
23 June The Republic of the Seychelles changes its name to the Republic of Seychelles.[283][284][285]
28 August The Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia declares itself the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia with the intention of forcing the Owen–Stoltenberg plan upon Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar becomes the capital.
18 September Russia completely withdraws its forces from Poland, ending its military presence in the country since World War II.
24 September With the promulgation of a new constitution by the Constituent Assembly elected in May, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia cedes its authority to the restored Kingdom of Cambodia.
27 September The forces of Russia and the unrecognized Republic of Abkhazia conquer the Abkhazian capital of Sukhumi from Georgia, which continues to claim the entire territory of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
The secessionist Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia is established with the support of Serbian and Croatian forces intent on the partition of Bosnia. Velika Kladuša is the capital.
1 November The European Union is established between the twelve members of the European Communities: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
1994 1 March South Africa transfers Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands to Namibia.
28 March Kazakhstan leases Baikonur Cosmodrome to Russia for twenty years, with automatic extension absent objections by either party.[286]
30 March In a ceasefire agreement, the government-controlled territories of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia combine to form the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
27 April The nominally independent republics of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei and Venda are incorporated back into South Africa.
4 May An agreement between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, implementing the Oslo I Accord, creates the Palestinian National Authority.[287]
10 May Libya completely withdraws its forces from the Aouzou Strip in northern Chad after a 21–year occupation, implementing a 3 February ICJ verdict which upheld Chad's sovereignty over the territory.[288]
12 May A ceasefire is imposed in the First Nagorno-Karabakh War with the forces of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, supported by Armenia, occupying more than 13% of the internationally recognized territory of Azerbaijan.
21 May The Democratic Republic of Yemen secedes from Yemen. Aden is the capital.
7 July Yemeni government forces reconquer the Democratic Republic of Yemen.
31 August Russia completely withdraws its forces from eastern Germany, ending an occupation begun in 1945.
1 October The Republic of Palau gains full independence but enters into free association with the United States. Koror remains the capital. The US-administered United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands is terminated.
21 October Argentina is awarded most of Laguna del Desierto, also claimed by Chile, following international arbitration.
23 December The unrecognized Gagauz Republic is reincorporated into Moldova. It is reorganized three weeks later as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia.
3 November The Taliban conquers Kandahar, the first city to fall under the control of the militant group in Afghanistan.
10 November Iraq recognizes the independence and territorial integrity of Kuwait following a new war scare on their borders.[289]
1995 1 January Three more states join the European Union: Austria, Finland, and Sweden.
The International Date Line is moved around Kiribati.
3 May Croatian forces reconquer the Western Slavonia region of Serbian Krajina.
1 July Oman and Saudi Arabia finalize the demarcation of their previously undefined border.[290]
26 July The Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia changes its name to the Republic of Western Bosnia.
7 August Croatian and Bosnian forces reconquer most of Serbian Krajina.
The Republic of Western Bosnia is conquered by the forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina supported by Croatia.
21 August Ethiopia changes its name to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia with the promulgation of a new constitution.
24 August The Republic of Georgia changes its name to Georgia.
28 September The Oslo II Accord begins the transfer of land to the Palestinian Authority. All of the Gaza Strip and 18% of the West Bank is eventually transferred to full Palestinian control, and 22% to joint Israeli-Palestinian control.[291]
14 October Ukraine officially changes the English name of its capital from Kiev to Kyiv.[292]
12 November Croatia and the remaining portion of Serbian Krajina in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia reach an agreement to reincorporate the region into Croatia through a transitional United Nations protectorate.
14 December The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska unite to form Bosnia and Herzegovina, superseding the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sarajevo remains the capital.
1996 15 January The United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium is established in the remaining territory of the former Serbian Krajina in order to reintegrate the region into Croatia.
February Tanzania moves its capital from Dar-es-Salaam to Dodoma.
27 September The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is established following the Taliban's conquest of Kabul, which becomes the state capital.
The Islamic State of Afghanistan moves its de facto capital to Mazar-i-Sharif following the evacuation of Kabul.
1997 23 January The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria changes the name of its capital from Grozny to Dzokhar-Ghala.[293]
17 May The Republic of Zaire changes its name back to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
25 May The Islamic State of Afghanistan moves its capital from Mazar-i-Sharif to Taloqan, as Mazar-i-Sharif becomes a battlefield in the war against the Taliban.
28 May Ukraine formally agrees to lease naval facilities in Sevastopol to Russia for twenty years, until 2017.
1 July Sovereignty over Hong Kong is transferred to China from the United Kingdom. Hong Kong becomes a special administrative region.
4 July The Independent State of Western Samoa changes its name to the Independent State of Samoa.
27 July The Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji changes its name to the Republic of the Fiji Islands upon the promulgation of a new constitution.
3 August The State of Anjouan declares independence from the Comoros. Mutsamudu becomes the capital.[294]
11 August The Democratic Republic of Mohéli declares independence from the Comoros. Fomboni becomes the capital.[295]
10 December Kazakhstan moves its capital from Almaty to Aqmola.[296]
1998 15 January The United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium concludes its operations and transfers full administrative authority over the region to Croatia.
6 May Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Aqmola to Astana.[296]
16 December Argentina and Chile demarcate part of their undefined border in the Southern Patagonian Ice Field.
4 July China is allocated 407 km2 (157 mi2) and Kazakhstan is allocated 537 km2 (207 mi2) of disputed territory in a treaty delimiting the border between the two countries.[297][298][299]
1 August The Puntland State of Somalia declares "temporary" independence from Somalia. Garowe becomes the capital.[300][301]
1999 19 March France elevates the Overseas Territory of New Caledonia to the sui generis collectivity of New Caledonia.[302]
10 June The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo is formed in the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija of Yugoslavia.
20 June The last forces of Yugoslavia withdraw from Kosovo.[303]
25 October Indonesia relinquishes control over the disputed region of East Timor to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor.
20 December The Republic of Venezuela changes its name to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.[304]
Sovereignty over Macau is transferred to China from Portugal. Macau becomes a special administrative region.
30 December China and Vietnam sign a treaty resolving their border dispute, with China acquiring 114 km2 (44 mi2) and Vietnam acquiring 113 km2 (43.6 mi2) of disputed territory.[305]
31 December The United States transfers the operation of the Panama Canal and full sovereignty in the former Panama Canal Zone to Panama.[306]

2000sEdit

Year Date Event
2000 20 March Six weeks after the fall of Grozny, the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria is overthrown as a state following its defeat in the Battle of Komsomolskoye; as an insurgency it continues to resist Russian rule in Chechnya for years.
24 May Israel completely withdraws from its occupation zone in southern Lebanon, where it is replaced by United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon peacekeeping forces.
12 June Saudi Arabia and Yemen sign a treaty resolving their border dispute.
17 August Colombia returns its capital city's name from Santa Fe de Bogotá back to Bogotá, Distrito Capital.[307]
5 September Taloqan, the de facto capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, falls to the Taliban's Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The capital moves to Fayzabad.[308]
2001 16 March The ICJ resolves the territorial dispute between Bahrain and Qatar, awarding Fasht Al Azm, Qit'at Jaradah, and most of the Hawar Islands to Bahrain, and Fasht Dibal, Zubarah, and Janan Island to Qatar.[309]
21 March Qatar and Saudi Arabia sign a treaty resolving their border dispute.[310]
1 July The temporarily independent Puntland State of Somalia adopts a new constitution explicitly identifying itself as an "independent integral part of Somalia".[311]
11 July France reorganizes the Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte as the Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte.[312]
7 October The United States and a NATO-led alliance invade Afghanistan, beginning an occupation which continues up to the present.
13 November The capital of the Islamic State of Afghanistan returns to Kabul with the reconquest of the city by the forces of the Northern Alliance, beginning a cascading collapse of the Taliban forces of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
17 December The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is completely overthrown following its defeat in the Battle of Tora Bora. The Taliban soon reemerges as an insurgency.
23 December The Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros changes its name to the Union of the Comoros.[313]
2002 14 February The State of Bahrain changes its name to the Kingdom of Bahrain.[314]
10 March The Union of the Comoros reabsorbs the de facto independent State of Anjouan and the Democratic Republic of Mohéli. Mutsamudu and Fomboni yield to Moroni as the capital.[315]
20 May The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste gains independence with the promulgation of a constitution and the conclusion of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor. Dili remains the capital.
21 May The United Kingdom changes the title of its British Dependent Territories to that of British Overseas Territories. The citizens of each British Overseas Territory gain full British citizenship.
2003 4 February The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia changes its name to the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.[316]
20 March United States-led coalition forces invade Iraq, beginning an occupation which lasts for more than eight years.
15 April United States forces conquer Tikrit, the last stronghold of Ba'athist Iraq.[317]
28 March France reorganizes the Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon as the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[318]
France reorganizes the Overseas Territory of Wallis and Futuna as the Overseas Collectivity of Wallis and Futuna.[319]
France reorganizes the Overseas Territory of French Polynesia as the Overseas Collectivity of French Polynesia.[320]
26 May The Rwandese Republic changes its name to the Republic of Rwanda.[321]
2004 9 January Kazakhstan agrees to a revision of the terms of Russia's lease of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, extending it to 2050 with no established options on further extensions.[286]
27 February France elevates the Overseas Collectivity of French Polynesia to the Overseas Country of French Polynesia.[322]
1 May Ten more states join the European Union: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
1 September The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat administering Antarctica and all lands and waters south of the 60th parallel south establishes its headquarters in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
7 December The Islamic State of Afghanistan changes its name to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan with the end of the transitional period set out in the new constitution.[323][324][325]
2005 12 September Israel completely withdraws its forces from the Gaza Strip. A Palestinian Civil War leads to Gaza effectively withdrawing from the Palestinian Authority and becoming a separate entity under Hamas by June 2007.
6 November Myanmar moves its capital from Yangon to Naypyidaw.[326]
2006 3 June The Republic of Montenegro secedes from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Podgorica remains the capital.
5 June The Republic of Serbia supersedes the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Belgrade remains the capital.
7 October Palau moves its capital from Koror to Ngerulmud.[327]
2007 1 January Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union.
15 January The Kingdom of Nepal changes its name to the State of Nepal.[328]
21 February France detaches the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Barthélemy from Guadeloupe. Gustavia becomes the capital.
France detaches the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Martin from Guadeloupe. Marigot becomes the capital.
France integrates the Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean into the French Southern and Antarctic Lands as its fifth district.[329]
22 October The Republic of Montenegro changes its name to Montenegro.
2008 17 February The Republic of Kosovo declares independence from Serbia, which continues to claim it as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija; other countries divide on recognizing its declaration. Pristina remains the capital.[330]
4 August The State of Nepal changes its name to the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.[331]
11 August The separatist forces of South Ossetia, supported by Russia, completely expel the forces of Georgia from the territory of the former South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast, which Georgia continues to claim in its entirety.
12 August The separatist forces of Abkhazia, supported by Russia, completely expel the forces of Georgia from Upper Abkhazia, the last territory held by Georgia in the region which it continues to claim in its entirety.
14 August Nigeria completes the transfer of Bakassi to Cameroon, fulfilling the terms of a 2002 ICJ ruling on the disputed territory.[332]
27 August Russia recognizes the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia from Georgia. Most countries continue to recognize these territories as part of Georgia.[333]
14 October China is ceded 174 km2 (67 mi2) of land by Russia as part of a treaty delimiting the borders and settling a territorial dispute between the two countries.[334]
2009 7 February The Republic of Bolivia changes its name to the Plurinational State of Bolivia.[335]
14 July China is ceded 9 km2 (3.5 mi2) of land by Kyrgyzstan as part of a treaty delimiting the borders between the two countries.[336][337]
1 September The British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Dependencies changes its name to Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Jamestown on Saint Helena remains the capital.
24 November The United States cedes six islands in the Rio Grande river to Mexico and Mexico cedes three islands and two bancos after pending for 20 years.[338]

2010sEdit

Year Date Event
2010 21 April Ukraine extends Russia's lease on naval facilities in Sevastopol for an additional twenty-five years beyond the 2017 expiration, until 2042, with further renewal options thereafter.[339]
10 October The Kingdom of the Netherlands dissolves the Netherlands Antilles. New polities include:
21 October The Union of Myanmar changes its name to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.[340]
2011 11 January China is ceded 1322 km2 (510 mi2) of land by Tajikistan after the final ratification of boundary treaties between the two countries.[341]
2 February The Republic of the Fiji Islands changes its name back to the Republic of Fiji.
31 March Implementing the decision of a March 2009 referendum, France incorporates the Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte as the Overseas Department and Region of Mayotte.[342]
9 July Following a referendum in January, Southern Sudan gains independence from Sudan as the Republic of South Sudan. Juba remains the capital.[343]
1 September Amidst a civil war, Muammar Gaddafi moves the capital of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from Tripoli to Sirte, days after the rebel forces of the National Transitional Council, supported by NATO, conquered Tripoli.
16 September Libya officially supersedes the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, as the UN General Assembly seats the representatives of the National Transitional Council and recognizes the country's name change.[344][345]
20 October The Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is overthrown following its defeat in the Battle of Sirte. The government of Libya declares the end of the civil war three days later.[346]
18 December The United States ends its occupation of Iraq.
31 December Samoa and Tokelau switch to the western side of the International Date Line, skipping 30 December entirely.[347]
2012 1 January The Hungarian Republic changes its name to Hungary.[348]
25 January The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) conquers Aguelhok, the first town to fall under the control of the militant separatist group in northern Mali.[349]
6 April The State of Azawad declares independence from Mali, after the MNLA conquers northern Mali's largest cities between 30 March and 2 April. Timbuktu is proclaimed the capital; Gao serves as the provisional capital.[350]
26 May Georgia moves its legislative capital from Tbilisi to Kutaisi. Tbilisi remains the administrative capital.
15 June A standoff beginning April 8 over Scarborough Shoal ends with an agreement between China and the Philippines to both withdraw their forces: only the Philippines actually does so, leaving China in effective possession.[351]
12 July Ansongo, the last town controlled by the State of Azawad, is conquered by Ansar Dine, a militant group aiming to make Mali an Islamist state which had already conquered Azawad's largest cities on 27–28 June.[352]
20 August The Somali Republic changes its name to the Federal Republic of Somalia.
14 December China declares an exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea which extends hundreds of kilometres into Japan's maritime claims.
19 November The ICJ resolves the territorial dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia, upholding Colombia's sovereignty over disputed islands while ceding Nicaragua much of the surrounding maritime territory.[353]
29 November The United Nations General Assembly votes to upgrade the status of the State of Palestine from "entity" to "non-member observer state," effectively granting it recognition.[354]
2013 8 January The General National Congress changes the provisional name of Libya to the State of Libya, pending the adoption of a new constitution.[355]
1 July Croatia joins the European Union.
24 October The Republic of Cape Verde changes its official English name to the Republic of Cabo Verde,[356] following precedents set by Côte d'Ivoire and Timor-Leste.
11 November The ICJ clarifies its 1962 ruling on the disputed border between Cambodia and Thailand, awarding the promontory of Preah Vihear to Cambodia and Phu Ma-khuea hill to Thailand.
23 November China declares an Air Defense Identification Zone over the East China Sea, around half of which overlaps with the previously declared airspace of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
2014 4 January The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant captures Fallujah in Iraq, the first significant city the militant group is able to maintain control over.[357]
14 January After having been expelled from the city by Syrian rebels early in the month, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seizes total control of Raqqa, the largest city to fall under its rule in Syria.[358][359]
27 January The ICJ publishes a new boundary resolving the maritime dispute between Chile and Peru.[360]
11 March The Republic of Crimea declares independence from Ukraine. Sevastopol and Simferopol are the de facto capitals.
18 March The Republic of Crimea is annexed by Russia as two separate federal entities: the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. Most countries continue to recognize Crimea as part of Ukraine.[361]
11 May The Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic declare independence from Ukraine following referendums. Donetsk and Luhansk become their capitals. Both republics remain completely unrecognized.
10 June The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant completely conquers Mosul, the second largest city in Iraq.
29 June Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, declares the foundation of a new caliphate, the Islamic State. Raqqa is the de facto capital.[362]
2015 20 February The Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic consolidate their territories with the conquest of Debaltseve from Ukraine, the last major battle of the War in Donbass.
21 March Amidst a civil war, the Cabinet of Yemen provisionally moves the capital of Yemen to Aden, while the Supreme Political Council remains in the official capital of Sanaa.[363]
8 May Burkina Faso and Niger agree to implement the ICJ's 2013 judgment on their frontier dispute case by exchanging 18 towns over the following year (Burkina Faso to gain 14, Niger to gain 4).[364]
31 July India and Bangladesh exchange 162 enclaves, simplifying their mutual border in the region of the former Cooch Behar princely state; Bangladesh gains a net 40 km2 (15 mi2).[365]
26 August Syria formally agrees to lease its Khmeimim Air Base to Russia with no time limit.[366]
11 December The Republic of The Gambia changes its name to the Islamic Republic of The Gambia by presidential decree.[367][368]
16 December The ICJ cedes 3 km2 to Costa Rica, resolving part of the San Juan River border dispute with Nicaragua.[369]
2016 5 April After four days of fighting, Azerbaijan reconquers 8–20 km2 (3.1–7.7 mi2) of territory controlled by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since 1994.
2 May The Czech Republic changes its official English short-form name to Czechia.[370]
1 July Australia incorporates Norfolk Island within its domestic institutions and laws, implementing a March 2015 decision to revoke the territory's self-governing status.[371]
2017 18 January Syria's lease of Khmeimim Air Base to Russia is amended from having no time limit to 49 years, renewable for subsequent 25-year periods beginning in 2066.[372]
Syria signs a lease granting Russia sovereign jurisdiction over the naval base at the port of Tartus for 49 years, renewable for subsequent 25-year periods beginning in 2066.[373]
29 January The Islamic Republic of The Gambia changes its name back to the Republic of The Gambia.[374][375]
21 February The unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic changes its name to the Republic of Artsakh after a constitutional referendum.[376][377]
29 March Turkey and the Turkish-backed Syrian National Army complete the conquest of a 2055 km2 (793 mi2) occupation zone from the Islamic State and the Syrian Democratic Forces, establishing the Northern Syria Security Belt.[378]
9 April Following a referendum, the partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia changes its name to the Republic of South Ossetia – the State of Alania.[379]
18 May The United States establishes a "55 KM area" around Al-Tanf effectively under its control, conducting its only attack on pro-government Syrian ground forces of the Syrian Civil War to prevent their advancing into the area.
24 June Egypt transfers Sanafir Island and Tiran Island to Saudi Arabia.[380]
20 July Iraqi government forces, allied militias and the Peshmerga, supported by the US-led Joint Task Force and Iran, complete the reconquest of Mosul from the Islamic State.[381]
17 October The Syrian Democratic Forces, supported by the US-led Joint Task Force, complete the reconquest of Raqqa from the Islamic State.[382]
2018 1 January Belgium and the Netherlands exchange territory along the Meuse River, swapping Belgian Presqu'ile de L'llal and Presqu'ile d'Eijsden for Dutch Presqu'ile Petit-Gravier; the Netherlands gains a net 10 ha (24.7 acres).[383][384]
2 February The International Court of Justice (ICJ) awards the Laguna Los Portillos and its barrier beach to Nicaragua and the remainder of the disputed territory on Isla Portillos to Costa Rica.[385]
24 March Turkey and the Turkish-backed Syrian National Army complete the conquest from the Kurdish People's Protection Units of over 2000 km2 (770 mi2) of Afrin, which is added to their Northern Syria Security Belt.
19 April The Kingdom of Swaziland changes its name to the Kingdom of Eswatini.[386]
9 July Ethiopia ends its occupation of Badme and returns the town to Eritrea following a peace summit, ending their twenty-year border conflict.[387]
16 December Georgia moves its legislative capital from Kutaisi back to Tbilisi.[388]
2019 16 January Burundi moves its capital from Bujumbura to Gitega.[389]
12 February The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia changes its name to the Republic of North Macedonia as part of the Prespa agreement, under which Greece will no longer veto the country's accession to NATO and the EU.[390][391]
20 March Kazakhstan changes the name of its capital from Astana to Nur-Sultan.[392]
23 March The Syrian Democratic Forces, supported by the US-led Joint Task Force and the Iraqi and Syrian governments, conquers the last territory controlled by the Islamic State in Syria or Iraq, though it continues as an insurgency.[393]
29 October Turkey and the Turkish-backed Syrian National Army complete the conquest from the predominantly-Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces of a 4820 km2 (1860 mi2) "safe zone", expanding their Northern Syria Security Belt.[394]
27 November Turkey and the Libyan Government of National Accord sign a maritime boundary treaty, establishing exclusive economic zones which are rejected by Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, and the United Arab Emirates.[395]

2020sEdit

Year Date Event
2020 31 January The United Kingdom withdraws from the European Union, entering a transition period in which it continues under EU laws and institutions until 31 December.[396]
6 August Egypt and Greece sign a maritime boundary treaty, establishing exclusive economic zones in the Mediterranean Sea which overlap with the claims made by Libya and Turkey in November 2019.[397]
10 November Armenia and Azerbaijan impose a ceasefire ending the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war; by 15 December the Republic of Artsakh surrenders over 72% of its territory to Azerbaijan, and Russian forces are deployed to the remainder.[398][399][400][401]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Lists of non-disputed maritime claims can be found in the articles on exclusive economic zones and maritime boundary treaties.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Treaties, Cessions, and Federal Laws". American Samoa Bar Association. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  2. ^ "National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa. History". americansamoa.noaa.gov. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b Salote Talagi (2016). Stephen Levine (ed.). Pacific Ways: Government and Politics in the Pacific Islands, Second Edition. Victoria University Press. p. Niue. ISBN 978-1-77656-026-4. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. ^ HL Deb 16 January 1902 vol 101 c57
  5. ^ ’The Map of Africa by Treaty’ by Sir E. Hertslet pg. 77
  6. ^ "British Columbia". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  7. ^ DuVal, Miles P. (1947). And the Mountains Will Move: The Story of the Building of the Panama Canal. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-1151-7. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  8. ^ a b International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico (1910). "Proceedings of the International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico, American Section — Elimination of Bancos — First Series – Nos. 1 to 58". Washington, DC: Press of Byron S. Adams. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  9. ^ a b International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico (1912). "Proceedings of the International Boundary Commission, United States and Mexico, American Section — Elimination of Bancos — Second Series – Nos. 59 to 89". Washington, DC: Press of Byron S. Adams. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  10. ^ 36 Stat. 2477
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