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List of World Chess Championships

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The following is a list of World Chess Championships including the hosting cities. Qualification path consist of Interzonals (defunct), FIDE Grand Prix, Chess World Cup and Candidates Tournament for the process of selecting a challenger for championship matches.

Contents

List of World Chess ChampionshipsEdit

Year Host country Host city World champion Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
Unofficial World Chess Championships (1834–1886)
1834   United Kingdom London   Louis de La Bourdonnais   Alexander McDonnell 45 28 13
1843   United Kingdom London   Pierre Saint-Amant   Howard Staunton 3 2 1
1843   France Paris   Howard Staunton   Pierre Saint-Amant 11 6 4
1846   United Kingdom London   Howard Staunton (2)   Bernhard Horwitz 14 7 3
1851   United Kingdom London   Adolf Anderssen   Marmaduke Wyvill 4 2 1 single-elimination tournament, best-of-7 final
1858   France Paris   Paul Morphy   Adolf Anderssen 7 2 2
1862   United Kingdom London   Adolf Anderssen   Louis Paulsen 11 1 1 round robin tournament, 14 players
1866   United Kingdom London   Wilhelm Steinitz   Adolf Anderssen 8 6 0
1883   United Kingdom London   Johannes Zukertort   Wilhelm Steinitz 22 4 0 double round robin tournament, 14 players
Official World Chess Championships (1886–1946)
1886   United States New York City
Saint Louis
New Orleans
  Wilhelm Steinitz (2)   Johannes Zukertort 10 5 5 first-to-10 wins
1889   Cuba Havana   Wilhelm Steinitz (3)   Mikhail Chigorin 10 6 1 best-of-20 + tiebreak
1891   United States New York City   Wilhelm Steinitz (4)   Isidor Gunsberg 6 4 9
1892   Cuba Havana   Wilhelm Steinitz (5)   Mikhail Chigorin 8+2 8 4+1
1894   United States and
  Canada
New York City
Philadelphia
Montreal
  Emanuel Lasker   Wilhelm Steinitz 10 5 4 first-to-10 wins
1897   Russian Empire Moscow   Emanuel Lasker (2)   Wilhelm Steinitz 10 2 5
1907   United States New York City
Philadelphia
Washington, D.C.
Baltimore
Chicago
Memphis
  Emanuel Lasker (3)   Frank Marshall 8 0 7 first-to-8 wins
1908   German Empire Düsseldorf
Munich
  Emanuel Lasker (4)   Siegbert Tarrasch 8 3 5
1910   Austria-Hungary and
  German Empire
Vienna
Berlin
  Emanuel Lasker (5)   Carl Schlechter 1 1 8 best of 10; disputed whether challenger had to win by 1 or 2 points;[1][2]
1910   German Empire Berlin   Emanuel Lasker (6)   Dawid Janowski 8 0 3 first-to-8 wins
1921   Cuba Havana   José Raúl Capablanca   Emanuel Lasker 4 0 10 best-of-24;[1] Emanuel Lasker resigned after 14 games
1927   Argentina Buenos Aires   Alexander Alekhine   José Raúl Capablanca 6 3 25 first-to-6 wins
1929   Germany and
  Netherlands
Wiesbaden
Heidelberg
Berlin
The Hague
  Alexander Alekhine (2)   Efim Bogoljubov 11 5 9 first-to-6 wins AND 15 points
1934   Nazi Germany   Alexander Alekhine (3)   Efim Bogoljubov 8 3 15
1935   Netherlands   Max Euwe   Alexander Alekhine 9 8 13
1937   Netherlands   Alexander Alekhine (4)   Max Euwe 10 4 11
Interregnum (1946–1948)
Alexander Alekhine died in 1946 as World Chess Champion.
FIDE World Chess Championships (1948–1993)
1948   Netherlands and
  Soviet Union
The Hague
Moscow
  Mikhail Botvinnik 4 players 14 points out of 20 5-player, 5-cycle round-robin tournament
1951   Soviet Union Moscow   Mikhail Botvinnik (2)   David Bronstein 5 5 14 best-of-24[1]
1954   Soviet Union Moscow   Mikhail Botvinnik (3)   Vasily Smyslov 7 7 10
1957   Soviet Union Moscow   Vasily Smyslov   Mikhail Botvinnik 6 3 13
1958   Soviet Union Moscow   Mikhail Botvinnik (4)   Vasily Smyslov 7 5 11
1960   Soviet Union Moscow   Mikhail Tal   Mikhail Botvinnik 6 2 13
1961   Soviet Union Moscow   Mikhail Botvinnik (5)   Mikhail Tal 10 5 6
1963   Soviet Union Moscow   Tigran Petrosian   Mikhail Botvinnik 5 2 15
1966   Soviet Union Moscow   Tigran Petrosian (2)   Boris Spassky 4 3 17
1969   Soviet Union Moscow   Boris Spassky   Tigran Petrosian 6 4 13
1972   Iceland Reykjavík   Bobby Fischer   Boris Spassky 7 3 11
1975   Philippines Manila   Anatoly Karpov   Bobby Fischer by default first-to-10 wins
1978   Philippines Baguio   Anatoly Karpov (2)   Viktor Korchnoi 6 5 21 first-to-6 wins
1981   Italy Kurhaus
Merano
  Anatoly Karpov (3)   Viktor Korchnoi 6 2 10
1984   Soviet Union Moscow   Anatoly Karpov /   Garry Kasparov 5 3 40 first-to-6 wins; unfinished match
1985   Soviet Union Moscow   Garry Kasparov   Anatoly Karpov 5 3 16 best-of-24[1]
1986   United Kingdom and
  Soviet Union
London
Leningrad[3]
  Garry Kasparov (2)   Anatoly Karpov 5 4 15
1987   Spain Seville   Garry Kasparov (3)   Anatoly Karpov 4 4 16
1990   United States and
  France
New York City
Lyon
  Garry Kasparov (4)   Anatoly Karpov 4 3 17
Classical World Chess Championships (1993–2006)
World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov and challenger Nigel Short split from FIDE, the official world governing body of chess, and played their title match under the auspices of the Professional Chess Association.
1993   United Kingdom London   Garry Kasparov (5)   Nigel Short 6 1 13 best-of-24[1]
1995   United States New York City   Garry Kasparov (6)   Viswanathan Anand 4 1 13 best-of-20[1]
2000   United Kingdom London   Vladimir Kramnik   Garry Kasparov 2 0 13 best-of-16[1]
2004    Switzerland Brissago   Vladimir Kramnik (2)   Peter Leko 2 2 10 best-of-14[1]
FIDE World Chess Championships (1993–2006)
Garry Kasparov was stripped of his FIDE title after he and challenger Nigel Short split from FIDE in 1993. Anatoly Karpov, former champion and the challenger in the 1990 FIDE World Chess Championship match, was announced as incumbent World Champion. Beginning with the FIDE World Chess Championship 1996, FIDE changed its rules and the incumbent World Champion was no longer automatically qualified for the final match.
1993   Netherlands and
  Indonesia
Zwolle
Arnhem
Amsterdam
Jakarta
  Anatoly Karpov (4)   Jan Timman 6 2 13 best-of-24[1]
1996   Russia Elista   Anatoly Karpov (5)   Gata Kamsky 6 3 9 best-of-20[1]
1998   Netherlands and
   Switzerland
Groningen
Lausanne
  Anatoly Karpov (6)   Viswanathan Anand 2+2 2 2 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-6 + tiebreaks
1999   United States Las Vegas   Alexander Khalifman   Vladimir Akopian 2 1 3
2000   India and
  Iran
New Delhi
Tehran
  Viswanathan Anand   Alexei Shirov 3 0 1
2002   Russia Moscow   Ruslan Ponomariov   Vassily Ivanchuk 2 0 5 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-8 + tiebreaks
2004   Libya Tripoli   Rustam Kasimdzhanov   Michael Adams 2+1 2 2+1 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-6 + tiebreaks
2005   Argentina Potrero de los Funes
San Luis
  Veselin Topalov 7 players 10 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament
World Chess Championships (2006–present)
2006   Russia Elista[4]   Vladimir Kramnik (3)   Veselin Topalov 3+2 3+1 6+1 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2007   Mexico Mexico City   Viswanathan Anand (2) 7 players 9 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament
2008   Germany Bonn   Viswanathan Anand (3)   Vladimir Kramnik 3 1 7 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2010   Bulgaria Sofia   Viswanathan Anand (4)   Veselin Topalov 3 2 7
2012   Russia Moscow   Viswanathan Anand (5)   Boris Gelfand 1+1 1 10+3
2013   India Chennai[5]   Magnus Carlsen   Viswanathan Anand 3 0 7
2014   Russia Sochi   Magnus Carlsen (2)   Viswanathan Anand 3 1 7
2016   United States New York City[6]   Magnus Carlsen (3)   Sergey Karjakin 1+2 1 10+2
2018   United Kingdom London[7]   Magnus Carlsen (4)   Fabiano Caruana 0+3 0 12

Related matchesEdit

Year Host country Host city Winner Runner-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
Independent World Chess Championships
1928   Netherlands The Hague   Efim Bogoljubov   Max Euwe 3 2 5 one-time FIDE championship, before the 1948 system[8]
1992   Yugoslavia Sveti Stefan and Belgrade   Bobby Fischer   Boris Spassky 10 5 15 First to reach 10 wins, draws not counting[9]

Mutliple times championsEdit

Titles Player Country
6 Emanuel Lasker   German Empire
Anatoly Karpov (3 when split)   Soviet Union
  Russia
Garry Kasparov (2 when split)   Soviet Union
  Russia
5 Wilhelm Steinitz (1 unofficial)   Austrian Empire
  Austro-Hungarian Empire
  United States
Mikhail Botvinnik   Soviet Union
Viswanathan Anand (1 when split)   India
4 Alexander Alekhine   France
Magnus Carlsen   Norway
3 Vladimir Kramnik (2 when split)   Russia
2 Howard Staunton (unofficial)   United Kingdom
Tigran Petrosian   Soviet Union

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j in case of a draw the World Championship title defender keeps holding his title
  2. ^ One chess historian, David Vincent Hooper, contended in Chess magazine, March 1976, pp. 183–84, that this match was not for the world championship. Edward Winter, Who Was R.J. Buckley?, retrieved 2012-02-04.
  3. ^ Schmemann, Serge (5 October 1986). "Kasparov Makes A Key Move, And He Fans Sense A Victory". The New York Times.
  4. ^ Kirsan Ilyumzhinov : Kramnik and Topalov come to Elista on same flight
  5. ^ "Five-star venue for Anand-Carlsen tie". The Times of India. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  6. ^ New York City to Host 2016 World Chess Championship
  7. ^ World Championship 2018 to be in London
  8. ^ "FIDE Championship (1928) by Edward Winter". Chesshistory.com. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  9. ^ "World Chess Championship : 1992 Fischer - Spassky Rematch". Mark-weeks.com. Retrieved 1 February 2014.

Further readingEdit

  • Davidson, Henry A. (1949, 1981). A Short History of Chess. McKay. ISBN 0-679-14550-8.
  • Barcza, Alföldy, Kapu: Die Weltmeister des Schachspiels. Hamburg 1975
  • Jens Enevoldsen: Verdens bedste Skak, Politiken (Denmark) 1966