List of waterfalls by flow rate

This list of waterfalls by flow rate includes all waterfalls which are known to have an average flow rate or discharge of at least 150 cubic metres per second (5,300 cu ft/s). The waterfalls in this list are those for which there is verifiable information for, and should not be assumed to be a complete list of waterfalls which would otherwise qualify as globally significant based on this metric.

Largest extant waterfallsEdit

Waterfall Image Flow rate (m3/s) Drop (m) Width (m) River Countries Coordinates Notes
Inga Falls   25,768 (est.) 21 914 Congo   DRC 5°26′56″S 13°35′18″E / 5.448835°S 13.588362°E / -5.448835; 13.588362 (Inga Falls) The Inga falls, whose status as a true waterfall is controversial, are currently incorporated into the Inga I and Inga II hydroelectric facilities. The volume of the river diverted is approximately 30% of the average discharge. The Grand Inga Dam, potentially the world's largest by generating capacity, is also proposed to be built on the falls.[1]
Livingstone Falls   25,060 6 701 Congo   DRC
  Congo
4°52′41″S 14°26′08″E / 4.878146°S 14.435622°E / -4.878146; 14.435622 (Livingstone Falls) A set of rapids that drops 6 metres (20 ft). Located at the southern end of the Republic of the Congo's border with the Congo River.[2]
Boyoma Falls   16,990 5 1,372 Lualaba, Congo   DRC 0°29′27″N 25°12′24″E / 0.49091096°N 25.20680491°E / 0.49091096; 25.20680491 (Boyoma Falls) A series of seven cataracts, also referred to as the Stanley Falls. The last and most significant of these cataracts, at Kisangani, is known as Wagenia.[3] The Boyoma Falls marks the transition to the Congo River from the Lualaba River.[4]
Khone Phapheng Falls   11,610 21 10,783 Mekong   Laos 13°57′18″N 105°54′10″E / 13.9549940°N 105.9027541°E / 13.9549940; 105.9027541 (Khone Phapheng Falls) A series of falls and rapids that when measured end-to-end is over 10 kilometres in width, making it the world's widest waterfall. Largest waterfall in Asia by average flow rate.[5]
Pará Falls   3,540 64 5,608 Caura
  Venezuela
6°19′01″N 64°30′33″W / 6.31699585°N 64.5090696°W / 6.31699585; -64.5090696 (Salto Pára) Largest extant waterfall in South America by average flow rate.[6]
Paulo Afonso Falls   2,832 59 18 São Francisco   Brazil 9°23′21″S 38°11′45″W / 9.3890899°S 38.1957704°W / -9.3890899; -38.1957704 (Paulo Afonso Falls) Flow regulated by the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex.[7]
Niagara Falls   2,407 51 1,204 Niagara   Canada
  United States
43°04′48″N 79°04′16″W / 43.08°N 79.071°W / 43.08; -79.071 (Niagara Falls) Largest extant waterfall in North America by average flow rate. Flow regulated by the Robert Moses Niagara and Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations.[8]
Vermilion Falls   1,812 5 1,829 Peace   Canada 58°22′11″N 114°52′18″W / 58.3697239°N 114.871761°W / 58.3697239; -114.871761 (Vermilion Falls) [9]
Iguazú Falls   1,746 64 2,682 Iguazú   Argentina
  Brazil
25°41′43″S 54°26′12″W / 25.695277°S 54.43667°W / -25.695277; -54.43667 (Iguazú Falls) [10]
Limestone Falls   1,464 22 335 Caniapiscau   Canada 57°28′45″N 69°18′36″W / 57.4791°N 69.3099°W / 57.4791; -69.3099 (Limestone Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[11]
Pyrite Falls   1,464 8 579 Caniapiscau   Canada 57°26′00″N 69°14′32″W / 57.4333°N 69.2422°W / 57.4333; -69.2422 (Pyrite Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[12]
Victoria Falls   1,088 105 1,707 Zambezi   Zambia  Zimbabwe 17°55′27″S 25°51′22″E / 17.924028°S 25.856083°E / -17.924028; 25.856083 (Victoria Falls) Produces the largest sheet of falling water in the world.[13]
Virginia Falls   1,000 90 259 South Nahanni   Canada 61°36′27″N 125°44′20″W / 61.607391°N 125.738912°W / 61.607391; -125.738912 (Virginia Falls) [14]
Shale Falls   934 18 610 Caniapiscau   Canada 56°44′39″N 69°01′04″W / 56.7443°N 69.0179°W / 56.7443; -69.0179 (Shale Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[15]
Shivanasamudra Falls   934 98 305 Cauvery   India 12°17′33″N 77°10′03″E / 12.2924778°N 77.16744866°E / 12.2924778; 77.16744866 (Shivanasamudra Falls) This waterfall divides around Sivasamudram Island. One side is known as Gagana chukki and the other side is known as Bara chukki.[16]
Willamette Falls   928 13 457 Willamette   United States 45°21′05″N 122°37′09″W / 45.35139°N 122.61917°W / 45.35139; -122.61917 (Willamette Falls) Prior to the development of the Oregon City area, it is thought the falls may have spanned as much as 762 metres across. Flow regulated by the T. W. Sullivan Hydroelectric Plant.[17]
Kongou Falls   900 56 3,200 Ivindo   Gabon 0°17′17″N 12°35′17″E / 0.28815075°N 12.58801367°E / 0.28815075; 12.58801367 (Ivindo River) [18]
Kootenai Falls   731 9 258 Kootenay   United States 48°27′20″N 115°45′48″W / 48.4555015°N 115.763198°W / 48.4555015; -115.763198 (Kootenai Falls) [19]
Kaieteur Falls   663 226 113 Potaro   Guyana 5°10′30″N 59°28′50″W / 5.17497870°N 59.4804760°W / 5.17497870; -59.4804760 (Kaieteur Falls) [20]
Rheinfall   595 24 122 Rhein    Switzerland 47°40′40″N 8°36′56″E / 47.677640°N 8.615512°E / 47.677640; 8.615512 (Rheinfall) Largest waterfall in Europe by average flow rate.[21]
Kalandula Falls   566 105 411 Lucala   Angola 9°04′26″S 16°00′03″E / 9.073885°S 16.000709°E / -9.073885; 16.000709 (Kalandula Falls) [22]
Chaudière Falls   500 35 240 Chaudière   Canada 46°42′47″N 71°17′10″W / 46.71306°N 71.28611°W / 46.71306; -71.28611 (Chaudière Falls) Flow regulated by the Sartigan Dam.[23]
Great Falls   474 (est.) ? 107 Potomac   United States 38°59′51″N 77°15′09″W / 38.9975°N 77.2525°W / 38.9975; -77.2525 (Great Falls) Flow regulated by the Washington Aqueduct.[24]
Granite Falls   453 21 ? Caniapiscau   Canada 55°50′42″N 68°25′25″W / 55.8450°N 68.4235°W / 55.8450; -68.4235 (Granite Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[25]
Hidden Falls 425 30 ? Yarlung Tsangpo   China 29°46′34″N 95°10′54″E / 29.776°N 95.181599°E / 29.776; 95.181599 (Hidden Falls) [26]
Urriðafoss   360 4 229 Þjórsá   Iceland 63°55′30″N 20°40′22″W / 63.92506°N 20.672678°W / 63.92506; -20.672678 (Urriðafoss) [27]
Little Eaton Canyon Falls   317 Caniapiscau   Canada 55°31′46″N 68°17′40″W / 55.5294°N 68.2945°W / 55.5294; -68.2945 (Little Eaton Canyon Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[28]
Lower Eaton Canyon Falls   317 Caniapiscau   Canada 55°33′46″N 68°11′50″W / 55.5627°N 68.1973°W / 55.5627; -68.1973 (Lower Eaton Canyon Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[29]
Nastapoca Falls   317 35 35 Nastapoca   Canada 56°54′54″N 76°31′46″W / 56.915004°N 76.529509°W / 56.915004; -76.529509 (Nastapoca Falls) [30]
Tuktu Falls 317 Caniapiscau   Canada 55°32′36″N 68°14′44″W / 55.5432°N 68.2456°W / 55.5432; -68.2456 (Tuktu Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[31]
Twin Falls 317 48 61 Nastapoca   Canada 56°53′54″N 76°24′12″W / 56.8984°N 76.4032°W / 56.8984; -76.4032 (Twin Falls (Nastapoca River)) [32]
Upper Eaton Canyon Falls   317 Caniapiscau   Canada 55°33′29″N 68°12′57″W / 55.5581°N 68.2158°W / 55.5581; -68.2158 (Upper Eaton Canyon Falls) Flow regulated by the KA-3 Dam of the Caniapiscau Reservoir.[33]
Augrabies Falls   313 56 24 Orange   South Africa 28°35′29″S 20°20′25″E / 28.591389°S 20.340296°E / -28.591389; 20.340296 (Augrabies Falls) [34]
Murchison Falls   300 43 15 White Nile   Uganda 2°16′43″N 31°41′09″E / 2.2785°N 31.6858°E / 2.2785; 31.6858 (Murchison Falls) Flow regulated by the Karuma Hydroelectric Power Station.[35]
Alexandra Falls   282 32 117 Hay River   Canada 60°30′02″N 116°16′46″W / 60.5006°N 116.2794°W / 60.5006; -116.2794 (Alexandra Falls) [36]
Louise Falls   282 15 183 Hay River   Canada 60°30′12″N 116°14′29″W / 60.5033°N 116.2414°W / 60.5033; -116.2414 (Louise Falls) [37]
Dettifoss   269 51 171 Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°48′53″N 16°23′04″W / 65.8146330°N 16.3843220°W / 65.8146330; -16.3843220 (Dettifoss) [38]
Hafragilsfoss   269 27 85 Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°49′56″N 16°23′57″W / 65.8322810°N 16.3991539°W / 65.8322810; -16.3991539 (Hafragilsfoss) [39]
Réttarfoss   269 ? ? Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°52′47″N 16°26′09″W / 65.879645°N 16.435802°W / 65.879645; -16.435802 (Réttarfoss) [40]
Selfoss   269 13 387 Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°48′18″N 16°23′12″W / 65.80495°N 16.38657°W / 65.80495; -16.38657 (Selfoss) [41]
Sandstone Falls   222 4 549 New River   United States 37°45′24″N 80°54′21″W / 37.75667°N 80.90583°W / 37.75667; -80.90583 (Sandstone Falls) [42]
Huka Falls   220 ? ? Waikato River   New Zealand 38°38′55″S 176°05′24″E / 38.6486°S 176.0901°E / -38.6486; 176.0901 (Huka Falls) [43][44]
Big Falls   213 27 183 Missouri River   United States 47°34′08″N 111°07′26″W / 47.5689°N 111.1238°W / 47.5689; -111.1238 (Big Falls) Flow regulated by the Ryan Dam.[45][46]
Black Eagle Falls   213 8 183 Missouri River   United States 47°31′11″N 111°15′44″W / 47.5197°N 111.2623°W / 47.5197; -111.2623 (Black Eagle Falls) Flow regulated by the Black Eagle Dam.[47][46]
Crooked Falls Image 213 6 457 Missouri River   United States 47°32′06″N 111°11′47″W / 47.5350°N 111.1964°W / 47.5350; -111.1964 (Crooked Falls) Flow regulated by the Rainbow Dam.[48][46]
Rainbow Falls   213 13 305 Missouri River   United States 47°32′00″N 111°12′19″W / 47.5334°N 111.2052°W / 47.5334; -111.2052 (Rainbow Falls) Flow regulated by the Rainbow Dam.[49][46]
Storforsen   187 35 76 Pite River   Sweden 65°50′59″N 20°24′16″E / 65.84983°N 20.40435°E / 65.84983; 20.40435 (Storforsen) [50]
Rearguard Falls   171 6 61 Fraser River   Canada 52°58′24″N 119°21′51″W / 52.97333°N 119.36408°W / 52.97333; -119.36408 (Rearguard Falls) [51]
Cohoes Falls   161 20 290 Mohawk River   United States 42°47′17″N 73°42′31″W / 42.78797°N 73.70853°W / 42.78797; -73.70853 (Cohoes Falls) Flow regulated by the School Street Hydroelectric Generating Facility.[52][53]
Jog Falls   153 253 472 Sharavati River   India 14°13′45″N 74°48′45″E / 14.22923°N 74.81247°E / 14.22923; 74.81247 (Jog Falls) Flow regulated by the Linganamakki Dam.[54]

The first five waterfalls by power (Guaíra, Khone Phapheng, Iguazú, Niagara, and Victoria) are called the Great Five Waterfalls.[55][56]

Largest historic waterfallsEdit

This list comprises the waterfalls which have ceased to exist due to the impoundment of their river(s) by a dam, or due to the diversion of the watercourse.

Waterfall Image Flow rate (m3/s) Drop (m) Width (m) River Countries Coordinates Notes
Guaíra Falls   13,309 40 4,828 Paraná   Brazil
  Paraguay
24°04′03″S 54°17′00″W / 24.067547°S 54.283276°W / -24.067547; -54.283276 (Guaíra Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Itaipu Reservoir following the completion of the Itaipu Dam in 1982.[57]
Celilo Falls   5,366 6.1 1,768 Columbia   United States 45°39′05″N 120°58′10″W / 45.65147°N 120.96941°W / 45.65147; -120.96941 (Celilo Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Columbia River following the completion of The Dalles Dam in 1957. The rock formation responsible for the falls remains intact.[58][59]
Kettle Falls   4,682 ? ? Columbia   United States 48°37′52″N 118°07′08″W / 48.63099°N 118.11897°W / 48.63099; -118.11897 (Kettle Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath Lake Roosevelt following the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1940. The formation responsible for the falls remains intact.[60]
Urubupunga Falls 2,747 13 2,012 Paraná   Brazil 20°36′S 51°33′W / 20.6°S 51.55°W / -20.6; -51.55 (Salto do Urubupunga) Submerged beneath the Paraná River following completion of the Engineer Souza Dias Dam in 1982. The formation responsible for the falls remains intact.[61]
Marimbondo Falls 1,501 24 2,012 Rio Grande   Brazil 20°18′35″S 49°12′06″W / 20.30972°S 49.20167°W / -20.30972; -49.20167 (Saltos dos Patos e Marimbondo) The Marimbondo Dam was built atop the upper portion of the falls in 1971. The section further upstream was submerged beneath the Rio Grande, while the section below the dam was dewatered and are visible.[62]
San Rafael Falls   400 94 23 Coca   Ecuador 0°06′15″S 77°34′51″W / 0.104303°S 77.580967°W / -0.104303; -77.580967 (San Rafael Falls (former)) On 2 February 2020, a large sinkhole formed just above the falls, diverting its flow beneath a large band of rock (the former brink of the falls) which survived the collapse and became a natural bridge. Although the river initially still fell over 100 m (330 ft) into the sinkhole, very rapid headward erosion has since left no significant waterfall at this location.[63][64][65]

Prehistoric waterfallsEdit

Waterfall Maximum daily flow rate (m3/s) Tallest single drop (m) Width (m) River Countries
Gibraltar (Zanclean deluge hypothesis) 108[66] Strait of Gibraltar   Spain
  Morocco
Dry Falls 1,906,000[67] 120 4,828 Columbia   United States
Bosphorus (Black Sea deluge hypothesis) 482,407[68] 80 Bosphorus Strait   Turkey

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Inga Falls, Congo, Democratic Republic of the – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  2. ^ "Livingstone, Chutes de, Congo, Democratic Republic of the – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  3. ^ Ndeo, Oscar; Hauffe, Torsten; Delicado, Diana; Busanga, Alidor; Albrecht, Christian (2017-05-02). "Mollusk communities of the central Congo River shaped by combined effects of barriers, environmental gradients, and species dispersal". Journal of Limnology. 76. doi:10.4081/jlimnol.2017.1585.
  4. ^ "Wagenia, Chutes, Congo, Democratic Republic of the – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  5. ^ "Khone, Chutes de, Laos – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  6. ^ "Pará, Salto, Venezuela – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  7. ^ "Paulo Afonso, Cachoeira de, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  8. ^ "Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  9. ^ "Vermilion Falls, Alberta, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  10. ^ "Iguazú, Cataratas del, Argentina – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  11. ^ "Calcaire, Chute du, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  12. ^ "Pyrite, Chute de la, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  13. ^ "Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  14. ^ "Virginia Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  15. ^ "Schistes, Chute aux, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  16. ^ "Sivasamudram Falls, India – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  17. ^ "Willamette Falls, Oregon, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  18. ^ "Kongou Falls, Gabon – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  19. ^ "Kootenai Falls, Montana, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  20. ^ "Kaieteur Falls, Guyana – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  21. ^ "Rheinfall, Switzerland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  22. ^ "Kalandula Falls, Angola – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  23. ^ "Graphique des données à une station hydrométrique". www.cehq.gouv.qc.ca. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
  24. ^ "Great Falls, Maryland, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  25. ^ "Granite, Chute au, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  26. ^ "Hidden Falls, China – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  27. ^ "Urriðafoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  28. ^ "Little Eaton Canyon Falls, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  29. ^ "Lower Eaton Canyon Falls, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  30. ^ "Nastapoca, Chutes, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  31. ^ "Tuktu, Chute, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  32. ^ "Twin Falls, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  33. ^ "Upper Eaton Canyon Falls, Quebec, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  34. ^ "Augrabies Falls, South Africa – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  35. ^ "Murchison Falls, Uganda – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  36. ^ "Alexandra Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  37. ^ "Louise Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  38. ^ "Dettifoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  39. ^ "Hafragilsfoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  40. ^ "Réttarfoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  41. ^ "Selfoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  42. ^ "Sandstone Falls, West Virginia, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  43. ^ "Huka Falls, Waikato, New Zealand - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  44. ^ "Huka Falls New Zealand". www.hukafalls.com. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  45. ^ "Big Falls, Montana, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  46. ^ a b c d Mineral and Water Resources of Montana. Stermitz, Frank; Hanly, T. F.; and Lane, C. W. Special Publication No. 28. Helena, Mont.: Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, May 1963.
  47. ^ "Black Eagle Falls, Montana, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  48. ^ "Crooked Falls, Montana, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  49. ^ "Rainbow Falls, Montana, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
  50. ^ "Storforsen, Sweden - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  51. ^ "Rearguard Falls, British Columbia, Canada - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  52. ^ "Brookfield Power". National Hydropower Association. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  53. ^ "Cohoes Falls, New York, United States - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  54. ^ "Jog Falls, India - World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  55. ^ Г. Т. Арсеев. Водопады. — М.: Мысль, 1987. — С. 14. — 127 с.
  56. ^ В. И. Задорожный, К. В. Зворыкин. Методология и региональные физико-географические исследования. — М.: Географическое общество СССР, 1975. — С. 60. — 78 с.
  57. ^ "Guaíra, Salto del, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  58. ^ "Celilo Falls, Oregon, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  59. ^ Gibson, James R. (1997). The Lifeline of the Oregon Country: The Fraser-Columbia Brigade System, 1811-47. University of British Columbia (UBC) Press. pp. 125–128. ISBN 0-7748-0643-5.
  60. ^ "Kettle Falls, Washington, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  61. ^ "Urubupunga, Salto do, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  62. ^ "Patos e Maribondo, Saltos dos, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  63. ^ "Why did Ecuador's tallest waterfall suddenly disappear?". Mongabay Environmental News. 2020-03-18. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  64. ^ "The Disappearance of Ecuador's Tallest Waterfall". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. 2020-03-27. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  65. ^ "San Rafael, Cascada de, Ecuador – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  66. ^ Garcia-Castellanos, D., Estrada, F., Jiménez-Munt, I., Gorini, C., Fernàndez, M., Vergés, J., De Vicente, R. (10 December 2009) Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis, Nature 462, pp. 778–781, doi:10.1038/nature08555
  67. ^ The Channeled Scablands of Eastern Washington, United States Geological Survey, retrieved 2012-03-15
  68. ^ Ryan, W.B.F.; Pitman III, W.C., et al. 1997. An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology, 138: 119–126.

External linksEdit

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML