List of waterfalls by flow rate

This list of waterfalls by flow rate in the world includes waterfalls that have an average flow rate greater than 250 cubic metres (8,800 cu ft). This list is sorted by mean annual flow rate of the waterfall by default, but can also be sorted by other criteria, such as width, power, etc.

Largest extant and submerged waterfallsEdit

Rank Waterfall Image Average flow rate (m3/s) Tallest drop (m) Average width (m) River Countries Coordinates Notes Ref
1 Inga Falls   25,768 (est.) 21 914 Congo   DRC 5°26′56″S 13°35′18″E / 5.448835°S 13.588362°E / -5.448835; 13.588362 (Inga Falls) The Inga falls, whose status as a true waterfall is controversial, are currently incorporated into the Inga I and Inga II hydroelectric facilities. The volume of the river diverted is approximately 30% of the average discharge. The Grand Inga Dam, potentially the world's largest by generating capacity, is also proposed to be built on the falls. [1]
2 Livingstone Falls   25,060 6 701 Congo   DRC
  Republic of the Congo
4°52′41″S 14°26′08″E / 4.878146°S 14.435622°E / -4.878146; 14.435622 (Livingstone Falls) A set of rapids that drops 6 metres (20 ft). Located at the southern end of the Republic of the Congo's border with the Congo River. [2]
3 Boyoma Falls   16,990 5 1,372 Lualaba, Congo   DRC 0°29′27″N 25°12′24″E / 0.49091096°N 25.20680491°E / 0.49091096; 25.20680491 (Boyoma Falls) A series of seven cataracts, also referred to as the Stanley Falls. The last and most significant of these cataracts, at Kisangani, is known as Wagenia.[3] The Boyoma Falls marks the transition to the Congo River from the Lualaba River. [4]
- Guaíra Falls (submerged)   13,309 40 4,828 Paraná   Brazil
  Paraguay
24°04′03″S 54°17′00″W / 24.067547°S 54.283276°W / -24.067547; -54.283276 (Guaíra Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Itaipu Reservoir following the completion of the Itaipu Dam in 1982. The falls were later dynamited by the Brazilian government to promote safer navigation on the river. [5]
4 Khone Phapheng Falls   11,610 21 10,783 Mekong   Laos 13°57′18″N 105°54′10″E / 13.9549940°N 105.9027541°E / 13.9549940; 105.9027541 (Khone Phapheng Falls) A series of falls and rapids that when measured end-to-end is over 10 kilometres in width, making it the world's widest waterfall. Largest waterfall in Asia by average flow rate. [6]
- Celilo Falls (submerged)   5,366 ? 1,768 Columbia   United States 45°39′05″N 120°58′10″W / 45.65147°N 120.96941°W / 45.65147; -120.96941 (Celilo Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath the Columbia River following the completion of The Dalles Dam in 1957. The falls remain intact. [7]
- Kettle Falls (submerged)   4,682 ? ? Columbia   United States 48°37′52″N 118°07′08″W / 48.63099°N 118.11897°W / 48.63099; -118.11897 (Kettle Falls (submerged)) Submerged beneath Lake Roosevelt following the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1940. The falls remain intact. [8]
5 Pará Falls   3,540 ? 5,608 Caura   Bolivia
  Venezuela
6°19′01″N 64°30′33″W / 6.31699585°N 64.5090696°W / 6.31699585; -64.5090696 (Salto Pára) Largest extant waterfall in South America by average flow rate. [9]
6 Paulo Afonso Falls   2,832 59 18 São Francisco   Brazil 9°23′21″S 38°11′45″W / 9.3890899°S 38.1957704°W / -9.3890899; -38.1957704 (Paulo Afonso Falls) In 1948, the river was dammed upstream from the falls, drastically reducing its average flow rate. The falls act as a spillway during high rainfall years. [10]
- Urubupunga Falls (submerged) 2,747 13 2,012 Paraná   Brazil 20°36′S 51°33′W / 20.6°S 51.55°W / -20.6; -51.55 (Salto do Urubupunga) Submerged beneath the Paraná River following completion of the Engineer Souza Dias Dam in 1982. The falls remain intact. [11]
7 Niagara Falls   2,407 51 1,204 Niagara   Canada
  United States
43°04′48″N 79°04′16″W / 43.08°N 79.071°W / 43.08; -79.071 (Niagara Falls) Largest extant waterfall in North America by average flow rate. [12]
8 Vermilion Falls   1,812 5 1,829 Peace   Canada 58°22′11″N 114°52′18″W / 58.3697239°N 114.871761°W / 58.3697239; -114.871761 (Vermilion Falls) [13]
9 Iguazú Falls   1,746 64 2,682 Iguazú   Argentina
  Brazil
25°41′43″S 54°26′12″W / 25.695277°S 54.43667°W / -25.695277; -54.43667 (Iguazú Falls) [14]
- Maribondo Falls (submerged) 1,501 24 2,012 Rio Grande   Brazil 20°18′51″S 49°11′37″W / 20.314284°S 49.193689°W / -20.314284; -49.193689 (Saltos dos Patos e Maribondo) Partially flooded over by the Maribondo Dam built on top of half the falls. The bottom of part of the dewatered falls is visible to one side of the dam. [15]
10 Victoria Falls   1,088 105 1,707 Zambezi   Zambia  Zimbabwe 17°55′27″S 25°51′22″E / 17.924028°S 25.856083°E / -17.924028; 25.856083 (Victoria Falls) Produces the largest sheet of falling water in the world. [16]
11 Virginia Falls   1,000 90 259 South Nahanni   Canada 61°36′27″N 125°44′20″W / 61.607391°N 125.738912°W / 61.607391; -125.738912 (Virginia Falls) [17]
12 Shivanasamudra Falls   934 98 305 Cauvery   India 12°17′33″N 77°10′03″E / 12.2924778°N 77.16744866°E / 12.2924778; 77.16744866 (Shivanasamudra Falls) This waterfall divides around Sivasamudram Island. One side is known as Gagana chukki and the other side is known as Bara chukki. [18]
13 Willamette Falls   928 13 457 Willamette   United States 45°21′05″N 122°37′09″W / 45.35139°N 122.61917°W / 45.35139; -122.61917 (Willamette Falls) Prior to the development of the Oregon City area, it is though the falls may have spanned as much as 762 metres across. [19]
14 Kongou Falls   900 56 3,200 Ivindo   Gabon 0°17′17″N 12°35′17″E / 0.28815075°N 12.58801367°E / 0.28815075; 12.58801367 (Ivindo River) [20]
15 Kootenai Falls   731 9 258 Kootenay   United States 48°27′20″N 115°45′48″W / 48.4555015°N 115.763198°W / 48.4555015; -115.763198 (Kootenai Falls) [21]
16 Kaieteur Falls   663 226 113 Potaro   Guyana 5°10′30″N 59°28′50″W / 5.17497870°N 59.4804760°W / 5.17497870; -59.4804760 (Kaieteur Falls) [22]
17 Rheinfall   595 24 122 Rhein    Switzerland 47°40′40″N 8°36′56″E / 47.677640°N 8.615512°E / 47.677640; 8.615512 (Rheinfall) Largest waterfall in Europe by average flow rate. [23]
18 Kalandula Falls   566 105 411 Lucala   Angola 9°04′26″S 16°00′03″E / 9.073885°S 16.000709°E / -9.073885; 16.000709 (Kalandula Falls) [24]
19 Great Falls   474 (est.) ? 107 Potomac   United States 38°59′51″N 77°15′09″W / 38.9975°N 77.2525°W / 38.9975; -77.2525 (Great Falls) [25]
20 Hidden Falls 425 30 ? Yarlung Tsangpo   China 29°46′34″N 95°10′54″E / 29.776°N 95.181599°E / 29.776; 95.181599 (Hidden Falls) [26]
21 San Rafael Falls   400 94 23 Coca   Ecuador 0°06′15″S 77°34′51″W / 0.104303°S 77.580967°W / -0.104303; -77.580967 (San Rafael Falls) [27]
22 Urriðafoss   360 4 229 Þjórsá   Iceland 63°55′30″N 20°40′22″W / 63.92506°N 20.672678°W / 63.92506; -20.672678 (Urriðafoss) [28]
23 Augrabies Falls   313 56 24 Orange   South Africa 28°35′29″S 20°20′25″E / 28.591389°S 20.340296°E / -28.591389; 20.340296 (Augrabies Falls) [29]
24 Murchison Falls   300 43 15 Victoria Nile   Uganda 2°16′43″N 31°41′09″E / 2.2785°N 31.6858°E / 2.2785; 31.6858 (Murchison Falls) [30]
25 Alexandra Falls   282 32 117 Hay River   Canada 60°30′02″N 116°16′46″W / 60.5006°N 116.2794°W / 60.5006; -116.2794 (Alexandra Falls) [31]
25 Louise Falls   282 15 183 Hay River   Canada 60°30′12″N 116°14′29″W / 60.5033°N 116.2414°W / 60.5033; -116.2414 (Louise Falls) [32]
27 Dettifoss   269 51 171 Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°48′53″N 16°23′04″W / 65.8146330°N 16.3843220°W / 65.8146330; -16.3843220 (Dettifoss) [33]
27 Hafragilsfoss   269 27 85 Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°49′56″N 16°23′57″W / 65.8322810°N 16.3991539°W / 65.8322810; -16.3991539 (Hafragilsfoss) [34]
27 Selfoss   269 13 387 Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°48′18″N 16°23′12″W / 65.80495°N 16.38657°W / 65.80495; -16.38657 (Selfoss) [35]
27 Réttarfoss   269 ? ? Jökulsá á Fjöllum   Iceland 65°52′47″N 16°26′09″W / 65.879645°N 16.435802°W / 65.879645; -16.435802 (Réttarfoss) [36]

The first five waterfalls by power (Guaíra, Khone Phapheng, Iguazú, Niagara, and Victoria) are called the Great Five Waterfalls.[37][38]

Prehistoric waterfallsEdit

Waterfall Maximum daily flow rate (m3/s) Tallest single drop (m) Width (m) River Countries
Gibraltar 2×1013[39] > 1000 Gibraltar strait   Spain
  Morocco
Dry Falls 1,906,000[40] 350 4,828 Columbia   United States
Bosphorus (Black Sea deluge hypothesis) 482,407[41] 80 Bosphorus Strait   Turkey

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Inga Falls, Congo, Democratic Republic of the – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  2. ^ "Livingstone, Chutes de, Congo, Democratic Republic of the – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  3. ^ Ndeo, Oscar; Hauffe, Torsten; Delicado, Diana; Busanga, Alidor; Albrecht, Christian (2017-05-02). "Mollusk communities of the central Congo River shaped by combined effects of barriers, environmental gradients, and species dispersal". Journal of Limnology. 76. doi:10.4081/jlimnol.2017.1585.
  4. ^ "Wagenia, Chutes, Congo, Democratic Republic of the – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  5. ^ "Guaíra, Salto del, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  6. ^ "Khone, Chutes de, Laos – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  7. ^ "Celilo Falls, Oregon, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  8. ^ "Kettle Falls, Washington, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  9. ^ "Pará, Salto, Venezuela – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  10. ^ "Paulo Afonso, Cachoeira de, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  11. ^ "Urubupunga, Salto do, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  12. ^ "Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  13. ^ "Vermilion Falls, Alberta, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  14. ^ "Iguazú, Cataratas del, Argentina – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  15. ^ "Patos e Maribondo, Saltos dos, Brazil – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  16. ^ "Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  17. ^ "Virginia Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  18. ^ "Sivasamudram Falls, India – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  19. ^ "Willamette Falls, Oregon, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  20. ^ "Kongou Falls, Gabon – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  21. ^ "Kootenai Falls, Montana, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  22. ^ "Kaieteur Falls, Guyana – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  23. ^ "Rheinfall, Switzerland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  24. ^ "Kalandula Falls, Angola – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  25. ^ "Great Falls, Maryland, United States – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  26. ^ "Hidden Falls, China – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  27. ^ "San Rafael, Cascada de, Ecuador – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  28. ^ "Urriðafoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  29. ^ "Augrabies Falls, South Africa – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  30. ^ "Murchison Falls, Uganda – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  31. ^ "Alexandra Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  32. ^ "Louise Falls, Northwest Territories, Canada – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  33. ^ "Dettifoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  34. ^ "Hafragilsfoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  35. ^ "Selfoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  36. ^ "Réttarfoss, Iceland – World Waterfall Database". www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com. Retrieved 2020-01-17.
  37. ^ Г. Т. Арсеев. Водопады. — М.: Мысль, 1987. — С. 14. — 127 с.
  38. ^ В. И. Задорожный, К. В. Зворыкин. Методология и региональные физико-географические исследования. — М.: Географическое общество СССР, 1975. — С. 60. — 78 с.
  39. ^ Garcia-Castellanos, D., Estrada, F., Jiménez-Munt, I., Gorini, C., Fernàndez, M., Vergés, J., De Vicente, R. (10 December 2009) Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis, Nature 462, pp. 778–781, doi:10.1038/nature08555
  40. ^ The Channeled Scablands of Eastern Washington, United States Geological Survey, retrieved 2012-03-15
  41. ^ Ryan, W.B.F.; Pitman III, W.C., et al. 1997. An abrupt drowning of the Black Sea shelf. Marine Geology, 138: 119–126.

External linksEdit