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List of unsolved problems in mathematics

The Riemann zeta function, subject of the celebrated and influential unsolved problem known as the Riemann hypothesis.

Since the Renaissance, every century has seen the solution of more mathematical problems than the century before, yet many mathematical problems, both major and minor, still remain unsolved.[1] These unsolved problems occur in multiple domains, including physics, computer science, algebra, analysis, combinatorics, algebraic, discrete and Euclidean geometries, graph, group, model, number, set and Ramsey theories, dynamical systems, partial differential equations, and more. Some problems may belong to more than one discipline of mathematics and be studied using techniques from different areas. Prizes are often awarded for the solution to a long-standing problem, and lists of unsolved problems (such as the list of Millennium Prize Problems) receive considerable attention.

Lists of unsolved problems in mathematics

Over the course of time, several lists of unsolved mathematical problems have appeared.

List Number of problems Number unresolved
or incompletely resolved
Proposed by Proposed in
Hilbert's problems[2] 23 15 David Hilbert 1900
Landau's problems[3] 4 4 Edmund Landau 1912
Taniyama's problems[4] 36 - Yutaka Taniyama 1955
Thurston's 24 questions[5][6] 24 - William Thurston 1982
Smale's problems 18 14 Stephen Smale 1998
Millennium Prize problems 7 6[7] Clay Mathematics Institute 2000
Simon problems 15 <12[8][9] Barry Simon 2000
Unsolved Problems on Mathematics for the 21st Century[10] 22 - Jair Minoro Abe, Shotaro Tanaka 2001
DARPA's math challenges[11][12] 23 - DARPA 2007

Millennium Prize Problems

Of the original seven Millennium Prize Problems set by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000, six have yet to be solved as of 2019:[7]

The seventh problem, the Poincaré conjecture, has been solved.[13] The smooth four-dimensional Poincaré conjecture—that is, whether a four-dimensional topological sphere can have two or more inequivalent smooth structures—is still unsolved.[14]

Unsolved problems

Algebra

 
In the Bloch sphere representation of a qubit, a SIC-POVM forms a regular tetrahedron. Zauner conjectured that analogous structures exist in complex Hilbert spaces of all finite dimensions.

Algebraic geometry

Analysis

 
The area of the blue region converges to the Euler–Mascheroni constant, which may or may not be a rational number.

Combinatorics

Differential geometry

Discrete geometry

 
In three dimensions, the kissing number is 12, because 12 non-overlapping unit spheres can be put into contact with a central unit sphere. (Here, the centers of outer spheres form the vertices of a regular icosahedron.) Kissing numbers are only known exactly in dimensions 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 24.

Euclidean geometry

Dynamical systems

 
A detail of the Mandelbrot set. It is not known whether the Mandelbrot set is locally connected or not.

Games and puzzles

Combinatorial games

Games with imperfect information

Graph theory

Paths and cycles in graphs

Graph coloring and labeling

 
An instance of the Erdős–Faber–Lovász conjecture: a graph formed from four cliques of four vertices each, any two of which intersect in a single vertex, can be four-colored.

Graph drawing

Miscellaneous graph theory

Group theory

 
The free Burnside group   is finite; in its Cayley graph, shown here, each of its 27 elements is represented by a vertex. The question of which other groups   are finite remains open.

Model theory and formal languages

  • Vaught's conjecture
  • The Cherlin–Zilber conjecture: A simple group whose first-order theory is stable in   is a simple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field.
  • The Main Gap conjecture, e.g. for uncountable first order theories, for AECs, and for  -saturated models of a countable theory.[106]
  • Determine the structure of Keisler's order[107][108]
  • The stable field conjecture: every infinite field with a stable first-order theory is separably closed.
  • Is the theory of the field of Laurent series over   decidable? of the field of polynomials over  ?
  • (BMTO) Is the Borel monadic theory of the real order decidable? (MTWO) Is the monadic theory of well-ordering consistently decidable?[109]
  • The Stable Forking Conjecture for simple theories[110]
  • For which number fields does Hilbert's tenth problem hold?
  • Assume K is the class of models of a countable first order theory omitting countably many types. If K has a model of cardinality   does it have a model of cardinality continuum?[111]
  • Shelah's eventual categoricity conjecture: For every cardinal   there exists a cardinal   such that If an AEC K with LS(K)<=   is categorical in a cardinal above   then it is categorical in all cardinals above  .[106][112]
  • Shelah's categoricity conjecture for  : If a sentence is categorical above the Hanf number then it is categorical in all cardinals above the Hanf number.[106]
  • Is there a logic L which satisfies both the Beth property and Δ-interpolation, is compact but does not satisfy the interpolation property?[113]
  • If the class of atomic models of a complete first order theory is categorical in the  , is it categorical in every cardinal?[114][115]
  • Is every infinite, minimal field of characteristic zero algebraically closed? (Here, "minimal" means that every definable subset of the structure is finite or co-finite.)
  • Kueker's conjecture[116]
  • Does there exist an o-minimal first order theory with a trans-exponential (rapid growth) function?
  • Does a finitely presented homogeneous structure for a finite relational language have finitely many reducts?
  • Do the Henson graphs have the finite model property?
  • The universality problem for C-free graphs: For which finite sets C of graphs does the class of C-free countable graphs have a universal member under strong embeddings?[117]
  • The universality spectrum problem: Is there a first-order theory whose universality spectrum is minimum?[118]
  • Generalized star height problem

Number theory

General

 
6 is a perfect number because it is the sum of its proper positive divisors, 1, 2 and 3. It is not known how many perfect numbers there are, nor if any of them are odd.

Additive number theory

Algebraic number theory

Computational number theory

Prime numbers

 
Goldbach's conjecture states that all even integers greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two primes. Here this is illustrated for the even integers from 4 to 28.

Partial differential equations

Ramsey theory

Set theory

Topology

 
The unknotting problem asks whether there is an efficient algorithm to identify when the shape presented in a knot diagram is actually the unknot.

Problems solved since 1995

 
Ricci flow, here illustrated with a 2D manifold, was the key tool in Grigori Perelman's solution of the Poincaré conjecture.

See also

References

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Further reading

Books discussing problems solved since 1995

Books discussing unsolved problems

External links