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List of tallest towers

  (Redirected from List of towers)
Comparison of the world's seven tallest towers

This is a list of extant towers that fulfill the engineering definition of a tower: "a tall human structure, always taller than it is wide, meant for public or regular operational access by humans, but not for living in or office work, and are self-supporting or free-standing, which means no guy-wires for support."[1] The definition means the exclusion from this list of continuously habitable buildings and skyscrapers as well as radio and TV masts. Also excluded from this list because they are not designed for public or regular operational access are bridge towers or pylons, chimneys, transmission towers, sculptures and most large statues and obelisks.

Towers are most often built to use their height for various purposes and can stand alone or as part of a larger structure. Some common purposes are for telecommunications, and as a viewing platform.

The Tokyo Skytree, completed in February 2012, reaches a height of 634 m (2,080 ft), making it the tallest tower, and second tallest free standing structure in the world.[2][3][4]

Contents

Entirely self-supported towersEdit

Towers taller than 250 metresEdit

Rank Name Pinnacle height Year Structure Country City Remarks
1 Tokyo Skytree 634 m (2,080 ft) 2012 Steel   Japan Tokyo Became tallest tower in 2011, second tallest freestanding structure in the world
2 Canton Tower 604 m (1,982 ft) 2010 Steel & concrete   China Guangzhou Tallest in the world 2009–11
3 CN Tower 553.33 m (1,815.4 ft) 1976 Concrete   Canada Toronto Tallest freestanding structure in the world 1975–2007, tallest in the western hemisphere
4 Ostankino Tower 540.1 m (1,772 ft) 1967 Concrete   Russia Moscow Tallest freestanding structure in the world, 1967–75, tallest in Europe
5 Oriental Pearl Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 1994 Concrete   China Shanghai Tallest in China 1994–2007
6 Milad Tower 435 m (1,427 ft) 2007 Concrete   Iran Tehran Tallest in the Middle East
7 KL Tower 421 m (1,381 ft) 1994 Concrete   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Tallest in South East Asia
8 Tianjin Radio and Television Tower 415.2 m (1,362 ft) 1991 Concrete   China Tianjin
9 Central Radio and TV Tower 405 m (1,329 ft) 1992 Concrete   China Beijing
10 Zhongyuan Tower 388 m (1,273 ft) 2011 Steel   China Zhengzhou
11 Kiev TV Tower 385 m (1,263 ft) 1973 Steel   Ukraine Kiev
12 Tashkent Tower 374.9 m (1,230 ft) 1985 Steel   Uzbekistan Tashkent Tallest in Central Asia
13 Liberation Tower 372 m (1,220 ft) 1996 Concrete   Kuwait Kuwait City
14 Almaty Tower 371.5 m (1,219 ft) 1983 Steel   Kazakhstan Almaty
15 Riga Radio and TV Tower 368.5 m (1,209 ft) 1986 Steel   Latvia Riga Tallest in the European Union
16 Berliner Fernsehturm 368 m (1,207 ft) 1969 Concrete   Germany Berlin Tallest structure in Germany
17 Stratosphere Tower 350.2 m (1,149 ft) 1996 Concrete   United States Las Vegas Tallest observation tower in the United States
18 Lotus Tower 350 m (1,150 ft) 2018 Concrete   Sri Lanka Colombo |Tallest structure in South Asia
19 West Pearl Tower 339 m (1,112 ft) 2004 Concrete   China Chengdu
20 Macau Tower 338 m (1,109 ft) 2001 Concrete   China Macau
21 Dragon Tower 336 m (1,102 ft) 2000 Lattice   China Harbin
22 Europaturm 337.5 m (1,107 ft) 1979 Concrete   Germany Frankfurt
23 Tokyo Tower 332.6 m (1,091 ft) 1958 Lattice   Japan Tokyo
24 Emley Moor TV Tower 330.4 m (1,084 ft) 1971 Concrete   United Kingdom Kirklees Tallest freestanding structure in the United Kingdom
25 Sky Tower (Auckland) 328 m (1,076 ft) 1997 Concrete   New Zealand Auckland Tallest freestanding structure in the Southern Hemisphere
26 Vilnius TV Tower 327 m (1,073 ft) 1980 Concrete   Lithuania Vilnius
27 Saint Petersburg TV Tower 326 m (1,070 ft) 1962 Lattice   Russia Saint Petersburg
28 Eiffel Tower 324 m (1,063 ft) 1889 Lattice   France Paris First to surpass 300 metres, tallest tower in the world 1889–1958, oldest in this list
29 Rameswaram TV Tower 323 m (1,060 ft) 1995 Concrete   India Rameswaram
30 Jiangsu Nanjing TV Tower 318.5 m (1,045 ft) 1996 Concrete   China Nanjing
31 Tallinn TV Tower 314 m (1,030 ft) 1980 Concrete   Estonia Tallinn
32 Yerevan TV Tower 311.7 m (1,023 ft) 1977 Lattice   Armenia Yerevan [5]
33 Tortoise Mountain TV Tower 311.4 m (1,022 ft) 1986 Concrete   China Wuhan
34 Baku TV Tower 310 m (1,020 ft) 1996 Concrete   Azerbaijan Baku
35 Sydney Tower 309 m (1,014 ft) 1981 Concrete   Australia Sydney
36 Liaoning Broadcast and TV Tower 305.5 m (1,002 ft) 1989 Concrete   China Shenyang
37 Jaisalmer TV Tower 300 m (984 ft) 1993 Concrete   India Jaisalmer
38 Samatra TV Tower 300 m (984 ft) 1999 Concrete   India Bhuj
39 VRT Toren 300 m (984 ft) 1996 Concrete   Belgium Sint-Pieters-Leeuw
40 Zhuzhou Television Tower 293 m (961 ft) 1999 Concrete   China Zhuzhou
41 Fernmeldeturm Nürnberg 292 m (958 ft) 1977 Concrete   Germany Nuremberg
42 Olympiaturm 289.5 m (950 ft) 1968 Concrete   Germany Munich
43 Torre de Collserola 288 m (945 ft) 1992 Steel   Spain Barcelona
44 Telemax 282.2 m (926 ft) 1992 Concrete   Germany Hannover
45 Jalandhar TV Tower 280 m (920 ft) 2007 Concrete   India Jalandhar
46 Heinrich-Hertz-Turm 279.7 m (918 ft) 1968 Concrete   Germany Hamburg
47 Georgia Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower 274.5 m (901 ft) 1972 Steel   Georgia Tbilisi
48 Hillbrow Tower 269 m (883 ft) 1971 Concrete   South Africa Johannesburg Tallest in Africa
49 Kaifeng TV Tower 268 m (879 ft) 1995 Concrete   China Kaifeng
50 Colonius 266 m (873 ft) 1981 Concrete   Germany Cologne
51 Novorossiysk TV Tower 261.5 m (858 ft) 1996 Concrete   Russia Novorossiysk
52 Daqing Radio and Television Tower 260 m (850 ft) 1989 Concrete   China Daqing
53 Olympic Park Observation Tower 258 m (846 ft) 2014 Steel   China Beijing
54 Fernmeldeturm Kühkopf 255 m (837 ft) 1976 Concrete   Germany Koblenz
55 Donauturm 252 m (827 ft) 1964 Concrete   Austria Vienna
56 Fernsehturm Dresden-Wachwitz 252 m (827 ft) 1969 Concrete   Germany Dresden
57 Swisscom-Sendeturm St. Chrischona 250 m (820 ft) 1984 Concrete    Switzerland St. Chrischona
58 Jeddah TV Tower 250 m (820 ft) 2007 Concrete   Saudi Arabia Jeddah
59 Novodnistrovsk TV Tower 250 m (820 ft) 1987 Steel   Ukraine Novodnistrovsk

Towers between 200 and 250 metres tallEdit

Tower Year Country City Pinnacle height Remarks
Meget TV Tower 1994   Russia Meget (ru) 246 m
Shaanxi Provincial TV Tower 1987   China Xi'an 245 m
Rheinturm Düsseldorf 1981   Germany Düsseldorf 240.5 m Was 234.2 m before another antenna was mounted in 2004
Pattaya Park Tower ?   Thailand Pattaya 240 m
N Seoul Tower 1975   South Korea Seoul 239.7 m
Menara TVRI 1994   Indonesia Jakarta 239 m
Foshan TV Tower 1995   China Foshan 238 m
Sentech Tower 1962   South Africa Johannesburg 237 m
Endem TV Tower 2002   Turkey Istanbul 236 m
Bremen-Walle Telecommunication Tower 1986   Germany Bremen-Walle 235.7 m
Pitampura TV Tower 1988   India Delhi 235 m
Qingdao TV Tower 1994   China Qingdao 232 m
Torrespaña 1982   Spain Madrid 231 m
Ryan Tower 1968   Canada Chelsea, Quebec 228.9 m
Tower of the Americas 1968   United States San Antonio, Texas 228.6 m
Torre Espacial 1980   Argentina Buenos Aires 228 m
Katanga TV Tower 1992   India Jabalpur 225 m
Brasilia TV Tower 1965   Brazil Brasilia 224 m
Buková hora TV Tower 1975   Czech Republic Bukova hora 223 m
Fernmeldeturm Münster 42 1986   Germany Münster 222.5 m
Florianturm 1959   Germany Dortmund 219.6 m
Jilin Radio and TV Tower 1996   China Jilin 218 m
Guangzhou TV Tower 1991   China Guangzhou 217 m
Fernsehturm Stuttgart 1956   Germany Stuttgart-Degerloch 216.8 m World's first concrete TV tower
Prague - Žižkov Television Tower 1992   Czech Republic Prague 216 m
Fernmeldeturm Mannheim 1975   Germany Mannheim 212.8 m
Fernmeldeturm Berlin 1964   Germany Berlin 212 m
Turkmenistan Broadcasting Centre 2011   Turkmenistan Ashgabat 211 m
Minaret of Hassan II Mosque 1993   Morocco Casablanca 210 m
Transmitter Hornisgrinde 1972   Germany Hornisgrinde 206 m
Baghdad Tower 1994   Iraq Baghdad 205 m Formerly International Saddam Tower
Donnersberg TV Tower 1962   Germany Donnersberg 204.82 m
Avala TV Tower 1965   Serbia Avala, near Belgrade 204.5 m Destroyed in NATO bombing on April 29, 1999; reconstruction completed October 2009; tallest in the Balkans
Rousse TV Tower 1987   Bulgaria Rousse 204 m
TV tower Helpterberge 1981   Germany Helpterberge 203.2 m
Woobang Tower 1992   South Korea Daegu 202 m
Kamzik TV Tower 1975   Slovakia Bratislava 200 m
Guangdong TV Tower[citation needed] 1965   China Guangzhou 200 m

Towers between 100 and 200 metres tallEdit

Tower Year Country City Pinnacle height Remarks
Xuzhou TV Tower 1990   China Xuzhou 199 m
KPN-Zendmast Waalhaven 1962   Netherlands Rotterdam-Waalhaven 199 m
Zendmast Roermond 1957   Netherlands Roermond 197.7 m
KPN Tower Hilversum 1973   Netherlands Hilversum 196 m
Bantiger TV Tower 1996    Switzerland Bolligen 196 m
Sky Tower Nishitōkyō 1988   Japan Nishitōkyō, Tokyo 195 m
Telstra Tower 1980   Australia Canberra 195 m
Gateway Arch 1965   United States St. Louis 192 m
Dalian Radio and TV Tower ?   China Dalian 190.5 m
Calgary Tower 1967   Canada Calgary 190 m
BT Tower 1964   United Kingdom London 188 m
Cairo Tower 1961   Egypt Cairo 188 m
Telecom Italia Tower Rozzano 1990   Italy Rozzano - Milan 187 m
Kuwait Towers 1979   Kuwait Kuwait City 187 m
Euromast 1962   Netherlands Rotterdam 186 m
TV tower Decquede 1959   Germany Dequede 184.5 m
Space Needle 1962   United States Seattle 184 m
Brasilia Digital TV Tower 2012   Brazil Brasília, DF 182 m
Nagoya TV Tower 1954   Japan Nagoya 180 m
PL Peace Tower 1970   Japan Tondabayashi 180 m
Hošťálkovice transmitter 1979   Czech Republic Ostrava 180 m
Telecommunication Tower Bungsberg 1977   Germany Bungsberg 179 m
Löffelstelz Transmitter 2000   Germany Bad Mergentheim 179 m
Monte da Virgem Tower ?   Portugal Vila Nova de Gaia 177 m
Pécs TV Tower 1973   Hungary Pécs 176 m
Olympic Stadium tower
1987   Canada Montreal 175.3 m Highest inclined tower in the world, with its 45-degree angle.
Zendstation Markelo ?   Netherlands Markelo 174.4 m
San Jacinto Monument 1939   United States La Porte, Texas 172.92 m / 567.31 ft World's tallest monumental column
Reunion Tower 1978   United States Dallas 170.7 m
Iriški Venac TV Tower 1975   Serbia near Novi Sad 170 m
Juche Tower 1982   North Korea Pyongyang 170 m
Riyadh TV Tower 1981   Saudi Arabia Riyad 170 m
Spinnaker Tower 2005   United Kingdom Portsmouth 170 m
Washington Monument 1884   United States Washington, DC 169.3 m / 555 ft 5 in Observation level at 152 m
Zagreb TV Tower 1973   Croatia Zagreb 169 m
Fernmeldeturm Bödefeld ?   Germany Schmallenberg-Bödefeld 168.7 m
Näsinneula Observation Tower 1971   Finland Tampere 168 m Located at Särkänniemi amusement park
Menara Alor Star 1998   Malaysia Alor Star 165.5 m
Hünenburg Telecommunication Tower ?   Germany Bielefeld-Hühnenburg 165 m Also known as Fernmeldeturm Teutoburger Wald
Heubach Telecommunication Tower ?   Germany Heubach 164.8 m
Las Vegas Eiffel Tower 1999   United States Las Vegas 164.6 m Replica of Eiffel Tower
Praděd TV Tower 1983   Czech Republic Praděd Mountain 162 m
Ulm Münster 1377–1890   Germany Ulm 161.5 m Tallest church tower in the world
British Airways i360 2016   United Kingdom Brighton 161 m Thinnest tall tower in the world[6]
Osaka Tower 1966   Japan Osaka 160 m
Skylon Tower 1965   Canada Niagara Falls 160 m
Blackpool Tower 1894   United Kingdom Blackpool 158 m
Gold Tower 1988   Japan Utazu, Kagawa 158 m
Cologne Cathedral 1248–1880   Germany Cologne 157.4 m Twin spires
Snejanka tower 1978   Bulgaria Pamporovo - Mount Snejanka 156 m Also known as Pamporovo TV Tower
Kaknästornet TV Tower 1964   Sweden Stockholm 155 m
Funkturm Arsenal ?   Austria Vienna 155 m
Kaikyo Yume Tower 1996   Japan Shimonoseki 153 m
BT Tower 1967   United Kingdom Birmingham 152 m
Rouen Cathedral 1145–1876   France Rouen 151 m
Cuyahoga Falls Cathedral Tower 1971   USA Cuyahoga Falls 150.57 m unfinished TV tower
Funkturm Berlin 1926   Germany Berlin 150 m Only observation tower standing on insulators
Galaţi TV Tower 1978   Romania Galaţi 150 m
St. Nikolai, Hamburg 1846–77   Germany Hamburg 147.3 m Church ruin
Sapporo TV Tower 1957   Japan Sapporo 147.2 m
Dobrich TV Tower 1979   Bulgaria Dobrich 146 m
Fallturm Bremen 1990   Germany Bremen 146 m
Vasco da Gama Tower 1998   Portugal Lisboa 145 m
Strasbourg Cathedral 1176–1439   France Strasbourg 144 m
Nozema Tower Wormer 1968   Netherlands Wormer 144 m
Zigong TV Tower 1988   China Zigong 143.6 m
Jakobsberg Telecommunication Tower 1978   Germany Porta Westfalica-Jakobsberg 142 m
Monte Mario Tower ?   Italy Rome 140 m
Nozema Zendstation 1957   Netherlands Mierlo 139.5 m
Twin Arch 138 1995   Japan Ishinomiya 138 m
Goes TV Tower 1957   Netherlands Goes 137 m Also known as Nozema TV Tower Goes. Between 1957 and 2007 153 m tall.
Hohenstadt Transmission Tower ?   Germany Hohenstadt 137 m
Monas 1975   Indonesia Jakarta 137 m
St. Chrischona, old tower 1962    Switzerland St. Chrischona 136 m
Montjuic Communications Tower 1992   Spain Barcelona 136 m
Higashiyama Sky Tower 1989   Japan Nagoya 134 m
Radio City Tower 1969   United Kingdom Liverpool 134 m
KLIA2 Control Tower 2013   Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 133.8m Tallest Air-traffic control tower in the world[7]
Mulleklenkes 1984   Germany Aachen 133 m Radio-DVB-T Transmission Tower de:Mulleklenkes
Nozema Zendstation The Hague 1965   Netherlands The Hague 133 m
BKK Control Tower 2006   Thailand Bang Phli 132.2 m Second tallest air-traffic control tower in the world
Telefónica Chile Tower 1996   Chile Santiago 132 m
TV-toren Ittervoort ?   Netherlands Ittervoort 132 m
Telecommunication Tower Leipzig ?   Germany Leipzig 132 m
Kyoto Tower 1964   Japan Kyoto 131 m
1000 Islands SkyDeck 1965   Canada Hill Island, Ontario 130 m
TV Tower Nordhelle 1984   Germany Nordhelle 130 m
Telecommunication tower Großerlach 1985   Germany Großerlach 130 m
Zendstation Loon op Zand 1986   Netherlands Loon op Zand 130 m
Shiraz Tower 2011   Iran Shiraz 130 m
KUL Control Tower 1998   Malaysia Kuala-Lumpur 130 m
Piątkowo transmitter, Tower 2 1993   Poland Poznań 128 m
Sanctuary of Our Lady of Licheń 2004   Poland Licheń 128 m
Express Lift Tower 1980–82   United Kingdom Northampton 127.45 m
Torre Entel 1974   Chile Santiago 127.4 m
Glasgow Tower 2001   United Kingdom Glasgow 127 m
Aliant Tower 1971   Canada Moncton 127 m
Sender Inselsberg 1974   Germany Inselsberg Mountain + 126 m Was 43.31 when constructed in 1939
Dreamworld Tower 1997   Australia Dreamworld, Coomera 126.5m
Grobal Tower 1995   Japan Beppu 125 m
FMT 6 - Brackenheim ?   Germany Brackenheim 125 m
Craigkelly TV Tower ?   United Kingdom Craigkelly, Burntisland, Fife 125 m
Chiba Port Tower 1986   Japan Chiba 125 m
Atakule Tower 1989   Turkey Ankara 125 m
Riga Radio Station ?   Latvia Riga 125 m
Gatlinburg Space Needle 1970   United States Gatlinburg 124 m
Transmitter Geiersberg ?   Germany Geiersberg 124 m
Tyholttårnet 1985   Norway Trondheim 124 m
Banharn-Jamsai Tower ?   Thailand Suphan Buri 123.25 m
Salisbury Cathedral 1220–1320   United Kingdom Salisbury 123 m
Sender Brocken 1937 &
1974
  Germany Brocken Mountain 123 m 95 m on original tower
Mont Pèlerin TV Tower 1974    Switzerland Mont Pèlerin 122.6 m
Pääskyvuoren linkkitorni 1964   Finland Turku 122 m
Ginosa Water Tower ?   Italy Ginosa 122 m
Zendstation Megen 1980   Netherlands Megen 121 m
Fernmeldeturm Duisburg   Germany Duisburg 121 m
Gibloux Radio Tower ?    Switzerland Sorens 118.7 m
Crossland Tower 1994   Japan Oyabe, Toyama 118 m
Silistra TV Tower 1979   Bulgaria Silistra 117 m
Lisebergstornet 1990   Sweden Göteborg 116.1 m
Observation tower of la Cité de l'Énergie ?   Canada Shawinigan, Quebec 115 m
Bernauer Birzel ?   Germany Bernau 115 m
Torrazzo of Cremona 1309   Italy Cremona 112.7 m
Domtoren 1328   Netherlands Utrecht 112.5 m Free standing medieval church tower, see also List of tallest churches
Tiger Sky Tower 2004   Singapore Sentosa Island 110 m Tallest free standing observation tower in Asia
Bytków TV Tower ?   Poland Siemianowice Śląskie 110 m
Taming Sari Tower 2008   Malaysia Melaka 110 m First revolving tower in Malaysia
Exelberg Telecommunication Tower   Austria Vienna 109 m
Torre Branca 1933   Italy Milano 108.6 m
Kobe Port Tower 1963   Japan Kobe 108 m
Vitosha Mountain TV Tower 1985   Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain 186 m
Tour Hertzienne TDF de Romainville 1984   France Paris-Romainville 108 m Also known as Tour Relais TDF
Goryokaku Tower 2006   Japan Hakodate 107 m
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial 1915   United States Put-in-Bay, Ohio 107 m World’s most massive Doric column; 4th tallest memorial in U.S.
Torre Jaume I 1931   Spain Barcelona 107 m Connected with Torre Sant Sebastia by Port Vell Aerial Tramway
Bremerhaven Radar Tower 1965   Germany Bremerhaven 106.1 m
Yokohama Marine Tower 1961   Japan Yokohama 106 m
Borisova Gradina TV Tower 1959   Bulgaria Sofia 106 m
Tsutenkaku 1956   Japan Osaka 103 m
Scream 1992   Germany Soltau - Heidepark 103 m Gyro-Drop Tower
Total Tower 1994   United States Denver 102.4 m
Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower 1908   United Kingdom Birmingham, England 100 m
Beppu Tower 1957   Japan Beppu 100 m
Hakata Port Tower 1964   Japan Hukuoka 100 m
Ještěd TV Tower 1968   Czech Republic Jested 100 m
Hokkaido Centennial Monument 1970   Japan Sapporo 100 m
Bazita Peak TV Tower 1975   Hungary Zalaegerszeg 100 m
Holstein Tower 1988   Germany Sierksdorf 100 m Additionally guyed Gyro-Tower
Faro de Moncloa 1992   Spain Madrid 100 m

DiagramEdit

CN TowerTokyo sky treeCanton TowerOstankino TowerOriental Pearl TowerMilad Tower 

Timeline of tallest towersEdit

From To Tower Country City Pinnacle height
280 BC 1180 AD Pharos Lighthouse   Egypt Alexandria 122 m (400 ft)
1180 1240 Malmesbury Abbey Tower   United Kingdom Malmesbury 131.3 m (430 ft)
1240 1311 Tower of Old St Paul's Cathedral   United Kingdom London 150 m (492 ft)
1311 1549 Tower of Lincoln Cathedral   United Kingdom Lincoln 159.7 m (523 ft)
1549 1647 Tower of St Mary's church   Germany Stralsund 151 m (495 ft)
1647 1874 Tower of Strasbourg Cathedral   France Strasbourg 142 m (465 ft)
1874 1876 Tower of St. Nikolai   Germany Hamburg 147 m (482 ft)
1876 1880 Tower of Rouen Cathedral   France Rouen 151 m (495 ft)
1880 1889 Tower of Cologne Cathedral   Germany Cologne 157.38 m (516 ft)
1889 1958 Eiffel Tower   France Paris 312.3 m (1024 ft)
1958 1967 Tokyo Tower   Japan Tokyo 332.6 m (1091 ft)
1967 1975 Ostankino Tower   Russia Moscow 540.1 m (1771 ft)
1975 2009 CN Tower   Canada Toronto 553.33 m (1815 ft)
2009 2011 Canton Tower   China Guangzhou 604 m (1982 ft)
2011 present Tokyo Skytree   Japan Tokyo 634 m (2080 ft)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gerometta, Marshall. "Height: The History of Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  2. ^ "Tokyo Sky Tree construction ends: World's tallest tower prepares to open". Cable News Network. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  3. ^ Danielle Demetriou (1 March 2012). "Tokyo unveils world's tallest communications tower". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  4. ^ "Tokyo Skytree website" (in Japanese). Tobu Railway Co., Ltd. & Tobu Tower Skytree Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2011-03-08. 
  5. ^ Skyscraper Center. CTBUH http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/yerevan-tv-tower/9412. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Duke of Edinburgh officially opens Brighton's i360 tower". BBC. 28 October 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  7. ^ "Tallest airport control tower". Retrieved 4 April 2017.