List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
This is a list of topics that have, either currently or in the past, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers. Detailed discussion of these topics may be found on their main pages. These characterizations were made in the context of educating the public about questionable or potentially fraudulent or dangerous claims and practices—efforts to define the nature of science, or humorous parodies of poor scientific reasoning.
Criticism of pseudoscience, generally by the scientific community or skeptical organizations, involves critiques of the logical, methodological, or rhetorical bases of the topic in question. Though some of the listed topics continue to be investigated scientifically, others were only subject to scientific research in the past, and today are considered refuted but resurrected in a pseudoscientific fashion. Other ideas presented here are entirely non-scientific, but have in one way or another impinged on scientific domains or practices.
Many adherents or practitioners of the topics listed here dispute their characterization as pseudoscience. Each section here summarizes the alleged pseudoscientific aspects of that topic.
Astronomy and space sciences
- 2012 phenomenon – a range of eschatological beliefs that cataclysmic or otherwise transformative events would occur on or around 21 December 2012. This date was regarded as the end-date of a 5,126-year-long cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar and as such, festivities to commemorate the date took place on 21 December 2012 in the countries that were part of the Maya civilization (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador), with main events at Chichén Itzá in Mexico, and Tikal in Guatemala. Professional Mayanist scholars stated that no extant classic Maya accounts forecast impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresented Maya history and culture, while astronomers rejected the various proposed doomsday scenarios easily refuted by elementary astronomical observations.
- Ancient astronauts – a concept based on the belief that intelligent extraterrestrial beings visited Earth and made contact with humans in antiquity and prehistoric times. Proponents suggest that this contact influenced the development of modern cultures, technologies, and religions. A common claim is that deities from most, if not all, religions are actually extraterrestrial in origin, and that advanced technologies brought to Earth by ancient astronauts were interpreted as evidence of divine status by early humans. The idea that ancient astronauts existed is not taken seriously by academics, and has received no credible attention in peer reviewed studies.
- Anunnaki from Nibiru (Sitchin) (variant) – Zecharia Sitchin proposed in his series The Earth Chronicles, beginning with The 12th Planet (1976) revolves around Sitchin's unique interpretation of ancient Sumerian and Middle Eastern texts, megalithic sites, and artifacts from around the world. He hypothesizes that the gods of old Mesopotamia were actually astronauts from the planet "Nibiru", which Sitchin claims the Sumerians believed to be a remote "12th planet" (counting the Sun, Moon, and Pluto as planets) associated with the god Marduk. According to Sitchin, Nibiru continues to orbit our sun on a 3,600-year elongated orbit.
- Ancient astronauts from the Sirius star-system (Temple) (variant) – Robert K. G. Temple's proposal in his book The Sirius Mystery (1976) argues that the Dogon people of northwestern Mali preserved an account of extraterrestrial visitation from around 5,000 years ago. He quotes various lines of evidence, including supposed advanced astronomical knowledge inherited by the tribe, descriptions, and comparative belief systems with ancient civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Sumer.
- Astrology (see also Astrology and science) – consists of a number of belief systems that hold that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events or descriptions of personality in the human world. Several systems of divination are based on the relative positions and movement of various real and construed celestial bodies. Scientific testing of astrology has been conducted, and no evidence has been found to support the premises or purported effects outlined in astrological traditions. Where astrology has made falsifiable predictions, it has been falsified.:424
- Creationist cosmologies are explanations of the origins and form of the universe in terms of the Genesis creation narrative (Genesis 1), according to which the God of the Bible created the cosmos in eight creative acts over the six days of the "creation week".
- Dogon people and Sirius B – a series of claims that the Dogon tribe knew about the white dwarf companion of Sirius despite it being invisible to the naked eye (and knew about it for reasons other than being told about it by visiting Europeans).
- Evidence for life on Mars
- Martian canals – Speculation about life on Mars exploded in the late 19th century, following telescopic observation by some observers of apparent artificially constructed canals—which were later found to be optical illusions. They were first described by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, and confirmed by later observers.
- The Face on Mars is a rock formation in Cydonia Mensae on Mars asserted to be evidence of intelligent, native life on the planet. High-resolution images taken recently show it to appear less face-like. It features prominently in the works of Richard C. Hoagland and Tom Van Flandern. This effect can also be explained by the psychological phenomena, pareidolia, whereby one assigns meaning (such as facial perception) to an otherwise ambiguous or meaningless stimuli.
- Lunar effect – the belief that the full Moon influences human behavior.
- Modern flat Earth beliefs propose that the earth is a flat, disc-shaped planet that accelerates upward, producing the illusion of gravity. Proposers of a flat Earth, such as the Flat Earth Society, do not accept compelling evidence, such as photos of planet Earth from space.
- Modern geocentrism – In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with the Earth at the center. Under the geocentric model, the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets all circled Earth. The geocentric model served as the predominant description of the cosmos in many ancient civilizations, such as those of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
- Moon landing conspiracy theories – claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associated Moon landings were hoaxes staged by NASA with the aid of other organizations. The most notable claim is that the six manned landings (1969–72) were faked and that 12 Apollo astronauts did not actually walk on the Moon. Various groups and individuals have made claims since the mid-1970s that NASA and others knowingly misled the public into believing the landings happened, by manufacturing, tampering with, or destroying evidence including photos, telemetry tapes, radio and TV transmissions, Moon rock samples, and even killing some key witnesses.
- Nibiru cataclysm – a prediction first made by contactee Nancy Lieder that a mythological planet Nibiru would collide with Earth. After having adjusted her prediction many times, she later claimed the year of the occurrence to be 2012. In 2017, a conspiracy theorist known as David Meade claimed 2017 was the year Nibiru would hit.
- Vaimānika Shāstra – claim that airplanes were invented in ancient India during the Vedic period. A 1974 study by researchers at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore found that the heavier-than-air aircraft that the Vaimānika Shāstra described were aerodynamically unfeasible. The authors remarked that the discussion of the principles of flight in the text were largely perfunctory and incorrect, in some cases violating Newton's laws of motion.
- Worlds in Collision – writer Immanuel Velikovsky proposed in his book Worlds in Collision that ancient texts and geographic evidence show mankind was witness to catastrophic interactions of other planets in our Solar system.
- Megalithic geometry or 366 geometry – posits the existence of an Earth-based geometry dating back to at least 3500 BCE, and the possibility that such a system is still in use in modern Freemasonry. According to proponents, megalithic civilizations in Britain and Brittany had advanced knowledge of geometry and the size of the Earth. The megalithic yard is correlated to the polar circumference of Earth using a circle divided into 366 degrees.
- The Bermuda Triangle – a region of the Atlantic Ocean that lies between Bermuda, Puerto Rico, and (in its most popular version) Florida. Ship and aircraft disasters and disappearances perceived as frequent in this area have led to the circulation of stories of unusual natural phenomena, paranormal encounters, and interactions with extraterrestrials.
- Climate change denial – involves denial, dismissal, unwarranted doubt or contrarian views which depart from the scientific consensus on climate change, including the extent to which it is caused by humans, its impacts on nature and human society, or the potential of adaptation to global warming by human actions.
- Flood geology – creationist form of geology that advocates most of the geologic features on Earth are explainable by a global flood.
- Hollow Earth – a proposal that Earth is either entirely hollow or consists of hollow sections beneath the crust. Certain folklore and conspiracy theories hold this idea and suggest the existence of subterranean life.
- Welteislehre, a.k.a. the World Ice Theory or Glacial Cosmogony – ice is proposed to be the basic substance of all cosmic processes, and ice moons, ice planets, and the "global ether" (also made of ice) had determined the entire development of the universe.
- Animal magnetism - also known as mesmerism, was the name given by German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (Lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living things, including humans, animals, and vegetables. He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing, and he tried persistently but without success to achieve scientific recognition of his ideas.
- Free energy – a class of perpetual motion that purports to create energy (violating the first law of thermodynamics) or extract useful work from equilibrium systems (violating the second law of thermodynamics).
- Water-fueled cars – an instance of perpetual motion machines. Such devices are claimed to use water as fuel or produce fuel from water on board with no other energy input. Many such claims are part of investment frauds.
- Gasoline pill, which was claimed to turn water into gasoline.
- Hongcheng Magic Liquid – a scam in China where Wang Hongcheng (Chinese: 王洪成; pinyin: Wáng Hóngchéng), a bus driver from Harbin with no scientific education, claimed in 1983 that he could turn regular water into a fuel as flammable as petrol by simply dissolving a few drops of his liquid in it.
- Hydrinos – a supposed state of the hydrogen atom that, according to its proponent, is of lower energy than ground state and has extremely high efficiency as a fuel. Critics say it lacks corroborating scientific evidence, and is a relic of cold fusion. Critical analysis of the claims have been published in the peer reviewed journals Physics Letters A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Applied Physics, and Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics on the basis that Quantum Mechanics is valid, and that the proposed hydrino states are unphysical and incompatible with key equations of Quantum Mechanics.
- E-Cat – a claimed cold fusion reactor.
- Orgone – a pseudoscientific concept described as an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force, originally proposed in the 1930s.
- Autodynamics – a physics theory proposed in the 1940s that claims the equations of the Lorentz transformation are incorrectly formulated to describe relativistic effects, which would invalidate Einstein's theories of special relativity and general relativity, and Maxwell's equations. The theory is discounted by the mainstream physics community.
- Einstein–Cartan–Evans theory – a unified theory of physics proposed by Myron Wyn Evans which claims to unify general relativity, quantum mechanics and electromagnetism. The hypothesis was largely published in the journal Foundations of Physics Letters between 2003 and 2005; in 2008, the editor published an editorial note effectively retracting the journal's support for the hypothesis due to incorrect mathematical claims.
- Electrogravitics – claimed to be an unconventional type of effect or anti-gravity propulsion created by an electric field's effect on a mass. The name was coined in the 1920s by Thomas Townsend Brown, who first described the effect and spent most of his life trying to develop it and sell it as a propulsion system. Followups on the claims (R. L. Talley in a 1990 U.S. Air Force study, NASA scientist Jonathan Campbell in a 2003 experiment, and Martin Tajmar in a 2004 paper) have found that no thrust could be observed in a vacuum, consistent with the phenomenon of ion wind.
- Lysenkoism, or Lysenko-Michurinism – was a political campaign against genetics and science-based agriculture conducted by Trofim Lysenko, his followers and Soviet authorities. Lysenko served as the director of the Soviet Union's Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Lysenkoism began in the late 1920s and formally ended in 1964. The pseudo-scientific ideas of Lysenkoism built on Lamarckian concepts of the heritability of acquired characteristics. Lysenko's theory rejected Mendelian inheritance and the concept of the "gene"; it departed from Darwinian evolutionary theory by rejecting natural selection.
- Biodynamic agriculture – method of organic farming that treats farms as unified and individual organisms. Biodynamics uses a calendar which has been characterized as astrological. The substances and composts used by biodynamicists have been described as unconventional and homeopathic. For example, field mice are countered by deploying ashes prepared from field mice skin when Venus is in the Scorpius constellation. No difference in beneficial outcomes has been scientifically established between certified biodynamic agricultural techniques and similar organic and integrated farming practices. Biodynamic agriculture lacks strong scientific evidence for its efficacy and has been labeled a pseudoscience because of its overreliance upon esoteric knowledge and mystical beliefs.
- Feng shui – ancient Chinese system of mysticism and aesthetics based on astronomy, geography, and the putative flow of qi. Evidence for its effectiveness is based on anecdote, and there is a lack of a plausible method of action; this leads to conflicting advice from different practitioners of feng shui. Feng shui practitioners use this as evidence of variations or different schools; critical analysts have described it thus: "Feng shui has always been based upon mere guesswork." Modern criticism differentiates between feng shui as a traditional proto-religion and the modern practice: "A naturalistic belief, it was originally used to find an auspicious dwelling place for a shrine or a tomb. However, over the centuries it... has become distorted and degraded into a gross superstition."
- Ley lines – proposed intentional alignment of ancient monuments and landscape features was later explained by a statistical analysis of lines that concluded: "the density of archaeological sites in the British landscape is so great that a line drawn through virtually anywhere will 'clip' a number of sites." Additional New Age and feng shui concepts have been proposed building on the original concept, and pseudo-scientific claims about energy flowing through the lines have been made.
- Vastu shastra is the ancient Hindu system of architecture, which lays down a series of rules for building houses in relation to ambiance. Vastu Shastra is considered as pseudoscience by rationalists like Narendra Nayak of Federation of Indian Rationalist Associations and astronomer Jayant Narlikar who writes that Vastu does not have any "logical connection" to the environment.
- Technical analysis is a security analysis methodology for forecasting the direction of prices through the study of past market data, primarily price and volume. Behavioral economics and quantitative analysis use many of the same tools of technical analysis, which, being an aspect of active management, stands in contradiction to much of modern portfolio theory. The efficacy of both technical and fundamental analysis is disputed by the efficient-market hypothesis which states that stock market prices are essentially unpredictable. It is still considered by many academics to be pseudoscience. Academics such as Eugene Fama say the evidence for technical analysis is sparse and is inconsistent with the weak form of the efficient-market hypothesis.
Health and medicine
- Acupuncture – use of fine needles to stimulate acupuncture points and balance the flow of qi. There is no known anatomical or histological basis for the existence of acupuncture points or meridians and acupuncture is regarded as an alternative medical procedure. Some acupuncturists regard them as functional rather than structural entities, useful in guiding evaluation and care of patients. Acupuncture has been the subject of active scientific research since the late 20th century, and its effects and application remain controversial among medical researchers and clinicians. Because it is a procedure rather than a pill, the design of controlled studies is challenging, as with surgical and other procedures. Some scholarly reviews conclude that acupuncture's effects are mainly attributable to the placebo effect, and others find likelihood of efficacy for particular conditions.
- Dry needling is the therapeutic insertion of fine needles without regard to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) knowledge and is similarly controversial.
- Acupressure is an alternative medicine technique similar in principle to acupuncture. It is based on the concept of life energy which flows through "meridians" in the body. In treatment, physical pressure is applied to acupuncture points with the aim of clearing blockages in these meridians. Pressure may be applied by hand, by elbow, or with various devices. Some studies have suggested it may be effective at helping manage nausea and vomiting, lower back pain, tension headaches, and stomach ache although such studies have been found to have a high likelihood of bias. Like many alternative medicines, it may benefit from a placebo effect. Quackwatch says acupressure is a dubious practice and its practitioners use irrational methods.
- Adrenal fatigue or hypoadrenia is a pseudoscientific diagnosis described as a state in which the adrenal glands are exhausted and unable to produce adequate quantities of hormones, primarily the glucocorticoid cortisol, due to chronic stress or infections. Adrenal fatigue should not be confused with a number of actual forms of adrenal dysfunction such as adrenal insufficiency or Addison's disease. The term "adrenal fatigue", which was invented in 1998 by James Wilson, a chiropractor, may be applied to a collection of mostly nonspecific symptoms. There is no scientific evidence supporting the concept of adrenal fatigue and it is not recognized as a diagnosis by any scientific or medical community. A systematic review found no evidence for the term adrenal fatigue, confirming the consensus among endocrinological societies that it is a myth.
- The Alexander Technique, named after its creator Frederick Matthias Alexander, is an educational process that was created to retrain habitual patterns of movement and posture. Alexander believed that poor habits in posture and movement damaged spatial self-awareness as well as health, and that movement efficiency could support overall physical well-being. He saw the technique as a mental training technique as well.:221 Alexander began developing his technique's principles in the 1890s in an attempt to address voice loss during public speaking.:34–35 He credited his method with allowing him to pursue his passion for reciting in Shakespearean theater. Some proponents of the Alexander Technique say that it addresses a variety of health conditions related to cumulative physical behaviors, but there is little evidence to support many of the claims made about the technique. As of 2015 there was evidence suggesting the Alexander Technique may be helpful for long-term back pain, long-term neck pain, and may help people cope with Parkinson's disease. However, both Aetna and the Australian Department of Health have conducted reviews and concluded that the technique has insufficient evidence to warrant insurance coverage.
- Alternative cancer treatments are alternative or complementary treatments for cancer that have not been approved by the government agencies responsible for the regulation of therapeutic goods and have not undergone properly conducted, well-designed clinical trials. Among those that have been published, the methodology is often poor. A 2006 systematic review of 214 articles covering 198 clinical trials of alternative cancer treatments concluded that almost none conducted dose-ranging studies, which are necessary to ensure that the patients are being given a useful amount of the treatment. These kinds of treatments appear and vanish frequently, and have throughout history.
- Alternative or fringe medicine – The terms alternative medicine, complementary medicine, integrative medicine, holistic medicine, natural medicine, unorthodox medicine, fringe medicine, unconventional medicine, and new age medicine are used interchangeably and are almost synonymous. Terminology shifts over time to reflect the branding of practitioners. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", implicitly and intentionally suggesting that conventional medicine is "artificial" and "narrow in scope".
- Anthroposophic medicine, or anthroposophical medicine, is a form of alternative medicine. Devised in the 1920s by Rudolf Steiner and Ita Wegman, it was based on occult notions and drew on Steiner's spiritual philosophy, which he called anthroposophy. Practitioners employ a variety of treatment techniques based upon anthroposophic precepts. Many drug preparations used in anthroposophic medicine are ultra-diluted substances, similar to those used in homeopathy. Some anthroposophic doctors oppose childhood vaccination, and this has led to preventable outbreaks of disease. Professor of complementary medicine Edzard Ernst and other critics have characterized anthroposophic medicine as having no basis in science, pseudoscientific, and quackery.
- Apitherapy is a branch of alternative medicine that uses honey bee products, including honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom. Proponents of apitherapy make claims for its health benefits which remain unsupported by evidence-based medicine.
- Applied kinesiology (AK) is a technique in alternative medicine claimed to be able to diagnose illness or choose treatment by testing muscles for strength and weakness. According to their guidelines on allergy diagnostic testing, the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology stated there is "no evidence of diagnostic validity" of applied kinesiology. Another study has shown that as an evaluative method, AK "is no more useful than random guessing", and the American Cancer Society has said that "scientific evidence does not support the claim that applied kinesiology can diagnose or treat cancer or other illness".
- Aromatherapy uses aromatic materials, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds, with claims for improving psychological or physical well-being. It is offered as a complementary therapy or as a form of alternative medicine, the first meaning alongside standard treatments, the second instead of conventional, evidence-based treatments. Aromatherapists, people who specialize in the practice of aromatherapy, utilize blends of supposedly therapeutic essential oils that can be used as topical application, massage, inhalation or water immersion. There is no good medical evidence that aromatherapy can either prevent, treat, or cure any disease. Placebo-controlled trials are difficult to design, as the point of aromatherapy is the smell of the products. There is disputed evidence that it may be effective in combating postoperative nausea and vomiting.
- Auriculotherapy (also auricular therapy, ear acupuncture, and auriculoacupuncture) is a form of alternative medicine based on the idea that the ear is a micro-system, which reflects the entire body, represented on the auricle, the outer portion of the ear. Conditions affecting the physical, mental or emotional health of the patient are assumed to be treatable by stimulation of the surface of the ear exclusively. Similar mappings are used in many areas of the body, including the practices of reflexology and iridology. These mappings are not based on or supported by any medical or scientific evidence, and are therefore considered to be pseudoscience.
- Autistic enterocolitis – is the name of a nonexistent medical condition proposed by discredited British gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield when he suggested a link between a number of common clinical symptoms and signs which he contended were distinctive to autism. The existence of such an enterocolitis has been dismissed by experts as having "not been established". Wakefield's now-retracted and fraudulent report used inadequate controls and suppressed negative findings, and multiple attempts to replicate his results have been unsuccessful. Reviews in the medical literature have found no link between autism and bowel disease.
- Balneotherapy (Latin: balneum "bath") is the presumed benefit from disease by bathing, a traditional medicine technique usually practiced at spas. Balneotherapy may involve hot or cold water, massage through moving water, relaxation, or stimulation. Many mineral waters at spas are rich in particular minerals such as silica, sulfur, selenium, and radium. Scientific studies into the effectiveness of balneotherapy do not show that balneotherapy is effective for treating rheumatoid arthritis. There is also no evidence indicating a more effective type of bath, or to indicate that bathing is more effective than exercise, relaxation therapy, or mudpacks. Most of the studies on balneotherapy have methodological flaws and are not reliable. A 2009 review of all published clinical evidence concluded that existing research is not sufficiently strong to draw firm conclusions about the efficacy of balneotherapy.
- Bates method for better eyesight – an alternative therapy aimed at improving eyesight. Eye-care physician William Horatio Bates, M.D. (1860–1931) attributed nearly all sight problems to habitual strain of the eyes, and felt that glasses were harmful and never necessary. Bates self-published a book, Perfect Sight Without Glasses, as well as a magazine, Better Eyesight Magazine, (and earlier collaborated with Bernarr MacFadden on a correspondence course) detailing his approach to helping people relax such "strain", and thus, he claimed, improve their sight. His techniques centered on visualization and movement. In 1952, optometry professor Elwin Marg wrote of Bates, "Most of his claims and almost all of his theories have been considered false by practically all visual scientists." Marg concluded that the Bates method owed its popularity largely to "flashes of clear vision" experienced by many who followed it. Such occurrences have since been explained as a contact lens-like effect of moisture on the eye, or a flattening of the lens by the ciliary muscles.
- Biological terrain assessment – a set of computerized tests used to measure the pH, resistivity, and redox of a person's urine, blood, and saliva, with the intention of recommending a customized program of health supplements and remedies (such as vitamins, homeopathic supplements, or herbal medicines) based on the results. Proponents suggest that BTA allows for a correction of biological imbalances before they become pathological, while opponents claim that the tests are imprecise and results in incorrect diagnoses.
- Biorhythm theory - is an attempt to predict various aspects of a person's life through simple mathematical cycles. The theory was developed by Wilhelm Fliess in the late 19th century, and was popularized in the United States in the late 1970s. It was described as pseudoscience.
- Body memory (BM) is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain. While experiments have demonstrated the possibility of cellular memory there are currently no known means by which tissues other than the brain would be capable of storing memories. Modern usage of BM tends to frame it exclusively in the context of traumatic memory and ways in which the body responds to recall of a memory. In this regard, it has become relevant in treatment for PTSD.
- Brain Gym – is an organization promoting a series of exercises claimed to improve academic performance. Twenty-six Brain Gym activities are claimed to improve eye teaming (binocular vision), spatial and listening skills, hand–eye coordination, and whole-body flexibility, and by doing this manipulate the brain, improving learning and recall of information. The Brain Gym program calls for children to repeat certain simple movements such as crawling, yawning, making symbols in the air, and drinking water; these are intended to "integrate", "repattern", and increase blood flow to the brain. Though the organization claims the methods are grounded in good neuroscience, the underlying ideas are pseudoscience.
- Candida hypersensitivity – It has been spuriously claimed that chronic yeast infections are responsible for many common disorders and non-specific symptoms including fatigue, weight gain, constipation, dizziness, muscle and joint pain, asthma, and others. The notion has been strongly challenged by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology.
- Chelation therapy is claimed by some practitioners of alternative medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including heart disease and autism. The use of chelation therapy by alternative medicine practitioners for behavioral and other disorders is considered pseudoscientific; there is no proof that it is effective. In addition to being ineffective, chelation therapy prior to heavy metal testing can artificially raise urinary heavy metal concentrations ("provoked" urine testing) and lead to inappropriate and unnecessary treatment. The American College of Medical Toxicology and the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology warn the public that chelating drugs used in chelation therapy may have serious side effects, including liver and kidney damage, blood pressure changes, allergies and in some cases even death of the patient.
- Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine. Some proponents, especially those in the field's early history, have claimed that such disorders affect general health via the nervous system, through vertebral subluxation, claims which are not based on scientific evidence. The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual therapy, especially spinal manipulation therapy (SMT), manipulations of other joints and soft tissues. Its foundation is at odds with mainstream medicine, and chiropractic is sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as vertebral subluxation and "innate intelligence" that reject science.
- Chromotherapy, sometimes called color therapy, colorology or cromatherapy, is an alternative medicine method, which is considered pseudoscience. Chromotherapists claim to be able to use light in the form of color to balance "energy" lacking from a person's body, whether it be on physical, emotional, spiritual, or mental levels. Color therapy is distinct from other types of light therapy, such as neonatal jaundice treatment and blood irradiation therapy which is a scientifically accepted medical treatment for a number of conditions, and from photobiology, the scientific study of the effects of light on living organisms. French skeptic and lighting physicist Sébastien Point considers that LED lamps at domestic radiance are safe in normal use for the general population; he also pointed out the risk of overexposure to light from LEDs for practices like chromotherapy, when duration and time exposure are not under control.
- Chronic Lyme disease (not to be confused with Lyme disease) is a generally rejected diagnosis that encompasses "a broad array of illnesses or symptom complexes for which there is no reproducible or convincing scientific evidence of any relationship to Borrelia burgdorferi infection." Despite numerous studies, there is no clinical evidence that "chronic" Lyme disease is caused by a persistent infection. It is distinct from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, a set of lingering symptoms which may persist after successful treatment of infection with Lyme spirochetes. The symptoms of "chronic Lyme" are generic and non-specific "symptoms of life".
- Colon cleansing (a.k.a. colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s, internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased. Some forms of colon Hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimens use dietary fiber, herbs, dietary supplements, or laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the large intestine and that these accumulations harbor parasites or pathogenic gut flora, causing nonspecific symptoms and general ill-health. This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was discredited in the early 20th century.
- Colloidal silver (a colloid consisting of silver particles suspended in liquid) and formulations containing silver salts were used by physicians in the early 20th century, but their use was largely discontinued in the 1940s following the development of safer and effective modern antibiotics. Since about 1990, there has been a resurgence of the promotion of colloidal silver as a dietary supplement, marketed with claims of it being an essential mineral supplement, or that it can prevent or treat numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV/AIDS, herpes, and tuberculosis. No medical evidence supports the effectiveness of colloidal silver for any of these claimed indications. Silver is not an essential mineral in humans; there is no dietary requirement for silver, and hence, no such thing as a silver "deficiency". There is no evidence that colloidal silver treats or prevents any medical condition, and it can cause serious and potentially irreversible side effects such as argyria.
- Craniosacral therapy – is a form of bodywork or alternative therapy using gentle touch to manipulate the synarthrodial joints of the cranium. A practitioner of cranial-sacral therapy may also apply light touches to a patient's spine and pelvis. Practitioners believe that this manipulation regulates the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and aids in "primary respiration." Craniosacral therapy was developed by John Upledger, D.O. in the 1970s, as an offshoot of osteopathy in the cranial field, or cranial osteopathy, which was developed in the 1930s by William Garner Sutherland. According to the American Cancer Society, although CST may relieve the symptoms of stress or tension, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that craniosacral therapy helps in treating cancer or any other disease." CST has been characterized as pseudoscience and its practice has been called quackery. Cranial osteopathy has received a similar assessment, with one 1990 paper finding there was no scientific basis for any of the practitioners' claims the paper examined.
- Cryonics – a field of products, techniques, and beliefs supporting the idea that freezing the clinically dead, at very low temperatures (typically below −196 degrees Celsius) will enable future revival or re-substantiation. These beliefs often hinge on the existence of advanced human or alien societies, in the distant future, who will possess as-of-yet unknown technology for the stabilization of dying cells. There is no evidence a human being can be revived after such freezing, and no solid scientific evidence suggests that reanimation will be possible in the future.
- Crystal healing – belief that crystals have healing properties. Once common among pre-scientific and indigenous peoples, it enjoyed a resurgence in popularity in the 1970s with the New Age movement. There is no scientific evidence that crystal healing has any effect.
- Cupping therapy is an ancient form of alternative medicine. Cupping is used in more than 60 countries. Its usage dates back to as far as 1550 B.C. There are different forms of cupping; the most common are dry, wet, and fire cupping. Cups are applied onto the skin and a suction is created, pulling the skin up. It is meant to increase blood flow to certain areas to the body. Not a part of medical practice in the modern era, cupping has been characterized as a pseudoscience. There is no good evidence it has any health benefits, and there are some risks of harm, especially in case of wet and fire cupping.
- Detoxification – Detoxification in the context of alternative medicine consists of an approach that claims to rid the body of "toxins" – accumulated substances that allegedly exert undesirable effects on individual health in the short or long term. The concept has received criticism from scientists and health organizations for its unsound scientific basis and lack of evidence for the claims made. The "toxins" usually remain undefined, with little to no evidence of toxic accumulation in the patient. The British organisation Sense About Science has described some detox diets and commercial products as "a waste of time and money", while the British Dietetic Association called the idea "nonsense" and a "marketing myth".
- Ear candling also called ear coning or thermal-auricular therapy, is a pseudoscientifican alternative medicine practice claimed to improve general health and well-being by lighting one end of a hollow candle and placing the other end in the ear canal. Medical research has shown that the practice is both dangerous and ineffective and does not functionally remove earwax or toxicants, despite product design contributing to that impression.
- Earthing therapy or Grounding is a therapy that is claimed to ease pain, provide a better night's sleep, and assist in diseases with symptoms of inflammation by being in direct physical contact with the ground or a device connected to electrical ground. Purportedly, Earth has an excess of electrons which people are missing due to insulating shoes and ground cover. Being in electrical contact with Earth provides the body with those excess electrons, which then act as antioxidants. A 2012 systematic review study showed inconclusive results related to methodological issues across the literature. Subsequently, a 2017 systematic review of the benefits of spending time in forests demonstrated positive health effects, but not enough to generate clinical practice guidelines or demonstrate causality.
- Electrohomeopathy (or Mattei cancer cure) is a derivative of homeopathy invented in the 19th century by Count Cesare Mattei. The name is derived from a combination of electro (referring to an electric bio-energy content supposedly extracted from plants and of therapeutic value, rather than electricity in its conventional sense) and homeopathy (referring to an alternative medicinal philosophy developed by Samuel Hahnemann in the 18th century). Electrohomeopathy has been defined as the combination of electrical devices and homeopathy.
- Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) – reported sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields or electromagnetic radiation of various frequencies at exposure levels well below established safety standards. Symptoms are inconsistent, but can include headache, fatigue, difficulty sleeping, and similar non-specific indications. Provocation studies find that the discomfort of sufferers is unrelated to hidden sources of radiation, and "no scientific basis currently exists for a connection between EHS and exposure to [electromagnetic fields]."
- Energy medicine, energy therapy, energy healing, vibrational medicine, psychic healing, spiritual medicine or spiritual healing are branches of alternative medicine based on a pseudo-scientific belief that healers can channel healing energy into a patient and effect positive results. This idea itself contains several methods: hands-on, hands-off, and distant (or absent) where the patient and healer are in different locations. While early reviews of the scientific literature on energy healing were equivocal and recommended further research, more recent reviews have concluded that there is no evidence supporting clinical efficiency.
- Facilitated communication is a scientifically discredited technique that attempts to aid communication by people with autism or other communication disabilities. The facilitator holds the disabled person's arm or hand during this process and attempts to help them move to type on a keyboard or other device. Research indicates that the facilitator is the source of the messages obtained through FC (involving ideomotor effect guidance of the arm of the patient by the facilitator). Studies have consistently found that FC is unable to provide the correct response to even simple questions when the facilitator does not know the answers to the questions (e.g., showing the patient but not the facilitator an object). In addition, in numerous cases disabled persons have been assumed by facilitators to be typing a coherent message while the patient's eyes were closed or while they were looking away from or showing no particular interest in the letter board.
- Faith healing – act of curing disease by such means as prayer and laying on of hands. There is no material benefit in excess of that expected by the placebo effect is observed.
- Fasting – Some practitioners of alternative medicine promote "cleansing the body" through fasting; the concept is quackery with no scientific basis for its rationale or efficacy. During the early 20th century, fasting was promoted by alternative health writers such as Hereward Carrington, Edward H. Dewey, Bernarr Macfadden, Frank McCoy, Edward Earle Purinton, Upton Sinclair and Wallace Wattles. All of these writers were either involved in the natural hygiene or new thought movement. In 1911, Sinclair authored The Fasting Cure, which made sensational claims of fasting curing practically all diseases, including cancer, syphilis and tuberculosis. Sinclair has been described as "the most credulous of faddists" and his book is considered an example of quackery.
- Functional medicine is a form of alternative medicine that encompasses a number of unproven and disproven methods and treatments. Its proponents claim that it focuses on the "root causes" of diseases based on interactions between the environment and the gastrointestinal, endocrine, and immune systems to develop "individualized treatment plans". Opponents have described it as pseudoscience, quackery, and at its essence a re-branding of complementary and alternative medicine.
- Germanic New Medicine – On 8 August 1978, Ryke Geerd Hamer's son, Dirk, was shot by the son of the last king of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy, while asleep on a yacht off Cavallo and died on 7 December 1978. Sometime after Dirk's death, Hamer began to develop Germanic New Medicine (GNM). According to GNM no real diseases exist; rather, what established medicine calls a "disease" is actually a "special meaningful program of nature" (sinnvolles biologisches Sonderprogramm) to which bacteria, viruses and fungi belong. Hamer's GNM claims to explain every disease and treatment according to those premises, and to thereby obviate traditional medicine. The cure is always the resolving of the conflict. Some treatments like chemotherapy or pain relieving drugs like morphine are deadly, according to Hamer. These "laws" are dogmas of GNM, not laws of nature or medicine, and are at odds with scientific understanding of human physiology.
- Hair analysis is, in mainstream scientific usage, the chemical analysis of a hair sample. The use of hair analysis in alternative medicine as a method of investigation to assist alternative diagnosis is controversial and its use in this manner has been opposed repeatedly by the AMA because of its unproven status and its potential for health care fraud.
- Health bracelets and various healing jewelry that are purported to improve the health, heal, or improve the chi of the wearer, such as ionized bracelets, hologram bracelets, and magnetic jewelry. No claims of effectiveness made by manufacturers have ever been substantiated by independent sources.
- Hexagonal water – A term used in a marketing scam that claims the ability to create a certain configuration of water that is better for the body. The term "hexagonal water" refers to a cluster of water molecules forming a hexagonal shape that supposedly enhances nutrient absorption, removes metabolic wastes, and enhances cellular communication, among other things. Similar to the dihydrogen monoxide hoax, the scam takes advantage of the consumer's limited knowledge of chemistry, physics, and physiology.
- Homeopathy – the belief that a patient with symptoms of an illness can be treated with extremely dilute remedies that are thought to produce those same symptoms in healthy people. These preparations are often diluted beyond the point where any treatment molecule is likely to remain. Studies of homeopathic practice have been largely negative or inconclusive. No scientific basis for homeopathic principles has been substantiated.
- Bach flower remedies (BFRs) are solutions of brandy and water—the water containing extreme dilutions of flower material developed by Edward Bach, an English homeopath, in the 1930s. Bach claimed that dew found on flower petals retain imagined healing properties of that plant. Systematic reviews of clinical trials of Bach flower solutions have found no efficacy beyond a placebo effect.
- Iridology – means of medical diagnosis which proponents believe can identify and diagnose health problems through close examination of the markings and patterns of the iris. Practitioners divide the iris into 80–90 zones, each of which is connected to a particular body region or organ. This connection has not been scientifically validated, and disorder detection is neither selective nor specific. Because iris texture is a phenotypical feature which develops during gestation and remains unchanged after birth (which makes the iris useful for Biometrics), iridology is all but impossible.
- Leaky gut syndrome – in alternative medicine, a proposed condition caused by the passage of harmful substances outward through the gut wall. It has been proposed as the cause of many conditions, including multiple sclerosis and autism, a claim which has been called pseudoscientific. According to the UK National Health Service, the theory is vague and unproven. Some skeptics and scientists say that the marketing of treatments for leaky gut syndrome is either misguided or an instance of deliberate health fraud.
- Lightning Process – a system claimed to be derived from osteopathy, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) and life coaching. Proponents claim that the Process can have a positive effect on a long list of diseases and conditions, including myalgic encephalomyelitis, despite no scientific evidence of efficacy. The designer of the Lightning Process, Phil Parker, suggests certain illnesses such as ME/CFS arise from a dysregulation of the central nervous system and autonomic nervous system, which the Lightning Process aims to address, helping to break the "adrenaline loop" that keeps the systems' stress responses high.
- Macrobiotic diets (or macrobiotics) are fixed on ideas about types of food drawn from Zen Buddhism. The diet attempts to balance the supposed yin and yang elements of food and cookware. Major principles of macrobiotic diets are to reduce animal products, eat locally grown foods that are in season, and consume meals in moderation. Macrobiotics writers often claim that a macrobiotic diet is helpful for people with cancer and other chronic diseases, although there is no good evidence to support such recommendations, and that the diet can be harmful. Studies that indicate positive results are of poor methodological quality. Neither the American Cancer Society nor Cancer Research UK recommend adopting the diet.
- Magnet therapy – practice of using magnetic fields to positively influence health. While there are legitimate medical uses for magnets and magnetic fields, the field strength used in magnetic therapy is too low to effect any biological change, and the methods used have no scientific validity.
- Ayurveda – traditional Ayurveda is a 5,000-year-old alternative medical practice with roots in ancient India based on a mind-body set of beliefs. Imbalance or stress in an individual's consciousness is believed to be the cause of diseases. Patients are classified by body types (three doshas, which are considered to control mind-body harmony, determine an individual's "body type"); and treatment is aimed at restoring balance to the mind-body system. It has long been the main traditional system of health care in India, and it has become institutionalized in India's colleges and schools, although unlicensed practitioners are common. As with other traditional knowledge, much of it was lost; in the West, current practice is in part based on the teachings of the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in the 1980s, who mixed it with Transcendental Meditation; other forms of Ayurveda exist as well. The most notable advocate of Ayurveda in America is Deepak Chopra, who claims that the Maharishi's Ayurveda is based on quantum mysticism.
- A medical intuitive is an alternative medicine practitioner who claims to use their self-described intuitive abilities to find the cause of a physical or emotional condition through the use of insight rather than modern medicine. Other terms for such a person include medical clairvoyant, medical psychic or intuitive counselor. In 2009 Steven Novella, writing on Science Based Medicine, calls medical intuitive diagnosis as "purely magical thinking" and refers to a Huffington Post article about it as "a promotion of a dubious pseudoscientific medical claim".
- Morgellons – is the informal name of a self-diagnosed, unexplained skin condition in which individuals have sores that they believe contain some kind of fibers. Morgellons is poorly characterized but the general medical consensus is that it is a form of delusional parasitosis. An attempt to link Morgellons to the cause of Lyme disease has been attacked by Steven Salzberg as "dangerous pseudoscience".
- Moxibustion – application on or above the skin of smoldering mugwort, or moxa, to stimulate acupuncture points. A Cochrane Review found limited evidence for the use of moxibustion in correcting breech presentation of babies and called for more experimental trials. Side effects included nausea, throat irritation, and abdominal pain from contractions. Moxibustion has also been studied for the treatment of pain, cancer, stroke, ulcerative colitis, constipation, and hypertension. Systematic reviews have found that these studies are of low quality and positive findings could be due to publication bias.
- Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques (NAET) are a form of alternative medicine which proponents claim can treat allergies and related disorders. The techniques were devised by Devi Nambudripad, a California-based chiropractor and acupuncturist, in 1983, drawing on a combination of ideas from applied kinesiology, acupuncture, acupressure, nutritional management and chiropractic methods. There is no credible evidence to support its effectiveness in assessing or treating allergies.
- Naturopathy, or naturopathic medicine, is a type of alternative medicine based on a belief in vitalism, which posits that a special energy called vital energy or vital force guides bodily processes such as metabolism, reproduction, growth, and adaptation. Naturopathy has been characterized as pseudoscience. It has particularly been criticized for its unproven, disproven, or dangerous treatments. Natural methods and chemicals are not necessarily safer or more effective than artificial or synthetic ones; any treatment capable of eliciting an effect may also have deleterious side effects.
- Negative air ionization therapy is the use of air ionizers as an experimental non-pharmaceutical treatment. It is widely considered pseudoscience.
- Oil pulling – is a folk remedy where oil is "swished" or "held" in the mouth for up to 20 minutes with the goal of improving oral as well as systemic health. It is said that this technique "pulls out" toxins from the body, and is claimed to be able to treat a plethora of conditions from migraines to diabetes.
- Orthomolecular medicine, sometimes referred to as megavitamin therapy, is a form of alternative medicine, that aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation. The concept builds on the idea of an optimum nutritional environment in the body and suggests that diseases reflect deficiencies in this environment. Treatment for disease, according to this view, involves attempts to correct "imbalances or deficiencies based on individual biochemistry" by use of substances such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, trace elements and fatty acids. The notions behind orthomolecular medicine are not supported by sound medical evidence and the therapy is not effective; even the validity of calling the orthomolecular approach a form of medicine has been questioned since the 1970s.
- Osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) – the core technique of osteopathic medicine. OMM is based on a philosophy devised by Andrew Taylor Still (1828–1917), who held that the body had self-regulating mechanisms that could be harnessed through manipulating the bones, tendons and muscles. It has been proposed as a treatment for a number of human ailments including Parkinson's disease, pancreatitis, and pneumonia, but has only been found to be effective for lower back pain by virtue of the spinal manipulation used. It has long been regarded as rooted in "pseudoscientific dogma". In 2010, Steven Salzberg referred to the OMT-specific training given by colleges of osteopathic medicine as "training in pseudoscientific practices".
- Pulse diagnosis is a diagnostic technique used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, Siddha medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and Unani. It has no scientific legitimacy, and is ill-defined, subjective and unreliable.
- Radionics – means of medical diagnosis and therapy which proponents believe can diagnose and remedy health problems using various frequencies in a putative energy field coupled to the practitioner's electronic device. The first such "black box" devices were designed and promoted by Albert Abrams, and were definitively proven useless by an independent investigation commissioned by Scientific American in 1924. The internal circuitry of radionics devices is often obfuscated and irrelevant, leading proponents to conjecture dowsing and ESP as operating principles. Similar devices continue to be marketed under various names, though none is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration; there is no scientific evidence for the efficacy or underlying premise of radionics devices. The radionics of Albert Abrams and his intellectual descendants should not be confused with similarly named reputable and legitimate companies, products, or medical treatments such as radiotherapy or radiofrequency ablation.
- Reiki is a form of alternative medicine called energy healing. Reiki practitioners use a technique called palm healing or hands-on healing through which a "universal energy" is said to be transferred through the palms of the practitioner to the patient in order to encourage emotional or physical healing. Reiki is a pseudoscience, and is used as an illustrative example of pseudoscience in scholarly texts and academic journal articles. It is based on qi ("chi"), which practitioners say is a universal life force, although there is no empirical evidence that such a life force exists. Clinical research has not shown reiki to be effective as a treatment for any medical condition. There has been no proof of the effectiveness of reiki therapy compared to the placebo effect. An overview of reiki investigations found that studies reporting positive effects had methodological flaws. The American Cancer Society stated that reiki should not replace conventional cancer treatment, a sentiment echoed by Cancer Research UK and the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Developed in Japan in 1922 by Mikao Usui, it has been adapted into varying cultural traditions across the world.
- Reflexology, or zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving the physical act of applying pressure to the feet, hands, or ears with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use of oil or lotion. It is based on what reflexologists claim to be a system of zones and reflex areas that they say reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work effects a physical change to the body. A 2009 systematic review of randomized controlled trials concluded that the best evidence available to date does not demonstrate convincingly that reflexology is an effective treatment for any medical condition. There is no consensus among reflexologists on how reflexology is supposed to work; a unifying theme is the idea that areas on the foot correspond to areas of the body and that, by manipulating these, one can improve health through one's qi. Reflexologists divide the body into ten equal vertical zones, five on the right and five on the left. Concerns have been raised by medical professionals that treating potentially serious illnesses with reflexology, which has no proven efficacy, could delay the seeking of appropriate medical treatment.
- Rolfing (also called Structural Integration) – body manipulation devised by Ida Rolf (1896–1979) claimed by practitioners to be capable of ridding the body of traumatic memories storied in the muscles. There is no evidence that rolfing is effective as a treatment for any condition.
- Therapeutic touch – a form of vitalism where a practitioner, who may be also a nurse, passes his or her hands over and around a patient to "realign" or "rebalance" a putative energy field. A recent Cochrane Review concluded that "[t]here is no evidence that [Therapeutic Touch] promotes healing of acute wounds." No biophysical basis for such an energy field has been found.
- Tin foil hat – A tin foil hat is a hat made from one or more sheets of aluminium foil, or a piece of conventional headgear lined with foil, worn in the belief it shields the brain from threats such as electromagnetic fields, mind control, and mind reading. The usage of a metal foil hat for protection against interference of the mind was mentioned in a science fiction short story by Julian Huxley, "The Tissue-Culture King", first published in 1926, in which the protagonist discovers that "caps of metal foil" can block the effects of telepathy. At this time no link has been established between the radio-frequency EMR that tin foil hats are meant to protect against and subsequent ill health.
- Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) – a traditional medical system originating in China and practiced as an alternative medicine throughout much of the world. It contains elements based in the cosmology of Taoism, and considers the human body more in functional and vitalistic than anatomical terms. Health and illness in TCM follow the principle of yin and yang, and are ascribed to balance or imbalance in the flow of a vital force, qi. Diagnostic methods are solely external, including pulse examination at six points, examination of a patient's tongue, and a patient interview; interpractitioner diagnostic agreement is poor. The TCM description of the function and structure of the human body is fundamentally different from modern medicine.
- TCM materia medica – a collection of crude medicines used in traditional Chinese medicine. These include many plants in part or whole, such as ginseng and wolfberry, as well as more exotic ingredients such as seahorses. Preparations generally include several ingredients in combination, with selection based on physical characteristics such as taste or shape, or relationship to the organs of TCM. Most preparations have not been rigorously evaluated or give no indication of efficacy. Pharmacognosy research for potential active ingredients present in these preparations is active, though the applications do not always correspond to those of TCM.
- Gua sha (Chinese: 刮痧), kerokan or coining, is part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its practitioners use a tool to scrape people's skin to cause tissue damage in the belief this has medicinal benefit. Gua sha is sometimes referred to as "scraping", "spooning" or "coining" by English speakers. Any apparent benefit from gua sha is due to the placebo effect.
- Meridians are the channels through which qi flows, connecting the several zang-fu organ pairs. There is no known anatomical or histological basis for the existence of acupuncture points or meridians.
- Shiatsu (指圧) is a form of Japanese bodywork based on ideas in traditional Chinese medicine. Shiatsu derives from a Japanese massage modality called anma. There is no evidence that shiatsu is an effective medical treatment.
- Qi – vital energy whose flow must be balanced for health. Qi has never been directly observed, and is unrelated to the concept of energy used in science.
- Qigong (//), qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung (simplified Chinese: 气功; traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade–Giles: ch‘i kung; lit.: 'life energy cultivation') is a holistic system of coordinated body posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used for the purposes of health, spirituality, and martial arts training. With roots in Chinese medicine, philosophy, and martial arts, qigong is traditionally viewed as a practice to cultivate and balance qi (chi), translated as "life energy". Research concerning qigong has been conducted for a wide range of medical conditions, including hypertension, pain, and cancer, and with respect to quality of life. Most research concerning health benefits of qigong has been of poor quality, such that it would be unwise to draw firm conclusions at this stage.
- Zang-fu – concept of organs as functional yin and yang entities for the storage and manipulation of qi. These organs are not based in anatomy.
- Urine therapy – drinking either one's own undiluted urine or homeopathic potions of urine for treatment of a wide variety of diseases is based on pseudoscience.
- Promotion of a link between autism and vaccines, in which the vaccines are accused of causing autism-spectrum conditions, triggering them, or aggravating them, has been characterized as pseudoscience. Many epidemiological studies have reported no association between either the MMR vaccine and autism, or thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism. Consequently, the Institute of Medicine has concluded that there is no causal link between either of these varieties of vaccines and autism. Similarly, "Vaccine overload", a non-medical term describing the notion that giving many vaccines at once may overwhelm or weaken a child's immature immune system and lead to adverse effects, is strongly contradicted by scientific evidence.
- Vitalism – doctrine that the processes of life are not explicable by the laws of physics and chemistry alone and that life is in some part self-determining. The book Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience stated "today, vitalism is one of the ideas that form the basis for many pseudoscientific health systems that claim that illnesses are caused by a disturbance or imbalance of the body's vital force." "Vitalists claim to be scientific, but in fact they reject the scientific method with its basic postulates of cause and effect and of provability. They often regard subjective experience to be more valid than objective material reality."
- Wilson's syndrome (not to be confused with Wilson's disease) is an alternative medicine concept, not recognized as a legitimate diagnosis in evidence-based medicine. Its supporters describe Wilson's syndrome as a mix of common and non-specific symptoms which they attribute to low body temperature and impaired conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3), despite normal thyroid function tests. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) says Wilson's syndrome is at odds with established knowledge of thyroid function, has vague diagnostic criteria, and lacks supporting scientific evidence. The ATA further raised concern that the proposed treatments were potentially harmful.
- Wind turbine syndrome and wind farm syndrome are terms for adverse health effects that have been ascribed to the proximity of wind turbines. Proponents have claimed that these effects include death, cancer and congenital abnormality. The distribution of recorded events, however, correlates with media coverage of wind farm syndrome itself, and not with the presence or absence of wind farms. Reviews of the scientific literature have consistently found no reason to believe that wind turbines are harmful to health.
- New chronology (Fomenko) - pseudohistorical conspiracy theory which argues that events of antiquity generally attributed to the civilizations of the Roman Empire, Ancient Greece and Ancient Egypt, actually occurred during the Middle Ages, more than a thousand years later.
- Attachment therapy – common name for a set of potentially fatal clinical interventions and parenting techniques aimed at controlling aggressive, disobedient, or unaffectionate children using "restraint and physical and psychological abuse to seek their desired results." (the term "attachment therapy" may sometimes be used loosely to refer to mainstream approaches based on attachment theory, usually outside the US where the pseudoscientific form of attachment therapy is less known). Probably the most common form is holding therapy, in which the child is restrained by adults for the purpose of supposed cathartic release of suppressed rage and regression. Perhaps the most extreme, but much less common, is "rebirthing", in which the child is wrapped tightly in a blanket and then made to simulate emergence from a birth canal. This is done by encouraging the child to struggle and pushing and squeezing him/her to mimic contractions. Despite the practice's name, it is not based on traditional attachment theory and shares no principles of mainstream developmental psychology research. In 2006, it was the subject of an almost entirely critical Taskforce Report commissioned by the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC). Not all forms of attachment therapy are coercive and since the Candace Newmaker case, there has been a move towards less coercive practices by leaders in the field.
- Conversion therapy – sometimes called reparative therapy, seeks to change a non-heterosexual person's sexual orientation so they will no longer be homosexual or bisexual. The American Psychiatric Association defines reparative therapy as "psychiatric treatment ... which is based upon the assumption that homosexuality per se is a mental disorder or based upon the a priori assumption that a patient should change their sexual homosexual orientation."
- Coding is a catch-all term for various Russian alternative therapeutic methods used to treat addictions, in which the therapist attempts to scare patients into abstinence from a substance they are addicted to by convincing them that they will be harmed or killed if they use it again. Each method involves the therapist pretending to insert a "code" into patients' brains that will ostensibly provoke a strong adverse reaction should it come into contact with the addictive substance. The methods use a combination of theatrics, hypnosis, placebos, and drugs with temporary adverse effects to instill the erroneous beliefs. Therapists may pretend to "code" patients for a fixed length of time, such as five years.
- Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy in which the person being treated is asked to recall distressing images; the therapist then directs the person in one type of bilateral sensory input, such as side-to-side eye movements or hand tapping. It is included in several guidelines for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some clinical psychologists have argued that the eye movements do not add anything above imagery exposure and characterize its promotion and use as pseudoscience. However, this characterization is disputed in light of two large meta analyses show the effect size was larger when eye movements were used.
- Facilitated communication (FC), supported typing, or hand over hand, is a scientifically discredited technique that attempts to facilitate communication by people with severe educational and communication disabilities. The facilitator holds or gently touches the disabled person's arm or hand during this process and attempts to help them move to type on a special keyboard. In addition to providing physical support needed for typing or pointing, the facilitator provides verbal prompts and moral support. There is widespread agreement within the scientific community and multiple disability advocacy organizations that FC is not a valid technique for authentically augmenting the communication skills of those with autism spectrum disorder. Instead, research indicates that the facilitator is the source of most or all messages obtained through FC (involving ideomotor effect guidance of the arm of the patient by the facilitator); thus, studies have consistently found that patients are unable to provide the correct response to even simple questions when the facilitator does not know the answers to the questions (e.g., showing the patient but not the facilitator an object) . In addition, numerous cases have been reported by investigators in which disabled persons were assumed by facilitators to be typing a coherent message while the patient's eyes were closed or while they were looking away from or showing no particular interest in the letter board.
- The Feldenkrais Method is a type of exercise therapy devised by Israeli Moshé Feldenkrais (1904–1984) during the mid-20th century. The method is claimed to reorganize connections between the brain and body and so improve body movement and psychological state. There is no good medical evidence that the Feldenkrais method confers any health benefits. It is not known if it is safe or cost-effective, but researchers do not believe it poses serious risks.
- Graphology – psychological test based on a belief that personality traits unconsciously and consistently influence handwriting morphology—that certain types of people exhibit certain quirks of the pen. Analysis of handwriting attributes provides no better than chance correspondence with personality, and neuroscientist Barry Beyerstein likened the assigned correlations to sympathetic magic. Graphology is only superficially related to forensic document examination, which also examines handwriting.
- Hypnosis – state of extreme relaxation and inner focus in which a person is unusually responsive to suggestions made by the hypnotist. The modern practice has its roots in the idea of animal magnetism, or mesmerism, originated by Franz Mesmer. Mesmer's explanations were thoroughly discredited, and to this day there is no agreement amongst researchers whether hypnosis is a real phenomenon, or merely a form of participatory role-enactment. Some aspects of suggestion have been clinically useful. Other claimed uses of hypnosis more clearly fall within the area of pseudoscience. Such areas include the use of hypnotic regression, including past life regression.
- Hypnotherapy – therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. It is widely considered a branch of alternative medicine though its founder, James Braid, has been described as "one of the most ardent and influential critics of pseudo-science."
- Using hypnosis for relaxation, mood control, and other related benefits (often related to meditation) is regarded as part of standard medical treatment rather than alternative medicine, particularly for patients subjected to difficult physical emotional stress in chemotherapy.
- Law of attraction – the maxim that "like attracts like" which, in New Thought philosophy, is used to sum up the idea that by focusing on positive or negative thoughts a person brings positive or negative experiences into their life. Skeptical Inquirer magazine criticized the lack of falsifiability and testability of these claims. Critics have asserted that the evidence provided is usually anecdotal and that, because of the self-selecting nature of the positive reports, as well as the subjective nature of any results, these reports are susceptible to confirmation bias and selection bias. Physicist Ali Alousi, for instance, criticized it as unmeasurable and questioned the likelihood that thoughts can affect anything outside the head.
- Memetics – approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer based on the concept that units of information, or "memes", have an independent existence, are self-replicating, and are subject to selective evolution through environmental forces. Starting from a proposition put forward in the writings of Richard Dawkins, it has since turned into a new area of study, one that looks at the self-replicating units of culture. It has been proposed that just as memes are analogous to genes, memetics is analogous to genetics. Memetics has been deemed a pseudoscience on several fronts. Its proponents' assertions have been labeled "untested, unsupported or incorrect" though the same book contains Susan Blackmore's counter-article "Memes as Good Science". Supporters of memetics include EO Wilson, Douglas Hofstadter and many others.
- Myers–Briggs Type Indicator – a personality test composed of four categories of two types. The test has consistent problems with repeatability, in addition to problems of whether or not it has exhaustive and mutually exclusive classifications. The four categories are Introversion/Extroversion, Sensing/Intuition, Thinking/Feeling, Judging/Perception. Each person is said to have one quality from each category, producing 16 unique types. The Center for Applications of Psychological Type claims that the MBTI is scientifically supported, but most of the research on it is done through its own journal, Journal of Psychological Type, raising questions of bias. Results are said to follow the Barnum effect.
- Neuro-linguistic programming – an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created in the 1970s. The title refers to a stated connection between the neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic") and behavioral patterns that have been learned through experience ("programming") and can be organized to achieve specific goals in life. According to certain neuroscientists psychologists and linguists, NLP is unsupported by current scientific evidence, and uses incorrect and misleading terms and concepts. Reviews of empirical research on NLP indicate that NLP contains numerous factual errors, and has failed to produce reliable results for the claims for effectiveness made by NLP's originators and proponents. According to Devilly, NLP is no longer as prevalent as it was in the 1970s and 1980s. Criticisms go beyond the lack of empirical evidence for effectiveness; critics say that NLP exhibits pseudoscientific characteristics, title, concepts and terminology. NLP is used as an example of pseudoscience for facilitating the teaching of scientific literacy at the professional and university level. NLP also appears on peer reviewed expert-consensus based lists of discredited interventions. In research designed to identify the "quack factor" in modern mental health practice, Norcross et al. (2006) list NLP as possibly or probably discredited, and in papers reviewing discredited interventions for substance and alcohol abuse, Norcross et al. (2008) list NLP in the "top ten" most discredited, and Glasner-Edwards and Rawson (2010) list NLP as "certainly discredited".
- Parapsychology – controversial discipline that seeks to investigate the existence and causes of psychic abilities and life after death using the scientific method. Parapsychological experiments have included the use of random number generators to test for evidence of precognition and psychokinesis with both human and animal subjects and Ganzfeld experiments to test for extrasensory perception.
- Phrenology – now defunct system for determining personality traits by feeling bumps on the skull proposed by 18th-century physiologist Franz Joseph Gall. In an early recorded use of the term "pseudo-science", François Magendie referred to phrenology as "a pseudo-science of the present day". The assumption that personality can be read from bumps in the skull has since been thoroughly discredited. However, Gall's assumption that character, thoughts, and emotions are located in the brain is considered an important historical advance toward neuropsychology (see also Localization of brain function, Brodmann's areas, Neuro-imaging, Modularity of mind or Faculty psychology).
- Polygraph ("lie detection") – an interrogation method which measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while the subject is asked and answers a series of questions. The belief is that deceptive answers will produce physiological responses that can be differentiated from those associated with non-deceptive answers. Many members of the scientific community consider polygraphy to be pseudoscience. Polygraphy has little credibility among scientists. Despite claims of 90–95% validity by polygraph advocates, and 95–100% by businesses providing polygraph services, critics maintain that rather than a "test", the method amounts to an inherently unstandardizable interrogation technique whose accuracy cannot be established. A 1997 survey of 421 psychologists estimated the test's average accuracy at about 61%, a little better than chance. Critics also argue that, even given high estimates of the polygraph's accuracy, a significant number of subjects (e.g., 10% given a 90% accuracy) will appear to be lying, and would unfairly suffer the consequences of "failing" the polygraph.
- Primal therapy – sometimes presented as a science. The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (2001) states that: "The theoretical basis for the therapy is the supposition that prenatal experiences and birth trauma form people's primary impressions of life and that they subsequently influence the direction our lives take ... Truth be known, primal therapy cannot be defended on scientifically established principles. This is not surprising considering its questionable theoretical rationale." Other sources have also questioned the scientific validity of primal therapy, some using the term "pseudoscience" (see Primal therapy § Criticism).
- Psychoanalysis – body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers, which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior. Although psychoanalysis is a strong influence within psychiatry,[a][b] it has been controversial ever since its inception. It is considered pseudoscience by some. Karl Popper characterized it as pseudoscience based on psychoanalysis failing the requirement for falsifiability. Frank Cioffi argued that "though Popper is correct to say that psychoanalysis is pseudoscientific and correct to say that it is unfalsifiable, he is mistaken to suggest that it is pseudoscientific because it is unfalsifiable. [...] It is when [Freud] insists that he has confirmed (not just instantiated) [his empirical theses] that he is being pseudoscientific."
- Sluggish schizophrenia – a diagnosis used in some Communist nations to justify the involuntary commitment of political dissidents to mental institutions.
- Subliminal advertising – visual or auditory information discerned below the threshold of conscious awareness, which is claimed to have a powerful enduring effect on consuming habits. It went into disrepute in the late 1970s, but there has been renewed research interest recently. The mainstream of accepted scientific opinion does not hold that subliminal perception has a powerful, enduring effect on human behaviour.
- Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater, to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury. It may also refer to any "burr" hole created through other body surfaces, including nail beds. It is often used to relieve pressure beneath a surface. A trephine is an instrument used for cutting out a round piece of skull bone.
- Scientific racism – claim that scientific evidence shows the inferiority or superiority of certain races.
- Aryanism – the claim that there is a distinct "Aryan race" which is superior to other putative races, was an important tenet of Nazism, and "the basis of the German government policy of exterminating Jews, Gypsies, and other 'non-Aryans.'"
- Drapetomania was a conjectural mental illness that, in 1851, American physician Samuel A. Cartwright hypothesized as the cause of enslaved Africans fleeing captivity.:41 It has since been debunked as pseudoscience:2 and part of the edifice of scientific racism.
- Melanin theory – belief founded in the distortion of known physical properties of melanin, a natural polymer, that posits the inherent superiority of dark-skinned people and the essential inhumanity and inferiority of light-skinned people.
- Turkish History Thesis – the belief that Turks from Central Asia migrated and brought civilization to China, India, the Middle East, and Europe.
- Sun Language Theory – the belief that all languages had their origins in the Turkish language.
- Unilineal evolution – Before Darwin's work On the Origin of Species, some models incorporated Enlightenment ideas of social progress, and thus, according to philosopher of science Michael Ruse, were pseudoscientific by current standards, and may have been viewed as such during the 18th century, as well as into the start of the 19th century (though the word pseudoscience may not have been used in reference to these early proposals). This pseudoscientific, and often political, incorporation of social progress with evolutionary thought continued for some 100 years following the publication of Origin of Species.
Paranormal and ufology
- Animal mutilations – cases of animals, primarily domestic livestock, with seemingly inexplicable wounds. These wounds have been said to be caused by extraterrestrials, cults, covert government organizations, or cryptids such as el chupacabra, when in fact most such cases were found to be caused by natural predation.
- An aura or human energy field is, according to New Age beliefs, a colored emanation said to enclose a human body or any animal or object. In some esoteric positions, the aura is described as a subtle body.[broken footnote] Psychics and holistic medicine practitioners often claim to have the ability to see the size, color and type of vibration of an aura. In New Age alternative medicine, the human aura is seen as a hidden anatomy that affect the health of a client, and is often understood to comprise centers of vital force called chakra. Such claims are not supported by scientific evidence and are pseudoscience. When tested under controlled experiments, the ability to see auras has not been shown to exist.
- Channeling – communication of information to or through a person allegedly from a spirit or other paranormal entity.
- Crop circles – geometric designs of crushed or knocked-over crops created in a field. Aside from skilled farmers or pranksters working through the night, explanations for their formation include UFOs and anomalous, tornado-like air currents. The study of crop circles has become known as "cerealogy".
- Cryptozoology – search for creatures that are considered not to exist by most biologists. Well-known examples of creatures of interest to cryptozoologists include Bigfoot, the Yeren, the Yeti, and the Loch Ness Monster. According to leading skeptical authors Michael Shermer and Pat Linse, "Cryptozoology ranges from pseudoscientific to useful and interesting, depending on how it is practiced."
- Dowsing refers to practices said to enable one to detect hidden water, metals, gemstones or other objects.
- Electronic voice phenomenon – purported communication by spirits through tape recorders and other electronic devices.
- Extra-sensory perception – paranormal ability (independent of the five main senses or deduction from previous experience) to acquire information by means such as telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, psychometry, psychic abilities, and remote viewing.
- Ghost hunting is the process of investigating locations that are reported to be haunted by ghosts. Typically, a ghost-hunting team will attempt to collect evidence supporting the existence of paranormal activity. Ghost hunters use a variety of electronic devices, including EMF meters, digital thermometers, both handheld and static digital video cameras, including thermographic and night vision cameras, as well as digital audio recorders. Other more traditional techniques are also used, such as conducting interviews and researching the history of allegedly haunted sites. Ghost hunters may also refer to themselves as "paranormal investigators." Ghost hunting has been heavily criticized for its dismissal of the scientific method. No scientific study has ever been able to confirm the existence of ghosts. The practice is considered a pseudoscience by the vast majority of educators, academics, science writers, and skeptics. Science historian Brian Regal described ghost hunting as "an unorganized exercise in futility".
- Lizard people - The idea of a reptilian reconquest was popularized by David Icke, a conspiracy theorist who claims shape-shifting reptilian aliens control Earth by taking on human form and gaining political power to manipulate human societies. Icke has stated on multiple occasions that many world leaders are, or are possessed by, so-called reptilians.
- Levitation – act of rising up from the ground without any physical aids, usually by the power of thought.
- Palmistry – the belief that the future can be foretold through palm reading. Predictions are based on the shape, line, and mounts of the hands. Palmists use cold reading in order to appear psychic.
- Parapsychology – (see Psychology section above)
- Pseudoarchaeology – investigation of the ancient past using alleged paranormal or other means which have not been validated by mainstream science.
- Psychic surgery – a type of medical fraud, popular in Brazil and the Philippines. Practitioners use sleight of hand to make it appear as though they are reaching into a patient's body and extracting "tumors". Psychic surgery is usually explicit deception; i.e., the "practitioners" are aware that they are practicing fraud or "quackery".
- Psychokinesis – paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter or energy at a distance.
- Rumpology – neologism referring to a pseudoscience akin to physiognomy, performed by examining crevices, dimples, warts, moles and folds of a person's buttocks in much the same way a chirologist would read the palm of the hand.
- Séances – ritualized attempts to communicate with the dead.
- The Tunguska event was an actual large explosion, possibly caused by a meteoroid or comet, in what is now Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia in June 1908. Night skies as far away as London were markedly brighter for several evenings. Unsupported theories regarding the event include the impact of a miniature black hole or large body of antimatter, ball lightning, a test by Nikola Tesla of the apparatus at Wardenclyffe Tower, and a UFO crash. Another theory is that the explosion was caused by a piece of Biela's Comet from 1883.
- Ufology – the study of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) that sometimes includes the belief that UFOs are evidence of extraterrestrial visitors.
- Numerology (including the numerology practices of Kabbalah) – a set of beliefs in a divine, mystical, or other special relationship between a number and coinciding events. Numerology is regarded as pseudomathematics or pseudoscience by modern scientists. It is often associated with the paranormal, alongside astrology and similar divinatory arts.
- Scriptural codes – the belief that a book or fragment of holy scripture contains encoded messages that impart esoteric knowledge. One such decoding method involves identifying "equidistant letter sequences" that spell out such messages.
Religious and spiritual beliefs
Spiritual and religious practices and beliefs, according to astronomer Carl Sagan, are normally not classified as pseudoscience. However, religion can sometimes nurture pseudoscience, and "at the extremes it is difficult to distinguish pseudoscience from rigid, doctrinaire religion", and some religions might be confused with pseudoscience, such as traditional meditation. The following religious/spiritual items have been related to or classified as pseudoscience in some way:
- Affirmative prayer is a form of prayer or a metaphysical technique that is focused on a positive outcome, rather than a negative situation. For instance, a person who is experiencing some form of illness would focus the prayer on the desired state of perfect health and affirm this desired intention "as if already happened" rather than identifying the illness and then asking God for help to eliminate it. William James described affirmative prayer as an element of the American metaphysical healing movement that he called the "mind-cure"; he described it as America's "only decidedly original contribution to the systemic philosophy of life." What sets affirmative prayer apart from secular affirmations of the autosuggestion type taught by the 19th century self-help author Émile Coué (whose most famous affirmation was "Every day in every way, I am getting better and better") is that affirmative prayer addresses the practitioner to God, the Divine, the Creative Mind, emphasizing the seemingly practical aspects of religious belief.
- Exorcism (from Greek ἐξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that is believed to be possessed. Depending on the spiritual beliefs of the exorcist, this may be done by causing the entity to swear an oath, performing an elaborate ritual, or simply by commanding it to depart in the name of a higher power. The practice is ancient and part of the belief system of many cultures and religions. Requested and performed exorcism began to decline in the United States by the 18th century and occurred rarely until the latter half of the 20th century, when the public saw a sharp rise due to the media attention exorcisms were getting. There was "a 50% increase in the number of exorcisms performed between the early 1960s and the mid-1970s".
- Energy is used by writers and practitioners of various esoteric forms of spirituality and alternative medicine to refer to a variety of claimed experiences and phenomena that defy measurement and thus can be distinguished from the scientific form of energy. There is no scientific evidence for the existence of such energy. Therapies that purport to use, modify, or manipulate unknown energies are thus among the most contentious of all complementary and alternative medicines. Claims related to energy therapies are most often anecdotal (from single stories), rather than being based on repeatable empirical evidence.
- Koranic scientific foreknowledge (Islam) – Koranic Science (or Qur'anic science or Hadeeth science) asserts that foundational Islamic religious texts made accurate statements about the world that science verified hundreds of years later. This belief is a common theme in Bucailleism.
- Christian Science is generally considered a Christian new religious movement; however, some have called it "pseudoscience" because its founder, Mary Baker Eddy, used "science" in its name, and because of its former stance against medical science. Also, "Eddy used the term Metaphysical science to distinguish her system both from materialistic science and from occult science." The church now accepts the use of medical science. Vaccinations were banned, but in 1901, Eddy, at the age of 80, advised her followers to submit to them.
Creation science or scientific creationism is a branch of creationism that claims to provide scientific support for the Genesis creation narrative in the Book of Genesis and disprove or reexplain the scientific facts, theories and scientific paradigms about geology, cosmology, biological evolution, archaeology, history and linguistics.[failed verification]
- Creationist cosmologies – cosmologies which, among other things, allow for a universe that is only thousands of years old.
- Baraminology – taxonomic system that classifies animals into groups called "created kinds" or "baramins" according to the account of creation in the book of Genesis and other parts of the Bible.
- Creation biology – subset of creation science that tries to explain biology without macroevolution.
- Flood geology – creationist form of geology that advocates most of the geologic features on Earth are explainable by a global flood.
- Searches for Noah's Ark – attempts to find the burial site of Noah's Ark that, according to the Genesis flood narrative, is located somewhere in the alleged "Mountains of Ararat". There have been numerous expeditions with several false claims of success; the practice is widely regarded as pseudoscience, more specifically pseudoarchaeology.
- Intelligent design – maintains that "certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection." These features include:
- Irreducible complexity – claim that some biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler systems. It is used by proponents of intelligent design to argue that evolution by natural selection alone is incomplete or flawed, and that some additional mechanism (an "Intelligent Designer") is required to explain the origins of life.
- Specified complexity – claim that when something is simultaneously complex and specified, one can infer that it was produced by an intelligent cause (i.e., that it was designed) rather than being the result of natural processes.
- Dianetics, a therapeutic technique promoted by Scientology, purports to treat a hypothetical reactive mind. There is no scientific evidence for the existence of an actual reactive mind, apart from the stimulus response mechanisms documented in behaviorist psychology.
- Scientology's Purification Rundown and Narconon programs purport to clean the human body of toxins and drugs respectively. Their method consists of very long saunas over many days, extremely large (possibly toxic) doses of vitamins including niacin, and Scientology 'training routines', sometimes including attempts at telekenesis. The programs have been described as "medically unsafe", "quackery" and "medical fraud", while academic and medical experts have dismissed Narconon's educational programme as containing "factual errors in basic concepts such as physical and mental effects, addiction and even spelling". In turn, Narconon has claimed that mainstream medicine is "biased" against it, and that "people who endorse so-called controlled drug use cannot be trusted to review a program advocating totally drug-free living." Narconon has said that criticism of its programmes is "bigoted", and that its critics are "in favor of drug abuse [...] they are either using drugs or selling drugs".
- Transcendental Meditation (TM) refers to a specific form of silent mantra meditation and less commonly to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement. The Maharishi Mahesh Yogi created and introduced the TM technique and TM movement in India in the mid-1950s. It is not possible to say whether meditation has any effect on health, as the research is of poor quality, and is marred by a high risk for bias due to the connection of researchers to the TM organization and by the selection of subjects with a favorable opinion of TM.
- Quantum mysticism – builds on a superficial similarity between certain New Age concepts and such seemingly counter-intuitive quantum mechanical concepts as the uncertainty principle, entanglement, and wave–particle duality, while generally ignoring the limitations imposed by quantum decoherence. One of the most abused ideas is Bell's theorem, which proves the nonexistence of local hidden variables in quantum mechanics. Despite this, Bell himself rejected mystical interpretations of the theory.
The following concepts have only a very small number of proponents, yet have become notable:
- Aquatic ape hypothesis – the idea that certain ancestors of modern humans were more aquatic than other great apes and even many modern humans and, as such, were habitual waders, swimmers and divers.
- Lawsonomy – proposed philosophy and system of claims about physics made by baseball player and aviator Alfred William Lawson.
- Morphic resonance – The idea put forth by Rupert Sheldrake that "natural systems, such as termite colonies, or pigeons, or orchid plants, or insulin molecules, inherit a collective memory from all previous things of their kind". It is also claimed to be responsible for "mysterious telepathy-type interconnections between organisms".
- N rays – A hypothesized form of radiation described by Prosper-René Blondlot in 1903 which briefly inspired significant scientific interest, but were subsequently found to have been a result of confirmation bias.
- Penta Water – claimed acoustically induced structural reorganization of liquid water into long-lived small clusters of five molecules each. Neither these clusters nor their asserted benefits to humans have been shown to exist.
- Polywater – hypothetical polymerized form of water proposed in the 1960s with a higher boiling point, lower freezing point, and much higher viscosity than ordinary water. It was later found not to exist, with the anomalous measurements being explained by biological contamination. Chains of molecules of varying length (depending on the temperature) tend to form in normal liquid water without changing the freezing or boiling point.
- Time Cube – a website created by Gene Ray, in 1997, where he sets out his personal model of reality, which he calls Time Cube. He suggests that all of modern physics is wrong, and his Time Cube model proposes that each day is really four separate days occurring simultaneously.
- Timewave zero – numerological formula that was invented by psychonaut Terence McKenna with the help of the hallucinogenic drug dimethyltryptamine. After experiencing 2012 doomsday predictions, he redesigned his formula to have a "zero-point" at the same date as the Mayan longcount calendar.
- Torsion field – hypothetical physical field responsible for extra-sensory perception, homeopathic cures, levitation, telepathy, clairvoyance, telekinesis, and other paranormal phenomena. Despite the several obvious contradictions with established physics along with associated statements by believers criticized as being "nonsensical" by reputable scientists, torsion fields have been embraced as an explanation for claims of such paranormal phenomena. The harnessing of torsion fields has been claimed to make everything possible from miracle cure devices (including devices that cure alcohol addiction) to working perpetual motion machines, stargates, UFO propulsion analogs, and weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). Some such devices, in particular the miracle cure boxes, have been patented, manufactured and sold.
- Blood type diet
- Blood type personality theory
- Cargo cult science
- Church of the SubGenius
- Crank (person)
- Fan death
- Fringe science
- Fringe science organizations
- List of books about skepticism
- List of cognitive biases
- List of common misconceptions
- List of conspiracy theories
- List of cryptids
- List of memory biases
- List of patent medicines
- List of diagnoses characterized as pseudoscience
- Observational error
- Occam's razor
- Paradigm shift
- Pathological science
- Philosophy of science
- Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry, 2007: "Psychoanalysis has existed before the turn of the 20th century and, in that span of years, has established itself as one of the fundamental disciplines within psychiatry. The science of psychoanalysis is the bedrock of psychodynamic understanding and forms the fundamental theoretical frame of reference for a variety of forms of therapeutic intervention, embracing not only psychoanalysis itself but also various forms of psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy and related forms of therapy using psychodynamic concepts."
- Robert Michels, 2009: "Psychoanalysis continues to be an important paradigm organizing the way many psychiatrists think about patients and treatment. However, its limitations are more widely recognized and it is assumed that many important advances in the future will come from other areas, particularly biologic psychiatry. As yet unresolved is the appropriate role of psychoanalytic thinking in organizing the treatment of patients and the training of psychiatrists after that biologic revolution has born fruit. Will treatments aimed at biologic defects or abnormalities become technical steps in a program organized in a psychoanalytic framework? Will psychoanalysis serve to explain and guide supportive intervention for individuals whose lives are deformed by biologic defect and therapeutic interventions, much as it now does for patients with chronic physical illness, with the psychoanalyst on the psychiatric dialysis program? Or will we look back on the role of psychoanalysis in the treatment of the seriously mentally ill as the last and most scientifically enlightened phase of the humanistic tradition in psychiatry, a tradition that became extinct when advances in biology allowed us to cure those we had so long only comforted?"
- Pollak, Melissa (13 January 2000). "Chapter 8: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding". In Bradburn, Norman M.; Lehming, Rolf; Carlson, Lynda; Frase, Mary J.; et al. (eds.). Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
- Stuart, David (2011). The Order of Days: The Maya World and the Truth about 2012. Harmony Books.
- "Wayback Machine". web.archive.org. 22 February 2011. Cite uses generic title (help)
- Harrold; "Noah's Ark and Ancient Astronauts: Pseudoscientific Beliefs About the Past Among a Sample of College Students;" The Skeptical Inquirer; vol 11.1; 1986: 61; Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal; 13 December 2010.
- Carroll, Robert T (1994–2009). "The Skeptic's Dictionary". Zecharia Sitchin and The Earth Chronicles. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Temple, Robert (1999). The Sirius mystery : new scientific evidence of alien contact 5, 000 years ago. London: Arrow. ISBN 0-09-925744-0. OCLC 60154574.
- Zarka, Philippe (2011). "Astronomy and astrology". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 5 (S260): 420–25. Bibcode:2011IAUS..260..420Z. doi:10.1017/S1743921311002602. ISSN 1743-9213.
- Hendel, Ronald (2013). The book of Genesis : a biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 35–37. ISBN 978-0-691-14012-4. OCLC 788265521.
- "The Face on Mars". NASA. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Hoagland, Richard (2001). The monuments of Mars : a city on the edge of forever. Berkeley, Calif: Frog Distributed by North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-054-9. OCLC 48613681.
- Flandern, Tom (1998). "24". Dark matter, missing planets, and new comets : paradoxes resolved, origins illuminated. Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-268-2. OCLC 37992969.
- Carroll, Robert Todd (12 August 2011). "Full Moon and Lunar Effects". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Dure, Beau (20 January 2016). "Flat-Earthers are back: 'It's almost like the beginning of a new religion'". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Numbers, Ronald (1993). The creationists. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 237. ISBN 0-520-08393-8. OCLC 28025595.
- Plait, Philip (2002). Bad astronomy : misconceptions and misuses revealed, from astrology to the moon landing 'hoax. New York: Wiley. pp. 154–173. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. OCLC 48885221.
- Nancy Lieder. "Nancy Lieder's biography". ZetaTalk. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Mukunda, H. S.; Deshpande, S. M.; Nagendra, H. R.; Prabhu, A. & Govindraju, S. P. (1974). "A critical study of the work 'Vyamanika Shastra'" (PDF). Scientific Opinion: 5–12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Dalakov, Georgi. "Biography of Tito Livio Burattini (1617–1682)". History of Computers. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Page, Chester H.; Vigoureux, Paul (20 May 1975). "The International Bureau of Weights and Measures 1875–1975" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. US Department of Commerce. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "The Case of the Bermuda Triangle". NOVA / Horizon. 27 June 1976. PBS.
- National Center for Science Education 2010 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNational_Center_for_Science_Education2010 (help): "The first pillar of climate change denial—that climate change is bad science—attacks various aspects of the scientific consensus about climate change … there are climate change deniers:
- who deny that significant climate change is occurring
- who … deny that human activity is significantly responsible
- who … deny the scientific evidence about its significant effects on the world and our society …
- who … deny that humans can take significant actions to reduce or mitigate its impact.
- "Why Is It Called Denial?". National Center for Science Education. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Powell 2012, pp. 170–173 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPowell2012 (help): "Anatomy of Denial—Global warming deniers…. throw up a succession of claims, and fall back from one line of defense to the next as scientists refute each one in turn. Then they start over:
'The earth is not warming.'
'All right, it is warming but the Sun is the cause.'
'Well then, humans are the cause, but it doesn't matter, because it warming will do no harm. More carbon dioxide will actually be beneficial. More crops will grow.'
'Admittedly, global warming could turn out to be harmful, but we can do nothing about it.'
'Sure, we could do something about global warming, but the cost would be too great. We have more pressing problems here and now, like AIDS and poverty.'
'We might be able to afford to do something to address global warming some-day, but we need to wait for sound science, new technologies, and geoengineering.'
'The earth is not warming. Global warming ended in 1998; it was never a crisis.'
- "Questioning 'Flood Geology'". NCSE. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Storr, Will (13 July 2014). "Hollow Earth conspiracy theories: the hole truth". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Wolfart, Karl Christian; Friedrich Anton Mesmer. Mesmerismus: Oder, System der Wechselwirkungen, Theorie und Anwendung des thierischen Magnetismus als die allgemeine Heilkunde zur Erhaltung des Menschen (in German, facsimile of the 1811 edition). Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN 9781108072694. Foreword.
- Park, Robert L. (2000). Voodoo Science. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195147100.
- Milbank, Dana (18 September 2007). "There's the Red Vote, the Blue Vote…and the Little Green Vote". The Washington Post.
…the aliens' advanced technology, which uses nonpolluting fuel, could revolutionize the transport of goods and people on this planet and rejuvenate the biosphere.
- Edwards, Tony (1 December 1996). "End of road for car that ran on Water". The Sunday Times. Times Newspapers Limited. p. Features 12. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- State of New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety press release, 9 November 2006
- Lopez, Allison (20 December 2008). "Inventor, 82, gets 20 years for 'estafa'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 26 December 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "Don't get caught in 'Net gas scams". Daily News. New York. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Wu Xianghong (March 2005). "Paranormal in China". Skeptical Briefs newsletter. CSICOP. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008.
- Robert L. Park (26 April 1991). "What's New Friday, 26 April 1991 Washington, DC". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2009. and Robert L. Park (31 October 2008). "What's New Friday, October 31, 2008". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2009.
- Dombey, Norman (8 August 2006). "The hydrino and other unlikely states". Physics Letters A. 360 (1): 62–65. arXiv:physics/0608095. Bibcode:2006PhLA..360...62D. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2006.07.069. S2CID 119011776.
- Patent application WO 2009125444, Andrea Rossi, "Method and Apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions"
- Zyga, Lisa (11 August 2011). "Controversial energy-generating system lacking credibility (w/ video)". PhysOrg.
- Kenneth S. Isaacs (psychoanalyst), 1999: "Orgone—a useless fiction with faulty basic premises, thin partial theory, and unsubstantiated application results. It was quickly discredited and cast away."Isaacs 1999, p. 240.
- Robert Blumenfeld (2006), "Chapter 6. Willian Reich and Character Analysis", Tools and techniques for character interpretation: a handbook of psychology for actors, writers, and directors, Limelight Series, Hal Leonard Corporation, pp. 135–137, ISBN 9780879103262
- Philipkoski, Kristen (13 July 1999). "Shedding Light in the Dark". Wired. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- Alpha Institute for Advanced Studies (AIAS), retrieved 22 August 2017: "ECE Theory was discovered by chemist, physicist, and mathematician, Myron Wyn Evans...".
- 't Hooft, Gerard (2008). "Editorial note". Foundations of Physics. 38 (1): 1–2. Bibcode:2008FoPh...38....1T. doi:10.1007/s10701-007-9187-8. ISSN 0015-9018. S2CID 189843269.
- Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground". Wired Magazine.
- Tajmar, M. (2004). "Biefeld-Brown Effect: Misinterpretation of Corona Wind Phenomena". AIAA Journal. 42 (2): 315–318. Bibcode:2004AIAAJ..42..315T. doi:10.2514/1.9095. S2CID 3776302.
- "Lysenkoism". merriam-webster.com.
- Birstein, Vadim J. (2004). The Perversion of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science. Westview Press. ISBN 978-0813342801.
- Ruse M (2013). Pigliucci M, Boudry M (eds.). Chapter 12: Evolution – From Pseudoscience to Popular Science, from Popular Science to Professional Science. Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-226-05182-6.
- Dukes, Edwin Joshua (1971). The Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. p. 834.
- Vierra, Monty (March 1997). "Harried by "Hellions" in Taiwan" (newsletter). Sceptical Briefs.
- Johnson, Matthew (29 December 2009). Archaeological Theory: An Introduction (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4051-0015-1.
- Quack, Johannes (2012). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780199812608. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Quack, Johannes (2012). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 9780199812608. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Narlikar, Jayant V. (2009). "Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking". In Percy, John; Pasachoff, Jay (eds.). Teaching and Learning Astronomy: Effective Strategies for Educators Worldwide. Cambridge University Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780521115391.
- Kirkpatrick; Dahlquist (2006). Technical Analysis: The Complete Resource for Financial Market Technicians. Financial Times Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-13-153113-0.
- Akston, Hugh (13 January 2009). "Beating the Quants at Their Own Game" (blog). Seeking Alpha. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- Dehnad, Kosrow. "Behavioral Finance and Technical Analysis" (PDF). The Capco Institute Journal of Financial Transformation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- Mizrach, Bruce; Weerts, Susan (2007). "Highs and Lows: A Behavioral and Technical Analysis" (PDF). SSRN 1118080. hdl:10419/31262 doi:10.2139/ssrn.1118080
- Paul V. Azzopardi (2010). Behavioural Technical Analysis: An introduction to behavioural finance and its role in technical analysis. Harriman House. ISBN 978-1-905641-41-3.
- Andrew W. Lo; Jasmina Hasanhodzic (2010). The Evolution of Technical Analysis: Financial Prediction from Babylonian Tablets to Bloomberg Terminals. Bloomberg Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-57660-349-9. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Paulos, J.A. (2003). A Mathematician Plays the Stock Market. Basic Books.
- Griffioen, Gerwin A. W. (2003). "Technical Analysis in Financial Markets". SSRN 566882.
- Fama, Eugene (1970). "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work" (PDF). The Journal of Finance. 25 (2): 383–417. doi:10.2307/2325486. JSTOR 2325486.
- Barrett, S (30 December 2007). "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"". Quackwatch. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- Zhou K, Ma Y, Brogan MS (2015). "Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate". Acupunct Med. 33 (6): 485–490. doi:10.1136/acupmed-2015-010911. PMID 26546163. S2CID 23799474.
- Donnerholt J, del Moral OM, Grobli C (2006). "Trigger point dry needling" (PDF). Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 14 (4): E70–E87. doi:10.1179/jmt.2006.14.4.70E. S2CID 72703587.
- Lee EJ, Frazier SK (October 2011). "The efficacy of acupressure for symptom management: a systematic review". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 42 (4): 589–603. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2011.01.007. PMC 3154967. PMID 21531533.
- Barrett S (9 March 2006). "Massage Therapy: Riddled with Quackery". Quackwatch. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- Shah R, Greenberger PA (2012). "Unproved and controversial methods and theories in allergy-immunology". Allergy Asthma Proc. 33 (Suppl 1): S100–02. doi:10.2500/aap.2012.33.3562. PMID 22794702. S2CID 12033165. Quote: "There is no scientific basis for the existence of this disorder and no conclusive method for diagnosis."
- "Adrenal Fatigue: Is It Real?". WebMD. Metcalf, Eric. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Gavura, Scott (28 October 2010). "Fatigued by a Fake Disease". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- Cadegiani, Flavio A.; Kater, Claudio E. (24 August 2016). "Adrenal fatigue does not exist: a systematic review". BMC Endocrine Disorders. 16 (1): 48. doi:10.1186/s12902-016-0128-4. ISSN 1472-6823. PMC 4997656. PMID 27557747.
- Bloch, Michael (2004). F.M. : the life of Frederick Matthias Alexander : founder of the Alexander technique. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-86048-2.
- Rootberg, Ruth (September 2007). Mandy Rees (ed.). "Voice and Gender and other contemporary issues in professional voice and speech training". Voice and Speech Review. 35 (1): 164–170. doi:10.1080/23268263.2007.10769755. S2CID 144810660.
- Harer, John B.; Munden, Sharon (2008). The Alexander Technique Resource Book: A Reference Guide. Scarecrow Press. pp. xii–xiii. ISBN 978-0810863927. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Baggoley C (2015). "Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance" (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Lay summary – Gavura, S. Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies. Science-Based Medicine (19 November 2015).
- NHS. "Alexander Technique – NHS Choices". nhs.uk. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Vickers AJ, Kuo J, Cassileth BR (January 2006). "Unconventional anticancer agents: a systematic review of clinical trials". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 24 (1): 136–40. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.03.8406. PMC 1472241. PMID 16382123.
- Cassileth BR (1996). "Alternative and Complementary Cancer Treatments". The Oncologist. 1 (3): 173–179. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.1-3-173. PMID 10387984.
- Shapiro, Rose (30 September 2010). Suckers: How Alternative Medicine Makes Fools of Us All. Random House. ISBN 9781409059165.
- "Integrative medicine": A brand, not a specialty. Science Based Medicine
- Barrett, Stephen; London, William M.; Kroger, Manfred; Hall, Harriet; Baratz, Robert S. (2013). Consumer health: a guide to intelligent decisions (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 34–35, 134, 137. ISBN 9780078028489. OCLC 758098687.
- "Directive 2004/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council". Official Journal of the European Union. 30 April 2004.
- Kienle, Gunver S.; Kiene, Helmut; Albonico, Hans Ulrich (2006). "Anthroposophische Medizin: Health Technology Assessment Bericht – Kurzfassung". Forschende Komplementärmedizin. 13 (2): 7–18. doi:10.1159/000093481. PMID 16883076. S2CID 72253140.
teils ergänzend und teils ersetzend zur konventionellen MedizinCited in Ernst, E (2008). "Anthroposophic medicine: A critical analysis". MMW Fortschritte der Medizin. 150 (Suppl 1): 1–6. PMID 18540325.
- Ernst, E. (2006). "Mistletoe as a treatment for cancer". BMJ. 333 (7582): 1282–3. doi:10.1136/bmj.39055.493958.80. PMC 1761165. PMID 17185706.
- McKie, Robin; Hartmann, Laura (29 April 2012). "Holistic unit will 'tarnish' Aberdeen University reputation". The Observer.
- Dugan, Dan (1 January 2002). "Anthroposophy and Anthroposophical Medicine". In Michael Shermer (ed.). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. ABC-CLIO. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8.
- Jump, Paul (11 May 2012). "Aberdeen decides against alternative medicine chair". Times Higher Education Supplement.
- Ades, Terri B.; Russel, Jill, eds. (2009). "Chapter 9: Pharmacologic and Biologic Therapies". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 704–708. ISBN 978-0-944235-71-3.
- Barry R., Cassileth (2011). "Chapter 36: Apitherapy". The Complete Guide to Complementary Therapies in Cancer Care: Essential Information for Patients, Survivors and Health Professionals. World Scientific. pp. 221–224. ISBN 978-981-4335-66-9.
- Lüdtke R, Kunz B, Seeber N, Ring J (2001). "Test-retest-reliability and validity of the Kinesiology muscle test". Complement Ther Med. 9 (3): 141–5. doi:10.1054/ctim.2001.0455. PMID 11926427.
- Bernstein IL, Li JT, Bernstein DI, Hamilton R, Spector SL, Tan R, et al. (2008). "Allergy diagnostic testing: an updated practice parameter". Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 100 (Suppl 3): S1–148. doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60305-5. PMID 18431959.
- Kenney JJ, Clemens R, Forsythe KD (June 1988). "Applied kinesiology unreliable for assessing nutrient status". J Am Diet Assoc. 88 (6): 698–704. PMID 3372923.
- Russell J, Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Applied Kinesiology". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 160–164. ISBN 9780944235713.
- "Aromatherapy". Better Health Channel. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- Kuriyama, Hiroko; Watanabe, Satoko; Nakaya, Takaaki; Shigemori, Ichiro; Kita, Masakazu; Yoshida, Noriko; Masaki, Daiki; Tadai, Toshiaki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fukui, Kenji; Imanishi, Jiro (2005). "Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2 (2): 179–184. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh087. PMC 1142199. PMID 15937558.
- "Alternative therapies". www.macmillan.org.uk.
- Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Jiae; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard (March 2012). "Aromatherapy for health care: An overview of systematic reviews". Maturitas. 71 (3): 257–260. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.12.018. PMID 22285469.
- Hines S, Steels E, Chang A, Gibbons K (March 2018). "Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3: CD007598. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007598.pub3. PMC 6494172. PMID 29523018.
- Barrett, M.D., Stephen. "Auriculotherapy: A Skeptical Look". Acupuncture Watch. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- Lee MS, Shin BC, Suen LK, Park TY, Ernst E (2008). "Auricular acupuncture for insomnia: a systematic review". Int. J. Clin. Pract. (Systematic review). 62 (11): 1744–52. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01876.x. PMID 18754807. S2CID 37046783.
- Rose, David (3 February 2010). "Lancet journal retracts Andrew Wakefield MMR scare paper". The Times. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011.
- Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ, et al. (2010). "Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report". Pediatrics. 125: S1–18. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.692.4329. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-1878C. PMID 20048083. S2CID 318955.
- Deer B (2011). "How the case against the MMR vaccine was fixed". BMJ. 342: c5347. doi:10.1136/bmj.c5347. PMID 21209059.
- Godlee F, Smith J, Marcovitch H (2011). "Wakefield's article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent". BMJ. 342: c7452. doi:10.1136/bmj.c7452. PMID 21209060. S2CID 43640126.
- MacDonald TT, Domizio P (2007). "Autistic enterocolitis; is it a histopathological entity?". Histopathology. 50 (3): 371–79. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.2007.02606.x. PMID 17257133.
- Jefferson T, Price D, Demicheli V, Bianco E (2003). "Unintended events following immunization with MMR: a systematic review". Vaccine. 21 (25–26): 3954–60. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00271-8. PMID 12922131.
- Gerber JS, Offit PA (2009). "Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypotheses". Clin Infect Dis. 48 (4): 456–61. doi:10.1086/596476. PMC 2908388. PMID 19128068. Lay summary – IDSA (30 January 2009).
- Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Marchione P, Debalini MG, Demicheli V (2020). "Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4 (4): CD004407. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub4. PMC 7169657. PMID 32309885.
- Angus Stevenson, ed. (2007). "Definition of balneo therapy". Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, vol. 1: A-M (6th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2.
- Verhagen, Arianne P.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Boers, Maarten; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lambeck, Johan; de Bie, Rob; de Vet, Henrica C. W. (11 April 2015). "Balneotherapy (or spa therapy) for rheumatoid arthritis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD000518. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000518.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 7045434. PMID 25862243.
- Verhagen AP; De Vet, HC; De Bie, RA; Kessels, AG; Boers, M; Knipschild, PG (October 1997). "Taking baths: the efficacy of balneotherapy in patients with arthritis. A systematic review". J Rheumatol. 24 (10): 1964–71. PMID 9330940.
- Falagas ME; et al. (2009). "The therapeutic effect of balneotherapy: Evaluation of the evidence from randomized controlled trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (7): 1068–84. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02062.x. PMID 19570124.
- Chou, Brian (15 September 2004). "Exposing the Secrets of Fringe Eye Care". Review of Optometry. 141 (9). Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- Marg, Elwin (April 1952). "Flashes of clear vision and negative accommodation with reference to the Bates Method of visual training". American Journal of Optometry & Archives of American Academy of Optometry. 29 (4): 167–84. doi:10.1097/00006324-195204000-00001. PMID 14923801.
- "Complementary Therapy Assessments: Visual Training for Refractive Errors". American Academy of Ophthalmology. August 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Raz, A.; Marinoff, G. P.; Landzberg, K. S.; Guyton, D. L. (2004). "Substrates of negative accommodation". Binocular Vision & Strabismus Quarterly. 19 (2): 71–74. PMID 15180591.
- Raz, A.; Marinoff, G. P.; Zephrani, Z. R.; Schweizer, H. R.; Posner, M. I. (2004). "See clearly: suggestion, hypnosis, attention, and visual acuity". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 52 (2): 159–87. doi:10.1076/iceh.188.8.131.52097. PMID 15115060. S2CID 30369560.
- Barrett S (9 April 2002). "Biological Terrain Assessment Is Nonsense". Quackwatch. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Clark Glymour, Douglas Stalker (1990). "Winning through pseudoscience". In Patrick Grim (ed.). ? Philosophy of science and the occult. SUNY series in philosophy (2, revised ed.). SUNY Press. pp. 92, 94. ISBN 978-0-7914-0204-7.
- Cosier, Susan (2015). "Could Memory Traces Exist in Cell Bodies?". Scientific American. 26: 14. doi:10.1038/scientificamericanmind0515-14b. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- Smith, Susan E. (1993). "Body Memories: And Other Pseudo-Scientific Notions of "Survivor Psychology"". Issues in Child Abuse Accusations. 5. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- Scott O. Lilienfeld SO; Lynn SJ; Lohr JM, eds. (2002). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. The Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-828-1.
- Bessel van der Kolk, M.D. (25 September 2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-101-60830-2.
- Hyatt, K. J. (1 April 2007). "Brain Gym®: Building Stronger Brains or Wishful Thinking?". Remedial and Special Education. 28 (2): 117–124. doi:10.1177/07419325070280020201. S2CID 145748559.
- Goldacre, Ben (2010). "2: Brain Gym". Bad science : quacks, hacks, and big pharma flacks (First American ed.). Faber and Faber. ISBN 9781429967099.
- Howard-Jones, Paul A. (15 October 2014). "Neuroscience and education: myths and messages". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 15 (12): 817–824. doi:10.1038/nrn3817. PMID 25315391. S2CID 3346477.
- Rose, Hilary; Rose, Steven (23 June 2016). "The false promise of neuroeducation". Times Educational Supplement.
- Novella, Steven (25 September 2013). "Candida and Fake Illnesses". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Stephen Barrett, M.D. (8 October 2005). "Dubious 'Yeast Allergies'". Archived from the original on 13 May 2008.
- Anderson, J; Chai, H; Claman, H; Ellis, E; Fink, J; Kaplan, A; Lieberman, P; Pierson, W; Salvaggio, J; Sheffer, A (1986). "Candidiasis hypersensitivity syndromeApproved by the executive committee of the American academy of allergy and immunology". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 78 (2): 271–73. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(86)80073-2. ISSN 0091-6749. PMID 3734279.
- Ernst, E. (2000). "Chelation therapy for coronary heart disease: An overview of all clinical investigations". American Heart Journal. 140 (1): 139–41. doi:10.1067/mhj.2000.107548. PMID 10874275.
- Weber, W.; Newmark, S. (2007). "Complementary and alternative medical therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 54 (6): 983–1006. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2007.09.006. PMID 18061787.
- "Boy with autism dies during 'chelation therapy'". Behavior News. Behavior Analysis Association of Michigan. 30 August 2005. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- American College of Medical Toxicology; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (February 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American College of Medical Toxicology and American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, retrieved 5 December 2013
- Chapman-Smith DA, Cleveland CS III (2005). "International status, standards, and education of the chiropractic profession". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 111–34. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
- Nelson CF, Lawrence DJ, Triano JJ, Bronfort G, Perle SM, Metz RD, Hegetschweiler K, LaBrot T (2005). "Chiropractic as spine care: a model for the profession". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 13 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-9. PMC 1185558. PMID 16000175.
- Homola, Sam (1 October 2010). "Chiropractic Vertebral Subluxations: Science vs. Pseudoscience". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Homola, Samuel (2010). "Real orthopaedic subluxations versus imaginary chiropractic subluxations". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 15 (4): 284–87. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2010.01053.x. ISSN 1465-3753.
- Mootz RD, Shekelle PG (1997). "Content of practice". In Cherkin DC, Mootz RD (eds.). Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. pp. 67–91. OCLC 39856366. AHCPR Pub No. 98-N002.
- Singh, S; Ernst, E (2008). "The truth about chiropractic therapy". Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. W.W. Norton. pp. 145–90. ISBN 978-0-393-06661-6.
- Keating JC Jr (2005). "A brief history of the chiropractic profession". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 23–64. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
- Williams, William F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Facts on File Inc. p. 52. ISBN 1-57958-207-9
- Dobbs, R. H.; Cremer, R. J. (1975). "Phototherapy". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 50 (11): 833–6. doi:10.1136/adc.50.11.833. PMC 1545706. PMID 1108807.
- Ades, Terri (2009). Complete Guide to Complementary & Alternative Cancer Therapies. American Cancer Society. p. 210. ISBN 9781604430530.
- "Why you shouldn't be afraid of LEDs – European Scientist". europeanscientist.com. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Point1, S.; Lambrozo, J. (October–December 2017). "Some evidences that white LEDs are toxic for human at domestic radiance?". Radioprotection. 52 (4). Retrieved 24 November 2019.
- S.Point, the danger of chromotherapy, Skeptical Inquirer, Vol.41, N°4, July/August 2017 skepdigest.awardspace.us/The_Danger_of_Chromotherapy.pdf
- "S. Point and A. Barlier-Salsi, LED lighting and retinal damage" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- Feder, HM; Johnson, BJB; O'Connell, S; et al. (October 2007). "A Critical Appraisal of 'Chronic Lyme Disease'". NEJM. 357 (14): 1422–30. doi:10.1056/NEJMra072023. PMID 17914043. S2CID 35285261.
- Baker, P. J. (14 July 2010). "Chronic Lyme disease: in defense of the scientific enterprise". The FASEB Journal. 24 (11): 4175–77. doi:10.1096/fj.10-167247. PMID 20631327. S2CID 36141950.
- Hall, Harriet (3 September 2013). "Does Everybody Have Chronic Lyme Disease? Does Anyone?". Science Based Medicine.
- "Do you really need to clean your colon?". Marketplace. CBC Television. 2009. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Colon Therapy". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 24 April 2015.
- Fung, Man C.; Bowen, Debra L. (1996). "Silver Products for Medical Indications: Risk-Benefit Assessment". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 34 (1): 119–126. doi:10.3109/15563659609020246. PMID 8632503. S2CID 10521403.
- "Colloidal silver". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
- "Colloidal Silver" (Last Updated September 2014). National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. July 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- Wadhera A, Fung M (March 2005). "Systemic argyria associated with ingestion of colloidal silver". Dermatology Online Journal. 11 (1): 12. PMID 15748553.
- Fung, M. C.; Weintraub, M.; Bowen, D. L. (1995). "Colloidal silver proteins marketed as health supplements". JAMA. 274 (15): 1196–7. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530150020017. PMID 7563503.
- "Over-the-counter drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Final rule" (PDF). Federal Register. 64 (158): 44653–8. August 1999. PMID 10558603.
- Newman, Mark; Kolecki, Paul (2001). "Argyria in the ED". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 19 (6): 525–526. doi:10.1053/ajem.2001.25773. PMID 11593479.
- Aronoff, George R., ed. (1999). Evaluation and Treatment of Chronic Pain (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. p. 571. ISBN 978-0-683-30149-6.
- Barrett, Stephen. "Why Cranial Therapy Is Silly". Quackwatch. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Ferré, J. C.; Chevalier, C.; Lumineau, J. P.; Barbin, J. Y. (1 September 1990). [Cranial "osteopathy, delusion or reality?"] Check
|url=value (help). Actualités Odonto-Stomatologiques. 44 (171): 481–494. ISSN 0001-7817. PMID 2173359.
- "The False Science of Cryonics". MIT Technology Review.
- "Does Cold reality versus the wishful thinking of cryonics?". Science-Based Medicine.
- Steinbeck RL (29 September 2002). "Mainstream science is frosty over keeping the dead on ice". Chicago Tribune.
- Regal, Brian. (2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Greenwood. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-313-35507-3
- "The Science of Cupping". nccaom.org. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- "What Is Cupping Therapy? Uses, Benefits, Side Effects, and More". WebMD. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- Daly, Annie (26 June 2018). "What Is Cupping Therapy—And Should You Try It?". Women's Health. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- Crislip, Mark (24 December 2014). "Acupuncture Odds and Ends". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- Salzberg, Steven (13 May 2019). "The Ridiculous And Possibly Harmful Practice of Cupping". Forbes. Archived from the original on 13 May 2019.
- Klein, AV; Kiat, H (December 2015). "Detox diets for toxin elimination and weight management: a critical review of the evidence". Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 28 (6): 675–86. doi:10.1111/jhn.12286. PMID 25522674. S2CID 37704045.
- "Detox press release". Sense About Science. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Porter, Sian (May 2016). "Detox Diets" (PDF). British Dietetic Association.
- DeMeo S (1998). "The Pseudoscience of Ear Wax Removal". Skeptical Inquirer. 22 (6): 17.
- Seely, D.R.; Quigley, S.M.; Langman, A.W. (1996). "Ear candles: Efficacy and safety". Laryngoscope. 106 (10): 1226–9. doi:10.1097/00005537-199610000-00010. PMID 8849790.
- Beatty M.D., Charles W. "Ear Candling: Is it Safe?". MayoClinic.org. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- Kamioka, H; Tsutani, K; Mutoh, Y; Honda, T; Shiozawa, N; Okada, S; Park, SJ; Kitayuguchi, J; Kamada, M; Okuizumi, H; Handa, S (2012). "A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy". Psychology Research and Behavior Management. 5: 85–95. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S32402. PMC 3414249. PMID 22888281.
- Oh, B; Lee, KJ; Zaslawski, C; Yeung, A; Rosenthal, D; Larkey, L; Back, M (18 October 2017). "Health and well-being benefits of spending time in forests: systematic review". Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 22 (1): 71. doi:10.1186/s12199-017-0677-9. PMC 5664422. PMID 29165173.
- "Naturopathy and Its Professors (1932)". naturowatch.org.
- Röösli, Martin; Moser, Mirjana; Baldinini, Yvonne; Meier, Martin; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte (2004). "Symptoms of ill health ascribed to electromagnetic field exposure – a questionnaire survey". International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 207 (2): 141–50. doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00269. ISSN 1438-4639. PMID 15031956.
- Rubin, G James; Das Munshi, Jayati; Wessely, Simon (2005). "Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review of Provocation Studies". Psychosomatic Medicine. 67 (2): 224–32. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.543.1328. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000155664.13300.64. PMID 15784787. S2CID 13826364.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Goldacre, Ben. "Electrosensitives: the new cash cow of the woo industry". BadScience/The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
- "Electromagnetic fields and public health". Archived from the original on 16 November 2007. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
- Jules Evans (14 July 2008). "Spiritual healing on the NHS?". The Times. London.
- Astin, J.; et al. (2000). "The Efficacy of "Distant Healing: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials". Annals of Internal Medicine. 132 (11): 903–910. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-11-200006060-00009. PMID 10836918. S2CID 53089000.
- Ernst, Edzard (2001). "A primer of complementary and alternative medicine commonly used by cancer patients". Medical Journal of Australia. 174 (2): 88–92. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2001.tb143161.x. PMID 11245510.
Ernst E. (30 April 2003). "Distant healing—an update of a systematic review". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 115 (7–8): 241–245. doi:10.1007/BF03040322. PMID 12778776. S2CID 28737150.
Since the publication of our previous systematic review in 2000, several rigorous new studies have emerged. Collectively they shift the weight of the evidence against the notion that distant healing is more than a placebo.
- Vyse, Stuart (7 August 2018). "Autism Wars: Science Strikes Back". Skeptical Inquirer Online. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- Auerbach, David (12 November 2015). "Facilitated Communication Is a Cult That Won't Die". Slate. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Lilienfeld; et al. (26 February 2015). "Why debunked autism treatment fads persist". Science Daily. Emory University. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Ganz, Jennifer B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Morin, Kristi L. (2018). "Facilitated Communication: The Resurgence of a Disproven Treatment for Individuals With Autism". Intervention in School and Clinic. 54: 52–56. doi:10.1177/1053451217692564.
- Montee, B B; Miltenberger, R G; Wittrock, D; Watkins, N; Rheinberger, A; Stackhaus, J (1995). "An experimental analysis of facilitated communication". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 28 (2): 189–200. doi:10.1901/jaba.1995.28-189. PMC 1279809. PMID 7601804.
- Goldacre, Ben (5 December 2009). "Making contact with a helping hand". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- National Science Foundation (2002). "ch. 7". Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ISBN 978-0-16-066579-0. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018. "Belief in pseudoscience is relatively widespread... Polls also show that one quarter to more than half of the public believes in ... faith healing."
- Frazier, Kendrick (January 2005). "In the Land of Galileo, Fifth World Skeptics Congress Solves Mysteries, Champions Scientific Outlook". Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
The majority of rigorous trials show no effect beyond placebo. (Edzard Ernst)
- Russell, Sharman Apt; Russell, Sharman (1 August 2008). Hunger: An Unnatural History. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0786722396. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- Porter, Sian (May 2016). "Detox diets" (PDF). British Dietetic Association.
The whole idea of detox is nonsense. The body is a well-developed system that has its own built-in mechanisms to detoxify and remove waste and toxins. Our body constantly filters out, breaks down and excretes toxins and waste products like alcohol, medications, products of digestion, dead cells, chemicals from pollution and bacteria
- David Gorski (23 May 2011). "Fashionably toxic". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
- Griffith, R. Marie (2000). "Apostles of Abstinence: Fasting and Masculinity during the Progressive Era". American Quarterly. 52 (4): 599–638. doi:10.1353/aq.2000.0047. PMID 16850570. S2CID 40920930.
- Nash, Jay R. (1982). Zanies: The World's Greatest Eccentrics. New Century Publishers. p. 339. ISBN 978-0832901232
- Gratzer, Walter. (2005). Terrors of the Table: The Curious History of Nutrition. Oxford University Press. p. 201. ISBN 0-19-280661-0
- Kang, Lydia; Pedersen, Nate. (2017). Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything. Workman Publishing. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-7611-8981-7
- Sampson, Wallace (30 October 2008). "Functional Medicine – New Kid on the Block". Science-Based Medicine.
- Sampson, Wallace (9 July 2009). "Functional Medicine (FM) What Is It?". Science Based Medicine. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Pal, SK (March 2002). "Complementary and alternative medicine: An overview". Current Science. 82 (5): 518–24. JSTOR 24105958.
- Ehrlich, G; Callender, T; Gaster, B (May 2013). "Integrative medicine at academic health centers: A survey of clinicians' educational backgrounds and practices" (PDF). Family Medicine. 45 (5): 330–4. PMID 23681684. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Hall, Harriet (2017). "Functional Medicine: Pseudoscientific Silliness". Skeptic. Vol. 22 no. 1. pp. 4–5.
- Gorski, David (29 September 2014). "Quackademia update: The Cleveland Clinic, George Washington University, and the continued infiltration of quackery into medical academia". Science–Based Medicine. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "A Short Biography". Retrieved 7 May 2011.
- "Dr.med.Mag.theol. Ryke Geerd Hamer – Germanische Neue Medizin – Dr. Hamer: DAS SPIEL IST AUS!". Dr-rykegeerdhamer.com. 11 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Dr.med.Mag.theol. Ryke Geerd Hamer – Germanische Neue Medizin – Dr. Hamer an die Staatsanwaltschaft München". Dr-rykegeerdhamer.com. 7 February 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- Another cancer tragedy in the making, David Gorski, Science Based Medicine
- Barrett, S. (1985). "Commercial hair analysis. Science or scam?". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 254 (8): 1041–5. doi:10.1001/jama.254.8.1041. PMID 4021042.
- Seidel, S. (2001). "Assessment of Commercial Laboratories Performing Hair Mineral Analysis". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 285 (1): 67–72. doi:10.1001/jama.285.1.67. PMID 11150111. S2CID 1947454.
- Hair analysis: A potential for medical abuse. Policy number H-175.995,(Sub. Res. 67, I-84; Reaffirmed by CLRPD Rep. 3 – I-94)
- Novella, Steven (22 September 2013). "Copper and Magnetic Bracelets Do Not Work for Rheumatoid Arthritis" (blog). James Randi Educational Foundation. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- Weathers, Cliff (10 January 2015). "Quackwear: Big Pseudoscience Wants to Sell You Wearable Metal to Improve Your Health". AlterNet. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- Rowe, Aaron (17 March 2008). "Video: Hexagonal Water is an Appalling Scam". Wired. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Drinking Water and Water Treatment Scams". Alabama Cooperative Extension System. 22 October 2003.
- "Understanding Hexagonal Water". Aqua Technology. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Hexagonal Water". Frequency Rising. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Homoeopathy's benefit questioned". BBC News. 25 August 2005. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
Professor Egger said: "We acknowledge to prove a negative is impossible. But good large studies of homeopathy do not show a difference between the placebo and the homoeopathic remedy, whereas in the case of conventional medicines you still see an effect."
- "Homeopathy: systematic review of systematic reviews". Bandolier. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
None of these systematic reviews provided any convincing evidence that homeopathy was effective for any condition. The lesson was often that the best designed trials had the most negative result
- "Questions and Answers About Homeopathy". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. April 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
In sum, systematic reviews have not found homeopathy to be a definitively proven treatment for any medical condition.
- Beyerstein, BL (1997). "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
- CSICOP, cited in National Science Foundation Subcommittee on Science & Engineering Indicators (2000). "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding: Science Fiction and Pseudoscience". National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
- "NCAHF Position Paper on Homeopathy". National Council Against Health Fraud. 1994. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
- Tyler, Chris (September 2006). "Sense About Homeopathy" (PDF). Sense About Science. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
The scientific evidence shows that homeopathy acts only as a placebo and there is no scientific explanation of how it could work any other way.
- "Questions and Answers About Homeopathy". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. April 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
a number of its key concepts do not follow the laws of science (particularly chemistry and physics)
- "What is Homeopathy". American Cancer Society. 5 January 2000. Archived from the original on 20 January 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
Most scientists say homeopathic remedies are basically water and can act only as placebos.
- "Scientists attack homeopathy move". BBC News. 25 October 2006. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
In a statement, the Royal College of Pathologists said they were "deeply alarmed" that the regulation of medicine had "moved away from science and clear information for the public"
- D. S. Vohra (2002). Bach flower remedies : a comprehensive study. New Delhi: Health Harmony. p. 258. OCLC 428012690.
- Thaler K, Kaminski A, Chapman A, Langley T, Gartlehner G (26 May 2009). "Bach Flower Remedies for psychological problems and pain: a systematic review". BMC Complement Altern Med. 9: 16. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-16. PMC 2695424. PMID 19470153.
- Ernst E (2002). "'Flower remedies': a systematic review of the clinical evidence". Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift. 114 (23–24): 963–966. PMID 12635462.
- "Iridology". Natural Standard. 7 July 2005. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
Research suggests that iridology is not an effective method to diagnose or help treat any specific medical condition.
- Ernst, E (January 2000). "Iridology: not useful and potentially harmful". Archives of Ophthalmology. 118 (1): 120–21. doi:10.1001/archopht.118.1.120. PMID 10636425.
- "H-175.998 Evaluation of Iridology" (PDF). American Medical Association. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
Our AMA believes that iridology, the study of the iris of the human eye, has not yet been established as having any merit as a diagnostic technique.
- Kalichman, Seth C. (2009). Denying AIDS: Conspiracy Theories, Pseudoscience, and Human Tragedy. Springer. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-387-79476-1.
- "Leaky gut syndrome". NHS Choices. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Cormier, Zoe (8 March 2008). "'Talk Therapy' Takes on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Coming Soon To Canada". Toronto. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- Cite error: The named reference
Felsteinwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Lerman RH (7 December 2010). "The Macrobiotic Diet in Chronic Disease". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 25 (6): 621–626. doi:10.1177/0884533610385704. PMID 21139126.
- Pimentel L (2003). "Scurvy: historical review and current diagnostic approach". American Journal of Emergency Medicine (Review). 21 (4): 328–32. doi:10.1016/s0735-6757(03)00083-4. PMID 12898492.
Persons at risk include... followers of fad diets such as the Zen macrobiotic diet
- Bijlefeld M, Zoumbaris SK (2014). "Macrobiotics". Encyclopedia of Diet Fads: Understanding Science and Society (2nd ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-1-61069-760-6.
- Bender DA (2014). diet, macrobiotic. A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191752391.
- Hübner J, Marienfeld S, Abbenhardt C, Ulrich CM, Löser C (November 2012). "[How useful are diets against cancer?]". Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (Review) (in German). 137 (47): 2417–22. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1327276. PMID 23152069.
- "Macrobiotic diet". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
- Russell J; Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Macrobiotic Diet". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 638–642. ISBN 9780944235713.
- Shermer, Michael, ed. (2002). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience (PDF). ABC–CLIO, Inc. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- Park, Robert L. (2000). "The Virtual Astronaut". Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-19-513515-2.
Not only are magnetic fields of no value in healing, you might characterize these as "homeopathic" magnetic fields.
- National Science Foundation (2002). "7". Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ISBN 978-0-16-066579-0. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
Among all who had heard of [magnet therapy], 14 percent said it was very scientific and another 54 percent said it was sort of scientific. Only 25 percent of those surveyed answered correctly, that is, that it is not at all scientific.
- "Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-97)". American Medical Association. 1997. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009.
- "Ayurvedic medicine". Quackwatch. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- Sharp, Lesley A. (December 2003). "Review of Fluent bodies: Ayourvedic Remedies for Postcolonial Imbalance". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 17 (4): 511–12. doi:10.1525/maq.2003.17.4.512. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 45–4?. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7.
- Carroll, Robert Todd. "intuitive healer". skepdic.com. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Barcan, Ruth (2009). "Intuition and Reason in the New Age". In Howes, David (ed.). The Sixth Sense Reader. Sensory Formations. Berg Publishers. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-84788-261-5.
- Novella, Steven. "Pseudoscience in Medical News at the Huffington Post". sciencebasedmedicine.org. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- Halvorson, CR (October 2012). "An approach to the evaluation of delusional infestation". Cutis. 90 (4): E1–4. PMID 24005827.
- Shmidt, E; Levitt, J (February 2012). "Dermatologic infestations". International Journal of Dermatology. 51 (2): 131–41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05191.x. PMID 22250620.
- Pearson, Michele L.; Selby, Joseph V.; Katz, Kenneth A.; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R.; Parise, Monica E.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Lewin-Smith, Michael R.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Hightower, Allen W.; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L.; Unexplained Dermopathy Study, Team (2012). "Clinical, Epidemiologic, Histopathologic and Molecular Features of an Unexplained Dermopathy". PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e29908. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...729908P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029908. PMC 3266263. PMID 22295070.
- Fyfe, Melissa (31 July 2015). "Under their skin: the Morgellons mystery". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Coyle, M. E.; Smith, C. A.; Peat, B (2012). "Cephalic version by moxibustion for breech presentation". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5 (5): CD003928. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003928.pub3. PMID 22592693.
- Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Beom-Joon; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 38 (5): 829–38. doi:10.1142/S0192415X10008275. PMID 20821815. S2CID 8383035.
- Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Park, Ji-Eun; Lee, Song-Shil; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for cancer care: A systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Cancer. 10: 130. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-130. PMC 2873382. PMID 20374659.
- Lee, M. S.; Shin, B.-C.; Kim, J.-I.; Han, C.-h.; Ernst, E. (2010). "Moxibustion for Stroke Rehabilitation: Systematic Review". Stroke. 41 (4): 817–20. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.566851. PMID 20150551.
- Lee, Dong-Hyo; Kim, Jong-In; Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for ulcerative colitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Gastroenterology. 10: 36. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-36. PMC 2864201. PMID 20374658.
- Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Tae-Young; Park, Ji-Eun; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Effects of moxibustion for constipation treatment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Chinese Medicine. 5: 28. doi:10.1186/1749-8546-5-28. PMC 2922210. PMID 20687948.
- Kim, Jong-In; Choi, Jun-Yong; Lee, Hyangsook; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Moxibustion for hypertension: A systematic review". BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 10: 33. doi:10.1186/1471-2261-10-33. PMC 2912786. PMID 20602794.
- Lee, Myeong Soo; Kang, Jung Won; Ernst, Edzard (2010). "Does moxibustion work? An overview of systematic reviews". BMC Research Notes. 3: 284. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-3-284. PMC 2987875. PMID 21054851.
- "License 16776: Devi S. Nambudripad". California Board of Chiropractic Examiners. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "License 3433: Devi S. Nambudripad". California Acupuncture Board. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- Nambudripad, Devi S. (2003). NAET: Say Goodbye to Asthma: A Revolutionary Treatment for Allergy-Based Asthma and Other Respiratory Disorders. Say Good-Bye To... Series. Delta Publishing Company. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-9743915-1-9.
- Thyer, Bruce A.; Pignotti, Monica G. (2015), Science and Pseudoscience in Social Work Practice, Springer Publishing, p. 47, ISBN 9780826177698,
Another energy-based therapy that is claimed to identify and treat allergies...is called the Nambudripad allergy elimination technique (NAET; Nambudripad, 2003). However, a dearth of studies is not the same thing as evidence which conclusively proves that NAET is either ineffective or dangerous. Organizations that do rigorous clinical trials would have little interest in studying NAET because it is non-drug based. Funding is not usually available for assessing any alternative healing modalities. Defenders of alternative and holistic healing point out that most family doctors treat patients who have a wide range of underlying emotional issues that impair the patient's health. This could happen, for example, through elevated cortisone or adrenaline levels from prolonged stress. NAET testing is carried out through applied kinesiology while a person is holding small vials that are said to contain the energetic essences of various substances. Once the allergies are identified, treatment is carried out through stimulation of points along the spine. These vials contain substances prepared in a process similar to that of homeopathic preparation. Mainstream science claims this method has not been shown reliable or valid in assessing a client’s sensitivity to environmental toxins.
- Sarris, J., and Wardle, J. 2010. Clinical naturopathy: an evidence-based guide to practice. Elsevier Australia. Chatswood, NSW.
- Atwood KC (26 March 2004). "Naturopathy, pseudoscience, and medicine: myths and fallacies vs truth". Medscape Gen Med. 6 (1): 33. PMC 1140750. PMID 15208545.
- Barrett S (23 December 2003). "A close look at naturopathy". quackwatch.org. Retrieved 20 November 2012. Cite journal requires
- McKnight, P (7 March 2009). "Naturopathy's main article of faith cannot be validated: Reliance on vital forces leaves its practises based on beliefs without scientific backing". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 21 March 2009.[dead link]
- National Science Board (April 2002). "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding – Science Fiction and Pseudoscience". Science and engineering indicators. Arlington, Virginia: National Science Foundation Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
- Wahlberg A (2007). "A quackery with a difference – new medical pluralism and the problem of 'dangerous practitioners' in the United Kingdom" (PDF). Social Science & Medicine. 65 (11): 2307–16. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.07.024. PMID 17719708.
- "Iridology is nonsense"., a web page with further references
- "ACS: Colon Therapy". Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
- Carroll, Robert. "Natural". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
- "NCAHF Position Paper on Over the Counter Herbal Remedies (1995)". National Council Against Health Fraud. 1995. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
- Alexander, Dominik D.; Bailey, William H.; Perez, Vanessa; Mitchell, Meghan E.; Su, Steave (9 September 2013). "Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review". Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine. 12: 14. doi:10.1186/1477-5751-12-14. PMC 3848581. PMID 24016271.
- Goldacre, Ben (17 July 2003). "The truth about oxygen". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
- Novella, Steven (12 March 2014). "Oil Pulling Your Leg". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- Saul AW; Hoffer A (2008). Orthomolecular Medicine For Everyone: Megavitamin Therapeutics for Families and Physicians. Laguna Beach, California: Basic Health Publications. ISBN 978-1-59120-226-4. OCLC 232131968. OL 16944688M.
- McMichael AJ (January 1981). "Orthomolecular medicine and megavitamin therapy". Med. J. Aust. 1 (1): 6–8. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.1981.tb135275.x. PMID 7207301.
- Hoffer A, Walker M (2000). Smart Nutrients. Avery. ISBN 978-0-89529-562-0.
- Skinner Patricia (2004). "Gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine: holistic medicine". Thomson Gale.
- "Orthomolecular medicine". orthomed.org. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011.
- Aaronson S, et al. (2003). "Cancer medicine". In Frei Emil, Kufe Donald W, Holland James F (eds.). Cancer medicine 6. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker. pp. 76. ISBN 978-1-55009-213-4.
There is no evidence that megavitamin or orthomolecular therapy is effective in treating any disease.
- "NIH state-of-the-science conference statement on multivitamin/mineral supplements and chronic disease prevention". NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 23 (2): 1–30. 2006. PMID 17332802.
Lipton M, et al. (1973). "Task Force Report on Megavitamin and Orthomolecular Therapy in Psychiatry". American Psychiatric Association. Cite journal requires
- Yang, M; Yuping, Y; Yin, X; Wang, BY; Wu, T; Liu, GJ; Dong, BR (2013). Dong, Bi Rong (ed.). "Chest physiotherapy for pneumonia in adults". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2 (2): CD006338. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006338.pub3. PMID 23450568. S2CID 205182325.
- Posadzki, P.; Lee, M. S.; Ernst, E. (2013). "Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Pediatric Conditions: A Systematic Review". Pediatrics. 132 (1): 140–52. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3959. PMID 23776117. S2CID 5112754.
- Hondras, Maria A; Linde, Klaus; Jones, Arthur P (2005). Hondras, Maria A (ed.). "Manual therapy for asthma". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD001002. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001002.pub2. PMID 15846609.
- Guglielmo, WJ (1998). "Are D.O.s losing their unique identity?". Medical Economics. 75 (8): 200–02, 207–10, 213–14. PMID 10179479.
- Salzberg, Steven (27 October 2010). "Osteopathic Physicians Versus Doctors". Forbes. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "pulse diagnosis – Science-Based Medicine". sciencebasedmedicine.org. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- Bilton, Karen; Zaslawski, Chris (August 2016). "Reliability of Manual Pulse Diagnosis Methods in Traditional East Asian Medicine: A Systematic Narrative Literature Review". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. New York, N.Y. 22 (8): 599–609. doi:10.1089/acm.2016.0056. ISSN 1557-7708. PMID 27314975.
- "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"". Quackwatch. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
- Pilkington, Mark (15 April 2004). "A vibe for radionics". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
Scientific American concluded: 'At best, [ERA] is all an illusion. At worst, it is a colossal fraud.'
- Radionic Association (23 May 2006). "10 lesser-known alternative therapies". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
Radionics is a technique of healing using extrasensory perception (ESP) and an instrument.
- Isaak, Mark (ed.). "Index to Creationist Claims: Geology". TalkOrigins Archive.
- "What is Radionics". The Radionic Association. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
This subtle field cannot be accessed using our conventional senses. Radionic practitioners use a specialised dowsing technique to both identify the sources of weakness in the field and to select specific treatments to overcome them.
- "Electromagnetic Therapy". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 4 February 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
There is no relationship between the conventional medical uses of electromagnetic energy and the alternative devices or methods that use externally applied electrical forces. Available scientific evidence does not support claims that these alternative electrical devices are effective in diagnosing or treating cancer or any other disease.
- Helwig, David (2004). "Radionics". In Longe, Jacqueline L. (ed.). The Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. Gale Cengage. ISBN 978-0-7876-7424-3. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- Novella, Steven (19 October 2011). "Reiki". Science-Based Medicine. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015.
- Lee, MS; Pittler, MH; Ernst, E (2008). "Effects of reiki in clinical practice: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice (Systematic Review). 62 (6): 947–54. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01729.x. PMID 18410352.
In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to suggest that reiki is an effective treatment for any condition. Therefore the value of reiki remains unproven.
- Reiki: Fraudulent Misrepresentation « Science-Based Medicine: Reiki: Fraudulent Misrepresentation « Science-Based Medicine, accessdate: 28 May 2016
- Russell J, Rovere A, eds. (2009). "Reiki". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American Cancer Society. pp. 243–45. ISBN 9780944235713.
- "Reiki". Cancer Research UK. 30 August 2017. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015.
- "Reiki: What You Need To Know". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- Kunz, Kevin; Kunz, Barbara (1993). The Complete Guide to Foot Reflexology. Reflexology Research Project.
- Ernst E (2009). "Is reflexology an effective intervention? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials". Med J Aust. 191 (5): 263–66. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2009.tb02780.x. PMID 19740047. S2CID 17307793.
- Norman, Laura; Thomas Cowan (1989). The Reflexology Handbook, A Complete Guide. Piatkus. pp. 22, 23. ISBN 978-0-86188-912-9.
- "Natural Standard". Harvard Medical School. 7 July 2005. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
- "Reflexology". National Council Against Health Fraud. 1996. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
- Cordón, LA (January 2005). "Rolfing". Popular Psychology: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 217–18. ISBN 978-0-313-32457-4.
- Baggoley C (2015). "Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance" (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Lay summary – Gavura, S. Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies. Science-Based Medicine. (19 November 2015).
- ""Beyond Science", on season 8, episode 2". Scientific American Frontiers. Chedd-Angier Production Company. 1997–1998. PBS. Archived from the original on 2006.
- Wallace, Sampson; Vaughn, Lewis (24 March 1998). "'Therapeutic Touch' Fails a Rare Scientific Test". CSICOP News. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2007.
Despite this lack of evidence, TT is now supported by major nursing organizations such as the National League of Nurses and the American Nurses Association.
- "Scientific American". Archived from the original on 9 October 2009.
- O'Mathúna, Dónal P.; Ashford, Robert L. (29 July 2014). O'Mathúna, Dónal P (ed.). "Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD002766. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002766.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 25069726.
- Courcey, Kevin. "Further Notes on Therapeutic Touch". Quackwatch. Retrieved 5 December 2007.
What's missing from all of this, of course, is any statement by Krieger and her disciples about how the existence of their energy field can be demonstrated by scientifically accepted methods.
- "Energy Medicine: An Overview". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. 24 October 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2007.
neither the external energy fields nor their therapeutic effects have been demonstrated convincingly by any biophysical means.
- Huxley, Julian (1925–1926). "The Tissue-Culture King: A Parable of Modern Science". The Yale Review. XV: 479–504.
- Huxley, Julian (August 1927). "The Tissue-Culture King". Amazing Stories.
Well, we had discovered that metal was relatively impervious to the telepathic effect, and had prepared for ourselves a sort of tin pulpit, behind which we could stand while conducting experiments. This, combined with caps of metal foil, enormously reduced the effects on ourselves.
- Unschuld, Paul Ulrich (1985). Medicine in China: A History of Ideas. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06216-0.
- "Traditional Chinese Medicine: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment". Complementary/Integrative Medicine Therapies. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Retrieved 12 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "The Roots of Qi". CSICOP. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Cite error: The named reference
NIH-1997consensuswas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Barrett, Stephen (30 December 2007). "Be Wary of Acupuncture, Qigong, and "Chinese Medicine"". Quackwatch. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
- "NCAHF Position Paper on Acupuncture (1990)". National Council Against Health Fraud. 16 September 1990. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
- Maciocia, Giovanni (1989). The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-03980-5.
- Barrett, Stephen (28 March 2008). "Why TCM Diagnosis Is Worthless". Acupuncture Watch. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- "Traditional Chinese Medicine: Overview of Herbal Medicines". Complementary/Integrative Medicine Therapies. The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Cite error: The named reference
TCM_CSI_1was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Yuehua, N; Chen, J; Wu, T; Jiafu, W; Liu, G; Chen, Jin (2004). Chen, Jin (ed.). "Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat (Review)". Protocols. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004877.
- Praities, Nigel (7 August 2008). "GPs warned over Chinese medicine". Pulse. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- Normile, Dennis (2003). "Asian Medicine: the New Face of Traditional Chinese Medicine". Science. 299 (5604): 188–90. doi:10.1126/science.299.5604.188. PMID 12522228. S2CID 70525749.
- Vashi NA, Patzelt N, Wirya S, Maymone MB, Zancanaro P, Kundu RV (2018). "Dermatoses caused by cultural practices: Therapeutic cultural practices". J Am Acad Dermatol (Review). 79 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2017.06.159. PMID 29908818. S2CID 49268995.
- Crislip C (20 February 2015). "Traditional Chinese Pseudo-Medicine Hodgepodge". Science-Based Medicine.
- Ernst, Edzard (11 January 2013). "Gua Sha: torture or treatment?". Edzardernst.com. Edzard Ernst. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
- "Definition of Chinese meridian theory". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- Mann, Felix (1996). Reinventing Acupuncture: A New Concept of Ancient Medicine. London: Butterworth Heinemann. p. 14.
...acupuncture points are no more real than the black spots that a drunkard sees in front of his eyes.
- Robinson, N; Lorenc, A; Liao, X (2011). "The evidence for Shiatsu: A systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 11: 88. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-88. PMC 3200172. PMID 21982157.
Shiatsu incorporates acupressure, which is similar but applies pressure for longer on specific pressure points on meridians, following Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
- >"Shiatsu". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Shermer, Michael (July 2005). "Full of Holes: the curious case of acupuncture". Scientific American. 293 (2): 30. Bibcode:2005SciAm.293b..30S. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0805-30. PMID 16053133.
- Stenger, Victor J. (June 1998). "Reality Check: the energy fields of life". Skeptical Briefs. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2007. "Despite complete scientific rejection, the concept of a special biological fields within living things remains deeply engraved in human thinking. It is now working its way into modern health care systems, as non-scientific alternative therapies become increasingly popular. From acupuncture to homeopathy and therapeutic touch, the claim is made that healing can be brought about by the proper adjustment of a person's or animal's 'bioenergetic fields.'"
- "Traditional Medicine and Pseudoscience in China: A Report of the Second CSICOP Delegation (Part 2)". CSICOP. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- "qigong". Collins English Dictionary.
- "Tai Chi and Qi Gong: In Depth". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. October 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
- Cohen, K. S. (1999). The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing. Random House of Canada. ISBN 978-0-345-42109-8.
- Lee MS, Oh B, Ernst E (2011). "Qigong for healthcare: an overview of systematic reviews". JRSM Short Rep. 2 (2): 1–5. doi:10.1258/shorts.2010.010091. PMC 3046559. PMID 21369525.
- Gardner, Martin (2001). Did Adam and Eve Have Navels?: Debunking Pseudoscience. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 92–101. ISBN 978-0-393-32238-5.
- Boseley, Sarah (2 February 2010). "Lancet retracts 'utterly false' MMR paper". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- Doja A, Roberts W (November 2006). "Immunizations and autism: a review of the literature". Can J Neurol Sci. 33 (4): 341–46. doi:10.1017/s031716710000528x. PMID 17168158.
- Taylor, Luke E.; Swerdfeger, Amy L.; Eslick, Guy D. (June 2014). "Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies". Vaccine. 32 (29): 3623–29. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559.
- Immunization Safety Review Committee, Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine (2004). Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/10997. ISBN 978-0-309-09237-1. PMID 20669467.
- Hilton S, Petticrew M, Hunt K (2006). "'Combined vaccines are like a sudden onslaught to the body's immune system': parental concerns about vaccine 'overload' and 'immune-vulnerability'". Vaccine. 24 (20): 4321–27. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.03.003. PMID 16581162.
- Hurst L (30 October 2009). "Vaccine phobia runs deep". Toronto Star. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- Gerber JS, Offit PA (2009). "Vaccines and Autism: A Tale of Shifting Hypotheses". Clin Infect Dis. 48 (4): 456–61. doi:10.1086/596476. PMC 2908388. PMID 19128068. Lay summary – IDSA (30 January 2009).
- Williams, William A. (2000). Encyclopedia of pseudoscience. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-3351-5.
- Nippoldt, Todd (21 November 2009). "Is Wilson's syndrome a legitimate ailment?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 9 April 2010.
- "Public Health Statement: "Wilson's Syndrome"". American Thyroid Association. 24 May 2005.
- Crighton, F.; et al. (November 2014). "The Link between Health Complaints and Wind Turbines: Support for the Nocebo Expectations Hypothesis". Frontiers in Public Health. 2 (220): 220. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2014.00220. PMC 4227478. PMID 25426482.
- "Interview with Simon Chapman". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 October 2012.
- Rourke, Alison (15 March 2013). "Windfarm sickness spreads by word of mouth, Australian study finds". The Guardian.
- Professor Simon Chapman (10 April 2015). "Summary of main conclusions reached in 25 reviews of the research literature on wind farms and health". Sydney University School of Public Health. Retrieved 4 July 2018. Cite journal requires
- Randi, James (16 July 2004). "An Important Appeal". James Randi Educational Foundation. Archived from the original (newsletter) on 17 July 2004. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
This is a total quack procedure that has actually killed children.
- Maloney, Shannon-Bridget. "Be Wary of Attachment Therapy". Retrieved 17 November 2007.
- Berlin, Lisa J.; Ziv, Yair; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Greenberg, Mark T., eds. (2007). "Preface". Enhancing Early Attachments. Theory, Research, Intervention and Policy. Duke series in child development and public policy. Guilford Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1-59385-470-6.
- Chaffin, M; Hanson, R; Saunders, BE; Nichols, T; Barnett, D; Zeanah, C; Berliner, L; Egeland, B; et al. (2006). "Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems". Child Maltreat. 11 (1): 76–89. doi:10.1177/1077559505283699. PMID 16382093. S2CID 11443880.
- Haldeman, Douglas C. (December 1999). "The Pseudo-science of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy" (PDF). ANGLES: The Policy Journal of the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies. 4 (1). Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- "Position Statement on Therapies Focused on Attempts to Change Sexual Orientation (Reparative or Conversion Therapies)". American Psychiatric Association. May 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
- "Just the Facts About Sexual Orientation & Youth: A Primer for Principals, Educators and School Personnel" (PDF). Just the Facts Coalition. 1999. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
- Glassgold, JM (1 August 2009). "Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation" (PDF). American Psychological Association. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
- Finn, Peter (2 October 2005). "Russia's 1-Step Program: Scaring Alcoholics Dry". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- Feske, Ulrike (1998). "Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 5 (2): 171–181. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00142.x.
- Schnyder, Ulrich; Cloitre, Marylène (14 February 2015). Evidence Based Treatments for Trauma-Related Psychological Disorders: A Practical Guide for Clinicians. Springer. ISBN 9783319071091. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Guidelines for the management of conditions that are specifically related to stress". Geneva: World Health Organization. 2013. PMID 24049868. Cite journal requires
- Herbert, J (2000). "Science and pseudoscience in the development of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing Implications for clinical psychology". Clinical Psychology Review. 20 (8): 945–971. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00017-3. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 11098395.
- Lee, Christopher William; Cuijpers, Pim (2013). "A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories". Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 44 (2): 231–239. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.11.001. ISSN 0005-7916. PMID 23266601.
- Vyse, Stuart (7 August 2018). "Autism Wars: Science Strikes Back". Skeptical Inquirer Online. Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- Hemsley, Bronwyn; Bryant, Lucy; Schlosser, Ralf; Shane, Howard; Lang, Russell; Paul, Diane; Benajee, Meher; Ireland, Marie (2018). "Systematic review of facilitated communication 2014–2018 finds no new evidence that messages delivered using facilitated communication are authored by the person with the disability". Autism and Developmental Language Impairments. 3: 239694151882157. doi:10.1177/2396941518821570.
- Lilienfeld; et al. "Why debunked autism treatment fads persist". Science Daily. Emory University. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
- Ganz, Jennifer B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Morin, Kristi L. (February 2017). "Facilitated Communication". Intervention in School and Clinic. 54: 52–56. doi:10.1177/1053451217692564.
- Stalker D, Glymour C, eds. (1989). Examining Holistic Medicine. Prometheus Books. p. 373. ISBN 9780879755539.
a system of exercise therapy developed in the 1940s by former judo instructor Moshe Feldenkrais
- Baggoley C (2015). "Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance" (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Lay summary – Gavura, S. Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies. Science-Based Medicine. (19 November 2015).
- Singh, S; Ernst, E (2009). Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial. Corgi.
- "Barry Beyerstein Q&A". Ask the Scientists. Scientific American Frontiers. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
they simply interpret the way we form these various features on the page in much the same way ancient oracles interpreted the entrails of oxen or smoke in the air. I.e., it's a kind of magical divination or fortune telling where 'like begets like.'
- "The use of graphology as a tool for employee hiring and evaluation". British Columbia Civil Liberties Union. 1988. Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
On the other hand, in properly controlled, blind studies, where the handwriting samples contain no content that could provide non-graphological information upon which to base a prediction (e.g., a piece copied from a magazine), graphologists do no better than chance at predicting the personality traits
- National Academy of Science (1999). Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, 2nd edition. National Academy Press. p. 48. doi:10.17226/6024. ISBN 978-0-309-06406-4. PMID 25101403.
- Thomas, John A. (2002). "Graphology Fact Sheet". North Texas Skeptics. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
In summary, then, it seems that graphology as currently practiced is a typical pseudoscience and has no place in character assessment or employment practice. There is no good scientific evidence to justify its use, and the graphologists do not seem about to come up with any.
- "Hypnosis". American Cancer Society. Archived from the original on 5 March 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
- Westen et al. 2006 "Psychology: Australian and New Zealand edition" John Wiley.
- Cathcart, Brian; Wilkie, Tom (18 December 1994). "Hypnotism does not exist, say experts". The Independent. London. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
- "NICE Guidance for IBS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2012.
- Nash, Michael R. "The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis". Scientific American: July 2001 Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Lynn, Steven Jay; Lock, Timothy; Loftus, Elizabeth; Krackow, Elisa; Lilienfeld, Scott O. (2003). "The remembrance of things past: problematic memory recovery techniques in psychotherapy". In Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Lohr, Jeffrey M. (eds.). Science and Pseudoscience in Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 219–20. ISBN 978-1-57230-828-2. "[H]ypnotically induced past life experiences are rule-governed, goal-directed fantasies that are context generated and sensitive to the demands of the hypnotic regression situation."
- "What is Hypnotherapy and How Does it Differ From Hypnosis?". Hypnos.info. 22 July 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- Robertson, Donald (2009). The Discovery of Hypnosis: The Complete Writings of James Braid, the Father of Hypnotherapy. UKCHH Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-9560570-0-6.
- Vickers, A; Zollman, C; Payne, DK (2001). "Hypnosis and relaxation therapies". West. J. Med. 175 (4): 269–72. doi:10.1136/ewjm.175.4.269. PMC 1071579. PMID 11577062.
Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that hypnosis, relaxation, and meditation techniques can reduce anxiety, particularly that related to stressful situations, such as receiving chemotherapy
- Whittaker, S. Secret attraction Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Montreal Gazette, 12 May 2007.
- Mary Carmichael & Ben Radford (29 March 2007). "CSI | Secrets and Lies". Csicop.org. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Kaptchuk, T.; Eisenberg, D. (1998). "The Persuasive Appeal of Alternative Medicine". Annals of Internal Medicine. 129 (12): 1061–65. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.694.4798. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-129-12-199812150-00011. PMID 9867762. S2CID 24942410.
- Polichak, James W. (2002). "Memes as Pseudoscience". In Shermer, Michael (ed.). Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. pp. 664f. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8.
- "Goodbye to MBTI, the Fad That Won't Die". Psychology Today. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Pittenger, David. "Measuring the MBTI... And Coming Up Short" (PDF). Psychology Today.
- Zurcher, Anthony (15 July 2014). "Debunking the Myers-Briggs personality test". BBC News. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Burnett, Dean (19 March 2013). "Nothing personal: The questionable Myers-Briggs test". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Eveleth, Rose. "The Myers-Briggs Personality Test Is Pretty Much Meaningless". Smithsonian. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- Thyer, Dr Bruce A.; Pignotti, Monica (15 May 2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Social Work Practice. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 50–51. ISBN 9780826177681.
- Boyle, Gregory J. (1 March 1995). "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Some Psychometric Limitations". Australian Psychologist. 30 (1): 71–74. doi:10.1111/j.1742-9544.1995.tb01750.x. ISSN 1742-9544. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- Hunsley, John; Catherine M. Lee; James M. Wood (2003). "Controversial and questionable assessment techniques". Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology: 39–76.
- Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Lohr, Jeffrey M. (1 October 2014). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. Guilford Publications. pp. 67–69. ISBN 9781462517510.
- Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Lynn, Steven Jay; Lohr, Jeffrey M. (1 October 2014). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. Guilford Publications. ISBN 978-1462517510.
- Tosey, P; Mathison, J (2006). "Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming" (PDF). Centre for Management Learning & Development, School of Management, University of Surrey.
- Dilts, R.; Grinder, J.; Delozier, J.; Bandler, R. (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I: The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience. Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-916990-07-7.
- Corballis, MC (1999). "Are we in our right minds?". In Sala, S (ed.). Mind Myths: Exploring Popular Assumptions About the Mind and Brain. Wiley, John & Sons. pp. 25–41. ISBN 978-0-471-98303-3.
- Drenth, P J D (1999). "Prometheus chained: Social and ethical constraints on psychology". European Psychologist. 4 (4): 233–39. doi:10.1027//1016-9040.4.4.233.
- Witkowski, Tomasz (2010). "Thirty-Five Years of Research on Neuro-Linguistic Programming. NLP Research Data Base. State of the Art or Pseudoscientific Decoration?". Polish Psychological Bulletin. 41 (2): 58–66. doi:10.2478/v10059-010-0008-0. S2CID 18838685.
- Stollznow, K (2010). "Not-so Linguistic Programming". Skeptic. 15 (4): 7.
- Lum, C (2001). Scientific Thinking in Speech and Language Therapy. Psychology Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8058-4029-2.
- von Bergen, C.W.; Gary, Barlow Soper; Rosenthal, T.; Wilkinson, Lamar V. (1997). "Selected alternative training techniques in HRD". Human Resource Development Quarterly. 8 (4): 281–94. doi:10.1002/hrdq.3920080403.
- Druckman, Daniel (November 2004). "Be All That You Can Be: Enhancing Human Performance". Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 34 (11): 2234–60(27). doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb01975.x.
- Sharpley, C.F. (1987). "Research Findings on Neuro-linguistic Programming: Non supportive Data or an Untestable Theory". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 34 (1): 103–07, 105. doi:10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.206.
- Devilly, GJ (2005). "Power therapies and possible threats to the science of psychology and psychiatry" (PDF). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 39 (6): 437–45. doi:10.1080/j.1440-1614.2005.01601.x. PMID 15943644. S2CID 208627667.
- Lilienfeld, S; Mohr, J; Morier, D (2001). "The Teaching of Courses in the Science and Pseudoscience of Psychology: Useful Resources". Teaching of Psychology. 28 (3): 182–91. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1001.2558. doi:10.1207/S15328023TOP2803_03. S2CID 145224099.
- Dunn. D.; Halonen. J; Smith. R. (2008). Teaching critical thinking in psychology : a handbook of best practices. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4051-7402-2. OCLC 214064173.
- Norcross; Koocher, Gerald P.; Garofalo, Ariele; et al. (2006). "Discredited Psychological Treatments and Tests: A Delphi Poll". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 37 (5): 515–22. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.37.5.515. S2CID 35414392.
- Norcross, John C.; Hogan, Thomas P.; Koocher, Gerald P. (2008). Clinician's Guide to Evidence-based Practices. US: Oxford University Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-19-533532-3.
- Glasner, Edwards. S.; Rawson., R. (June 2010). "Evidence-based practices in addiction treatment: review and recommendations for public policy". Health Policy. 97 (2–3): 93–104. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.05.013. PMC 2951979. PMID 20557970.
- Schmidt, Helmut (1969). "Clairvoyance Tests with a Machine'". Journal of Parapsychology. 33.
- Schmidt, Helmut (1970). "PK Experiments with Animals as Subjects". Journal of Parapsychology. 34.
- Schmidt, Helmut (1973). "PK Tests with a High Speed Random Number Generator". Journal of Parapsychology. 37.
- Wooffitt, Robin; Holt, Nicola (23 November 2011). Looking in and Speaking Out: Introspection, Consciousness, Communication. Andrews UK Limited. p. 32. ISBN 9781845403355.
- Magendie, F. (1844). "IV". An Elementary Treatise on Human Physiology. Translated by John Revere (5th ed.). New York: Harper. p. 150.
- Fodor, J. A. (1983). The Modularity of Mind. MIT Press. pp. 14, 23, 131.
- Reid, J.E.; Inbau, F.E. (1977). Truth and deception: The polygraph (lie-detector) techique. Williams & Wilkins.
- "ICSU Insight". International Council for Science. 2005. Archived from the original on 21 July 2006.
- Iacono, W.G. (2001). "Forensic 'lie detection': Procedures without scientific basis". Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice. 1 (1): 75–86. doi:10.1300/J158v01n01_05. S2CID 143077241.
- Saxe, Leonard; Dougherty, Denise; Cross, Theodore (1983). "Scientific Validity of Polygraph Testing: A Research Review and Evaluation". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- Adelson, R. (July 2004). "Monitor on Psychology – The polygraph in doubt". 35 (7). American Psychological Association: 71. Retrieved 29 February 2008. Cite journal requires
- Bassett, James. "Polygraph Testing". Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- Vergano, Dan (9 September 2002). "Telling the truth about lie detectors". USA Today. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- "Homepage". The Janov Primal Center. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- Moore, Timothy (2001). "Primal Therapy". Gale Group. Archived from the original on 27 June 2008.
- Sadock, Benjamin J. and Sadock, Virginia A. Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry. 10th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, 190.
- Michels, Robert. "Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry: A Changing Relationship", American Mental Health Foundation, archived 6 June 2009.
- Merkin, Daphne (5 September 2004). "Psychoanalysis: Is It Science or Is It Toast?". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- Cioffi, Frank (1985). "Psychoanalysis, Pseudo-Science and Testability". In Currie, Gregory; Musgrave, Alan (eds.). Popper and the Human Sciences. Nijhoff International Philosophy Series. SpringerVerlag. pp. 13–44. ISBN 978-90-247-2998-2.
- Popper, K. R. (1990). "Science: Conjectures and Refutations". In Grim, P (ed.). Philosophy of Science and the Occult. Albany. pp. 104–10.
- Cioffi, Frank (1985). "Psychoanalysis, Pseudo-Science and Testability". In Currie, Gregory; Musgrave, Alan (eds.). Popper and the human sciences. Springer. ISBN 978-90-247-2998-2.. Reprinted in Cioffi, Frank (1998). Freud and the question of pseudoscience. Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9385-0.
- Reich, Walter. The world of Soviet psychiatry. The New York Times. 30 January 1983 accessdate=1
- "Business (Subliminal Advertising)". The Urban Legends Reference Pages. Retrieved 11 August 2006.
- Pratkanis, A. R.; Greenwald, A. G. (1988). "Recent perspectives on unconscious processing: Still no marketing applications". Psychology and Marketing. 5 (4): 337–53. doi:10.1002/mar.4220050405.
- Gould, Stephen Jay (1981). The Mismeasure of Man. W W Norton and Co. ISBN 978-0-393-01489-1.
Few tragedies can be more extensive than the stunting of life, few injustices deeper than the denial of an opportunity to strive or even to hope, by a limit imposed from without, but falsely identified as lying within.
- Kurtz, Paul (September 2004). "Can the Sciences Help Us to Make Wise Ethical Judgments?". Skeptical Inquirer. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
There have been abundant illustrations of pseudoscientific theories-monocausal theories of human behavior that were hailed as "scientific"-that have been applied with disastrous results. Examples: [...] Many racists today point to IQ to justify a menial role for blacks in society and their opposition to affirmative action.
- Regal, Brian. 2009. Pseudoscience: a critical encyclopedia Greenwood Press. pp. 27–29
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Aryan. "This notion, which had been repudiated by anthropologists by the second quarter of the 20th century, was seized upon by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis and made the basis of the German government policy of exterminating Jews, Gypsies, and other 'non-Aryans.'".
- White, Kevin (2002). An introduction to the sociology of health and illness. SAGE. pp. 41, 42. ISBN 0-7619-6400-2.
- Caplan, Arthur; McCartney, James; Sisti, Dominic (2004). Health, disease, and illness: concepts in medicine. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 1-58901-014-0.
- Pilgrim, David (November 2005). "Question of the Month: Drapetomania". Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- De Montellano, B. R. (1993). "Afrocentricity, Melanin, and Pseudoscience". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 36: 33–58. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330360604.
- Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. (17 December 2006). "Afrocentric Pseudoscience: The Miseducation of African Americans". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 775 (1 Phagocytes): 561–72. Bibcode:1996NYASA.775..561O. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb23174.x. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013.
- White, Jenny (2014). Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks: Updated Edition. Princeton University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0691161921.
- "Atatürk's sun language theory, or how all languages derive from Turkish – Lexiophiles". Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Ruse, Michael (2013). "Evolution". In Pigliucci, Massimo; Boudry, Maarten (eds.). Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 239–43. ISBN 978-0-226-05182-6.
For the first one hundred and fifty years evolution was – and was seen to be – a pseudoscience.
- Pigliucci, Massimo (April 2011). "Evolution as pseudoscience?".
Ruse's somewhat surprising yet intriguing claim is that "before Charles Darwin, evolution was an epiphenomenon of the ideology of [social] progress, a pseudoscience and seen as such..."
- statement from the Russian Academy of Sciences.
- Fraknoi, Andrew (October 2009). "The 'Great Moon Hoax': Did Astronauts Land on the Moon?". Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (2006). Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism. Leiden: Brill. p. 857. ISBN 9789004152311.
- Hammer 2001, p. 55. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHammer2001 (help)
- Hines, Terence (2002). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2nd ed.). Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1573929794.
- Scheiber, Béla; Selby, Carla (2000). Therapeutic Touch. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 275. ISBN 1573928046.
- Mann, Johathan (30 August 2002). "They call it cerealogy". CNN. Insight. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- Prothero, Donald R.; Buell, Carl Dennis (2007). Evolution. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-231-13962-5.
- "Parapsychological Association website, Glossary of Key Words Frequently Used in Parapsychology". Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2006.
- Alcock, James E. "Electronic Voice Phenomena:Voices of the Dead?". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 8 March 2007.
- Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). The Skeptic's Dictionary. Wiley Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7.
- Shermer, Michael (May 2005). "Turn Me On, Dead Man". Scientific American. 292 (5): 37. Bibcode:2005SciAm.292e..37S. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0505-37. PMID 15882018.
- Hines, Terrence (1988). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal: A Critical Examination of the Evidence. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-419-8.
Thagard (1978) op cit 223 ff
- "Parapsychological Association website, Glossary of Key Words Frequently Used in Parapsychology". Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2006.
- extrasensory perception. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
- National Science Foundation (2002). "ch. 7". Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ISBN 978-0-16-066579-0. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
Belief in pseudoscience is relatively widespread...At least half of the public believes in the existence of extrasensory perception (ESP).
- Cohen, Howard (19 September 2009). "Ghost hunters say Deering Estate is ground zero for lost spirits". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010.
- Radford, Benjamin (27 October 2006). "The Shady Science of Ghost Hunting". LiveScience. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
- "Study: No Scientific Basis for Vampires, Ghosts". Washington: Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 26 October 2006.
- Regal, Brian. (2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia. Greenwood. pp. 43; 75–77. ISBN 978-0-313-35507-3
- "Relationships Between Science and Pseudoscience". Science and Engineering Indicators, 2002. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Dr Olu Jenzen; Professor Sally R Munt (28 January 2014). The Ashgate Research Companion to Paranormal Cultures. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 197–. ISBN 978-1-4724-0612-5.
- Hill, Sharon (March–April 2012). "Amateur Paranormal Research and Investigation Groups Doing 'Sciencey' Things". Skeptical Inquirer. Vol. 36 no. 2. Retrieved 26 February 2015 – via Csicop.org.
- Radford, Benjamin. "Ghost-hunting mistakes: science and pseudoscience in ghost investigations". Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Schmaltz, Rodney (25 April 2014). "Battling Psychics and Ghosts: The Need for Scientific Skepticism". HuffPost. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Campbell, Hank (27 August 2014). "Think Pseudoscience Isn't Dangerous? Ghost Hunter Looking For Ghost Train Killed By Real One". Science 2.0. ION Publications. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Potts, John; James Houran (2004). Ghost Hunting in the Twenty-First Century (From Shaman to scientist: essays on humanity's search for spirits). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810850545. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
- "Levitation". Skeptic's Dictionary.
- Vernon, David (1989). "Palmistry". In Laycock, Donald; Vernon, David; Groves, Colin; Brown, Simon (eds.). Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Canberra: Imagecraft. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7316-5794-0.
- Randi, James (1989). The Faith Healers. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-535-5.
- Vernon, David (1989). Laycock, Donald; Vernon, David; Groves, Colin; Brown, Simon (eds.). Skeptical – a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Canberra: Imagecraft. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7316-5794-0.
- "Psychic surgery". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 40 (3): 184–88. 1990. doi:10.3322/canjclin.40.3.184. PMID 2110023.
- Carroll, Robert Todd. "Psychic Surgery". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 28 July 2007.
- "Psychic surgeon charged". The Filipino Reporter. 17–23 June 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2007.
- Vyse, Stuart A. (1997). Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition. Oxford University Press US. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-19-513634-0.
[M]ost scientists, both psychologists and physicists, agree that it has yet to be convincingly demonstrated.
- Carroll, Robert Todd. "Rumplogy for Dummies". The Skeptic's Dictionary.
- Stableford, Brian M (2006). Science fact and science fiction: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-97460-8.
- "Russian Alien Spaceship Claims Raise Eyebrows, Skepticism", Robert Roy Britt, SPACE.com
- The Universe. Life. LIFE Science Library. 1970.
- "Statement of the position of the Iowa Academy of Science on Pseudoscience" (PDF). Iowa Academy of Science. July 1986. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2007.
- National Science Foundation (2002). "ch. 7". Science and Engineering Indicators. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. ISBN 978-0-7567-2369-9. Archived from the original on 16 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
Belief in pseudoscience is relatively widespread... A sizable minority of the public believes in UFOs and that aliens have landed on Earth.
- Webb, John (2001). "Feminist Numerology". Science in Africa. Archived from the original on 28 December 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Underwood Dudley (1997). Numerology. MAA. ISBN 978-0-88385-507-2.
- Carroll RT (23 February 2009). "neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- Lynne Kelly (2004). The Skeptic's Guide to the Paranormal. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74114-059-0.
- Edwin, Sherman R. (2004). Bible Code Bombshell: Compelling Scientific Evidence That God Authored the Bible. Green Forest, AR: New Leaf Press. pp. 95–109. ISBN 978-1-4184-9326-4.
- Sagan, Carl (1996). "Does Truth Matter? Science, Pseudoscience, and Civilization" (PDF). Skeptical Inquirer. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014.
- Zaleski, Philip; Carol Zaleski (2006). Prayer: A History. Mariner Books. p. 322. ISBN 0-618-77360-6.
- Inge, M. Thomas (1989). Handbook of American Popular Culture. Greenwood Press. p. 1256. ISBN 0-313-25406-0.
- Stenger, Victor J (Spring–Summer 1999). "Bioenergetic Fields". The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine. 3 (1). Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Smith, Jonathan C. (2010). Pseudoscience and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal: A Critical Thinker's Toolkit. Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 268–74. ISBN 9781405181228.
- "energy – (according to New Age thinking)". The Skeptic's Dictionary. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- "Some Notes on Wilhelm Reich, M.D". Quackwatch.org. 15 February 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Jarvis, William T. (1 December 2000). "Reiki". National Council Against Health Fraud. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Parkins, Michael D.; Szekrenyes, J. (March 2001). "Pharmacological Practices of Ancient Egypt" (PDF). Proceedings of the 10th Annual History of Medicine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
- Religious outsiders and the making of Americans Robert Laurence Moore; Oxford University Press 1986, p. 223
- Gottschalk, S. (1973). The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life. University of California Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0520023086.
- Fraknoi, Andrew (October 2009). "Astronomical Aspects of Creationism and Intelligent Design". Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
- Williams, J. D. (2007). "Creationist Teaching in School Science: A UK Perspective". Evolution: Education and Outreach. 1 (1): 87–88. doi:10.1007/s12052-007-0006-7.
- National Academy of Science (1999). Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences, 2nd edition. National Academy Press. doi:10.17226/6024. ISBN 978-0-309-06406-4. PMID 25101403.
- Such as the existence of the geologic column; see Morton, Glenn. "The Geologic Column and its Implications for the Flood". TalkOrigins Archive.
- Young, Davis A. (1995). The biblical Flood: a case study of the Church's response to extrabiblical evidence. Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-8028-0719-9. Archived from the original on 31 March 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
- Isaak, Mark (2007). "Creationist claim CD750". p. 173.
Much geological evidence is incompatible with catastrophic plate tectonics.
- Fagan, Brian M.; Beck, Charlotte (1996). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Cline, Eric H. (2009). Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-974107-6. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Feder, Kenneth L. (2010). Encyclopedia of Dubious Archaeology: From Atlantis to the Walam Olum. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-37919-2. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- Rickard, Bob; Michell, John (2000). "Arkeology". Unexplained Phenomena: A Rough Guide Special. London: Rough Guides. pp. 179–83. ISBN 978-1-85828-589-4.
- "Questions About Intelligent Design: What is the theory of intelligent design?". Discovery Institute, Center for Science and Culture.
The theory of intelligent design holds that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection.
- Jones, John (2005).
In making this determination, we have addressed the seminal question of whether ID is science. We have concluded that it is not, and moreover that ID cannot uncouple itself from its creationist, and thus religious, antecedents..
- "We therefore find that Professor Behe's claim for irreducible complexity has been refuted in peer-reviewed research papers and has been rejected by the scientific community at large." [[s:Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District/4:Whether ID Is Science#Page 79 of 139 |Ruling, Judge John E. Jones III, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District]]
- Mu, David (Fall 2005). "Trojan Horse or Legitimate Science: Deconstructing the Debate over Intelligent Design" (PDF). Harvard Science Review. 19 (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2007.
- Shulman, Seth (2006). Undermining science: suppression and distortion in the Bush Administration. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-520-24702-4.
True in this latest creationist variant, advocates of so-called intelligent design [...] use more slick, pseudoscientific language. They talk about things like 'irreducible complexity' [...] For most members of the mainstream scientific community, ID is not a scientific theory, but a creationist pseudoscience.
- Perakh, M (Summer 2005). "Why Intelligent Design Isn't Intelligent – Review of: Unintelligent Design". Cell Biol. Educ. 4 (2): 121–22. doi:10.1187/cbe.05-02-0071. PMC 1103713.
- Decker., Mark D. "Frequently Asked Questions About the Texas Science Textbook Adoption Controversy". College of Biological Sciences, General Biology Program, University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on 30 September 2010.
The Discovery Institute and ID proponents have a number of goals that they hope to achieve using disingenuous and mendacious methods of marketing, publicity, and political persuasion. They do not practice real science because that takes too long, but mainly because this method requires that one have actual evidence and logical reasons for one's conclusions, and the ID proponents just don't have those. If they had such resources, they would use them, and not the disreputable methods they actually use.
- Gardner, Martin (1957). "Chapter 22". Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2.
- Farley, Robert (30 March 2003). "Detox center seeks acceptance". St Petersburg Times.
When Narconon opened its Chilocco facility in 1991, the Oklahoma Board of Mental Health issued a blistering assessment in denying its application for certification. "There is no credible evidence establishing the effectiveness of the Narconon program to its patients," the board concluded. It attacked the program as medically unsafe; dismissed the sauna program as unproven; and criticized Narconon for inappropriately taking some patients off prescribed psychiatric medication.
- Robert W. Welkos; Joel Sappell (27 June 1990). "Church Seeks Influence in Schools, Business, Science". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
A fourth article did not mention Hubbard by name, but reported favorably on Narconon, his drug and alcohol rehabilitation program, which is run by Scientologists.
- Kyle Smith (20 April 2007). "DON'T BE TRICKED BY $CI-FI TOM-FOOLERY". New York Post.
Those who want a tan from his celebrity glow will urge a fair hearing for his quackery. Obscure City Councilman Hiram Monserrate suddenly finds himself talked about after issuing a proclamation of huzzahs for L. Ron Hubbard. Three: The Ground Zero maladies are so baffling that workers will try anything. Anyone who feels better will credit any placebo at hand – whether Cruise or the Easter Bunny. In 1991, Time called Scientology's anti-drug program "Narconon" a "vehicle for drawing addicts into the cult" – which the magazine said "invented hundreds of goods and services for which members are urged to give up 'donations' " – such as $1,250 for advice on "moving swiftly up the Bridge" of enlightenment. That's New Age techno-gobbledygook for advice on buying swiftly up the Bridge of Brooklyn. Scientology fronts such as the New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project – its Web site immediately recognizable as the work of Hubbardites by its logo, which looks like the cover of a Robert Heinlein paperback from 1971 – hint that their gimmicks might possibly interest anyone dreaming of weight loss, higher I.Q. or freedom from addiction. And you might be extra-specially interested if you've faced heart disease, cancer, Agent Orange or Chernobyl. As Mayor Bloomberg put it, Scientology "is not science." Nope. It's science fiction.
- "30 arrested in Paris crackdown on Scientologists". Agence France-Presse. 14 January 1992.
About 30 Scientologists were arrested – and 19 of them later indicted – between May and October 1990 on charges of fraud, conspiracy to defraud and the illegal practice of medicine following the 1988 suicide of a church member in Lyon, eastern France. [...] The sect has often found itself in trouble with officialdom the world over, accused of defrauding and brainwashing followers and, in France, of quackery at its illegal anti-drug clinics called "Narconon."
- Abgrall, Jean-Marie (2001). Healing Or Stealing?: Medical Charlatans in the New Age. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-892941-51-0. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
Narconon, a subsidiary of Scientology, and the association "Yes to Life, No to Drugs" have also made a specialty of the fight against drugs and treating drug addicts. [...] Drug addicts are just one of the Scientologists' targets for recruitment. The offer of care and healing through techniques derived from dianetics is only a come-on. The detoxification of the patient by means of "dianetics purification" is more a matter of manipulation, through the general weakening that it causes; it is a way of brainwashing the subject. Frequently convicted for illegal practice of medicine, violence, fraud and slander, the Scientologists have more and more trouble getting people to accept their techniques as effective health measures, as they like to claim. They recommend their purification processes to eliminate X-rays and nuclear radiation, and to treat goiter and warts, hypertension and psoriasis, hemorrhoids and myopia... why would anyone find that hard to swallow? Scientology has built a library of several hundreds of volumes of writings exalting the effects of purification, and its disciples spew propaganda based on irresponsible medical writings by doctors who are more interested in the support provided by Scientology than in their patients' well-being. On the other hand, responsible scientific reviews have long since "eliminated" dianetics and purification from the lists of therapies – relegating them to the great bazaar of medical fraud. [...] Medical charlatans do not base their claims on scientific proof but, quite to the contrary, on peremptory assertions – the kind of assertions that they challenge when they come out of the mouths of those who defend "real" medicine.
- Asimov, Nanette (2 October 2004). "Church's drug program flunks S.F. test / Panel of experts finds Scientology's Narconon lectures outdated, inaccurate". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
The program, Narconon Drug Prevention & Education, "often exemplifies the outdated, non-evidence-based and sometimes factually inaccurate approach, which has not served students well for decades," concluded Steve Heilig, director of health and education for the San Francisco Medical Society. In his letter to Trish Bascom, director of health programs for the San Francisco Unified School District, Heilig said five independent experts in the field of drug abuse had helped him evaluate Narconon's curriculum. [...] "One of our reviewers opined that 'this (curriculum) reads like a high school science paper pieced together from the Internet, and not very well at that,' " Heilig wrote Bascom. "Another wrote that 'my comments will be brief, as this proposal hardly merits detailed analysis.' Another stated, 'As a parent, I would not want my child to participate in this kind of 'education.' " Heilig's team evaluated Narconon against a recent study by Rodney Skager, a professor emeritus at UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, describing what good anti-drug programs should offer students. "We concurred that [...] the Narconon materials focus on some topics of lesser importance to the exclusion of best knowledge and practices," Heilig wrote, and that the curriculum contained "factual errors in basic concepts such as physical and mental effects, addiction and even spelling."
- Asimov, Nanette (27 March 2005). "Doctors back schools dropping flawed antidrug program". San Francisco Chronicle.
The California Medical Association has declared unanimous support for school districts that have dropped Narconon and other "factually inaccurate approaches" to antidrug instruction from their classrooms, and will urge the American Medical Association to do the same. Nearly 500 California doctors also endorsed "scientifically based drug education in California schools"
- "Families question Scientology-linked drug rehab after recent deaths". NBC Rock Center. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Town Welcomes, Then Questions a Drug Project". The New York Times. 17 July 1989. p. A13.
- "Transcendental Meditation". Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
- Dalton, Rex (8 July 1993). "Sharp HealthCare announces an unorthodox, holistic institute". The San Diego Union – Tribune. p. B.4.5.1.
TM is a movement led by Maharishi Mehesh Yogi, ...
- Krisanaprakornkit, T.; Krisanaprakornkit, W.; Piyavhatkul, N.; Laopaiboon, M. (2006). Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai (ed.). "Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004998. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004998.pub2. PMID 16437509. S2CID 30878081.
The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety
- Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (June 2007). "Meditation practices for health: state of the research". Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) (155): 1–263. PMC 4780968. PMID 17764203.
Scientific research on meditation practices does not appear to have a common theoretical perspective and is characterized by poor methodological quality. Firm conclusions on the effects of meditation practices in healthcare cannot be drawn based on the available evidence.
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2004). "Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Journal of Hypertension. 22 (11): 2049–54. doi:10.1097/00004872-200411000-00002. PMID 15480084. S2CID 22171451.
All the randomized clinical trials of TM for the control of blood pressure published to date have important methodological weaknesses and are potentially biased by the affiliation of authors to the TM organization.
- Krisanaprakornkit T, Ngamjarus C, Witoonchart C, Piyavhatkul N (2010). Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai (ed.). "Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6 (6): CD006507. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2. PMC 6823216. PMID 20556767.
As a result of the limited number of included studies, the small sample sizes and the high risk of biasCS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Canter PH, Ernst E (November 2003). "The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function—a systematic review of randomised controlled trials". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 115 (21–22): 758–66. doi:10.1007/BF03040500. PMID 14743579. S2CID 20166373.
All 4 positive trials recruited subjects from among people favourably predisposed towards TM, and used passive control procedures ... The association observed between positive outcome, subject selection procedure and control procedure suggests that the large positive effects reported in 4 trials result from an expectation effect. The claim that TM has a specific and cumulative effect on cognitive function is not supported by the evidence from randomized controlled trials.
- Park, Robert L (2000). p. 39. ISBN 978-0-19-860443-3.
[People] long to be told that modern science validates the teachings of some ancient scripture or New Age guru. The purveyors of pseudoscience have been quick to exploit their ambivalence.
- Stenger, Victor J. (January 1997). "Quantum Quackery". Skeptical Inquirer. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
Capra's book was an inspiration for the New Age, and "quantum" became a buzzword used to buttress the trendy, pseudoscientific spirituality that characterizes this movement.
- Gell-Mann, Murray (1995). The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and Complex. Macmillan. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-8050-7253-2.
Then the conclusion has been drawn that quantum mechanics permits faster-than-light communication, and even tha claimed "paranormal" phenomena like precognition are thereby made respectable! How can this have happened?
- Kuttner, Fred; Rosenblum, Bruce (November 2006). "Teaching physics mysteries versus pseudoscience". Physics Today. 59 (11): 14–16. Bibcode:2006PhT....59k..14K. doi:10.1063/1.2435631. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
We should not underestimate how persuasively physics can be invoked to buttress mystical notions. We physicists bear some responsibility for the way our discipline is exploited.
- Bell, J. S. (1988). Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-521-52338-7.
So I think it is not right to tell the public that a central role for conscious mind is integrated into modern atomic physics. Or that 'information' is the real stuff of physical theory. It seems to me irresponsible to suggest that technical features of contemporary theory were anticipated by the saints of ancient religions [...] by introspection.
- Hawks JD (4 August 2009). "Why anthropologists don't accept the Aquatic Ape Theory" (Blog post).
- Martin Gardner (1957). Fads And Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover Publications. pp. 69–79. ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2.
- Shermer, Michael. "Rupert's Resonance". Scientific American. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- Nye, M.J. (1980). "N-rays: An episode in the history and psychology of science". Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences. 11 (1): 125–56. doi:10.2307/27757473. JSTOR 27757473.
- Goldacre, Ben (27 January 2005). "Testing the water". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media, Ltd. Retrieved 29 April 2008.
- Water Cluster Quackery. The junk science of structure-altered waters, Stephen Lower
- Rousseau, Denis L. (January 1992). "Case Studies in Pathological Science". American Scientist. 80 (1): 54–63. Bibcode:1992AmSci..80...54R.
- Pang, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Yuan-Ping (2005). Quantum Mechanics in Nonlinear Systems. World Scientific. p. 579. ISBN 978-9812567789. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "The Time Cube: Absolute Proof?" (PDF).
- Dvorak, John C. (22 December 2003). "Don't Call Them Crackpots". PC Magazine.
- "Truth is cubic?", by Kate Duffy,The Phoenix, Swarthmore College, 19 September 2002. Archived by the Internet Archive, archive copy retrieved 25 July 2010.
- Dynamics of Hyperspace
- Meyer, Peter (2006). "The Timewave: The Zero Date" (blog). Retrieved 20 July 2018.
- Бялко, А. В. [A. V.]. "Торсионные мифы" [Torsion Myths]. Природа [Priroda] (in Russian). 1998 (9): 93–102.
- "Quantum Mechanics and Some Surprises of Creation" (PDF). The Phoenix Project. 5 (12): 8–10. 14 June 1994.
- Boyd, R. N. "Reduction of Physiological Effects of Alcohol Abuse By Substitution of a Harmless Alcohol Surrogate Created by Application of a Spin Field". Application to NIH Alcohol Abuse Center.
- Sarfatti, J.; Sirag, S.-P. (2000). "Star Gate Anholonomic Topology-Changing Post-Einstein Geometrodynamics" (PDF). stardrive.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007.