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In heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of a substance, k, is an intensive property that indicates its ability to conduct heat.

Thermal conductivity is often measured with laser flash analysis. Alternative measurements are also established.

Mixtures may have variable thermal conductivities due to composition. Note that for gases in usual conditions, heat transfer by advection (caused by convection or turbulence for instance) is the dominant mechanism compared to conduction.

This table shows thermal conductivity in SI units of watts per metre-kelvin (W·m−1·K−1). Some measurements use the imperial unit BTUs per foot per hour per degree Fahrenheit (1 BTU h−1 ft−1 F−1 = 1.728 W·m−1·K−1).[1]

Contents

Sortable listEdit

This concerns materials at atmospheric pressure and around 293 K (20 °C).

Material Thermal conductivity [W·m−1·K−1] Notes
Acrylic glass (Plexiglas V045i) 0.170[2]–0.200[3]
Alcohols, oils 0.100[4][5]
Aluminium 237[6]
Alumina 30[7] For main article, see Aluminum oxide.
Boron arsenide 1,300[8]
Copper (pure) 401[4][9][10] For main article, see Copper in heat exchangers.
Diamond 1,000[4]-2200
Fiberglass or foam-glass 0.045[5]
Polyurethane foam 0.03[4]
Expanded polystyrene 0.033–0.046[11]
Manganese 7.810[4] Lowest thermal conductivity of any pure metal.
Water 0.5918[12]
Marble 2.070–2.940[4][13]
Silica aerogel 0.02[4]
Snow (dry) 0.050[4]–0.250[4]
Teflon 0.250[4]
Material Thermal conductivity [W·m−1·K−1] Notes

Analytical listEdit

Thermal conductivities have been measured with longitudinal heat flow methods where the experimental arrangement is so designed to accommodate heat flow in only the axial direction, temperatures are constant, and radial heat loss is prevented or minimized. For the sake of simplicity the conductivities that are found by that method in all of its variations are noted as L conductivities, those that are found by radial measurements of the sort are noted as R conductivities, and those that are found from periodic or transient heat flow are distinguished as P conductivities. Numerous variations of all of the above and various other methods have been discussed by some G. K. White, M. J. Laubits, D. R. Flynn, B. O. Peirce and R. W. Wilson and various other theorists who are noted in an international Data Series from Purdue University, Volume I pages 14a–38a.[6]

This concerns materials at various temperatures and pressures.

Note: As of February 18, 2019 this list lines up in Google Chrome but it does not align in Microsoft Edge.

Material Thermal conductivity [W·m−1·K−1] Temperature [K] Electrical conductivity @ 293 K
[Ω−1·m−1]
Notes
Acrylic glass (Plexiglas V045i) 0.17[2]-0.19[2]-0.2[3] 296[2] 7.143E-15[2] - 5.0E-14[2] Note: There are no negative conductivities and the symbols that could be read that way are hyphens to separate various estimates and measurements.
Air and thin air and high tech vacuums, macrostructure 0.024[4][14][15]-0.025[5]
0.0262 (1 bar)[16]
0.0457 (1 bar)[16]

Formula values
d=1 centimeter
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
0.0209
0.0235
0.0260
List[17]
0.1 atmosphere
0.0209
0.0235
0.0260
0.01 atmospheres
0.0209
0.0235
0.0259
0.001 atmospheres
0.0205
0.0230
0.0254
0.0001 atmospheres
0.0178
0.0196
0.0212
10−5atmospheres
0.00760
0.00783
0.00800
10−6atmospheres
0.00113
0.00112
0.00111
10−7atmospheres
0.000119
0.000117
0.000115
List
[18]
273[14][15]-293[5]-298[4]
300[16]
600[16]




233.2
266.5
299.9


233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9


hiAerosols2.95[19]-loAerosols7.83[19]×10−15 (78.03%N2,21%O2,+0.93%Ar,+0.04%CO2) (1 atm)

The plate distance is one centimeter, the special conductivity values were calculated from the Lasance approximation formula in The Thermal conductivity of Air at Reduced Pressures and Length Scales[18] and the primary values were taken from Weast at the normal pressure tables in the CRC handbook on page E2.[17]

Let K0 is the normal conductivity at one bar (105 N/m2) pressure, Ke is its conductivity at special pressure and/or length scale. Let d is a plate distance in meters, P is an air pressure in Pascals (N/m2), T is temperature Kelvin, C is this Lasance constant 7.6 ⋅ 10−5 mK/N and PP is the product P ⋅ d/T. The Lasance approximation formula is Ke/K0 = 1/(1+C/PP).
Some readers might find the notation confusing since mK tends to look like it might be milliKelvins when it is really meterKelvins (which no one ever heard of) and also he puts a one at the end so that it goes Ke/K0 = 1/(1+C/PP)(1). Eventually you can find out from his graph that the (1) at the end is not part of his formula and instead he is citing his graph.
Air and thin air and high tech vacuums, microstructure Formula Values
d=1 millimeter
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
0.0209
0.0235
0.0260
0.1 atmosphere
0.0209
0.0235
0.0259
0.01 atmospheres
0.0205
0.0230
0.0254
0.001 atmospheres
0.0178
0.0196
0.0212
0.0001 atmospheres
0.00760
0.00783
0.00800
10−5 atmospheres
0.00113
0.00112
0.00111
10−6 atmospheres
0.000119
0.000117
0.000115
10−7 atmospheres
0.0000119
0.0000117
0.0000116
List[18]



233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

233.2
266.5
299.9

All values calculated from the Lasance formula: Lasance, Clemens J., "The Thermal Conductivity of Air at Reduced Pressures and Length Scales," Electronics Cooling, November 2002.[18] Plate separation = one millimeter.
Air, standard air 0.00922
0.01375
0.01810
0.02226
0.02614
0.02970
0.03305
0.03633
0.03951
0.0456
0.0513
0.0569
0.0625
0.0672
0.0717
0.0759
0.0797
0.0835
0.0870
List, TPRC 3, pp 511–12[12]
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500

If maybe there is any big difference between wet air and dry air then it was not known to the Thermophysical Properties Research Center in Indiana where they never talked about the thermal conductivity of the air in Galveston Oh Galveston. This is their standard air. Volume 3, pp 511–12.[12]
Air, typical air 30°N January
Sea Level: 0.02535
1000 meters: 0.02509
2000 meters: 0.02483
3000 meters: 0.02429
30°N July
Sea Level: 0.02660
1000 meters: 0.02590
2000 meters: 0.02543
3000 meters: 0.02497
60°N January
Sea Level: 0.02286
1000 meters: 0.02302
2000 meters: 0.02276
3000 meters: 0.02250
List USSAS pp 103, 107 &123[20]

288.52
285.25
281.87
275.14

304.58
295.59
289.56
283.75

257.28
259.31
256.08
252.85

TPRC standard air is very nearly equivalent to typical air worldwide.
Air, wet air ≈Typical Air Unlike a school bus driver in New England who is quite sure that cold wet air is colder than cold dry air the USGS has a thermal conductivity where it goes W/(m⋅K) and also an interface heat transfer coefficient which has W/(m2⋅K) and all of this sort of business would lead you to think that by the time they get all done the creditable conductivities are probably those that had been measured through interfaces of negligible consequence. Robertson Page 92[21]
Air in motor windings at normal pressure, Lasance approximations 360 Kelvins
10−2 meters: 0.03039
10−3 meters: 0.03038
10−4 meters: 0.03031
10−5 meters: 0.02959
List, TPRC Vol 3 page 512.[12][18]


360
Lasance approximations are hardly significant in heat transfer through motor windings.

Another investigator has reported some high values for the thermal conductivity of some metal air laminates both varnished and otherwise. See Taylor, T.S., Elec. World Vol 76 (24), 1159–62, 1920 in TPRC Data Series Vol 2, pp 1037–9.[22]
Alcohols or oils 0.1[4][5]-0.110[23]-0.21[4][5]-0.212[23] 293[5]-298[4]-300[23]
Aluminium,[24] alloy Mannchen 1931:
92% Aluminum, 8% Magnesium
Cast L
72.8
100.0
126.4
139.8

Annealed L
76.6
104.6
120.1
135.6

88%Aluminium, 12% Magnesium
Cast
56.1
77.4
101.3
118.4

Mever-Rassler 1940:
93.0% Aluminium, 7.0% Magnesium
108.7
List[6]


87
273
373
476


87
273
373
476



87
273
373
476



348.2
Mannchen, W., Z Metalik..23, 193-6, 1931 in TPRC Volume 1 pages 478, 479 and 1447.

Mever-Rassler. The Mever-Rassler alloy has a density of 2.63 g cm−1. Mever-Rassler, F., Metallwirtschaft. 19, 713-21, 1940 in Volume 1 pages 478, 479 and 1464.[6]

Aluminium,[24] pure 204.3[25]-205[14]-220[26]-237[5][9][27][28]-250[4]
214.6[25]
249.3[25]
CRC Aluminum
99.996+% Pure Aluminum
780
1550
2320
3080
3810
4510
5150
5730
6220
6610
6900
7080
7150
7130
7020
6840
6350
5650
4000
2850
2100
1600
1250
1000
670
500
400
340
300
247
237
235
236
237
240
240
237
232
226
220
213
List[17]
293[5][25]-298[4][9][28]
366[25]
478[25]



1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
150
200
250
273
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900


37,450,000[28] - 37,740,000[29]

Cryogenic: up to 1.858 ⋅ 1011 at 4.2 K.[30][6]

Formula Values
3.85 ⋅ 107 at 273.15K; 3.45 ⋅ 107 at 300K; 2.50 ⋅ 107 at 400K.[31]

This material is superconductive (electrical) at temperatures below 1.183 Kelvins. Weast page E-78[17]
Aluminum,[24] ultrapure TPRC Aluminum
99.9999% Pure Aluminum
4102
8200
12100
15700
18800
21300
22900
23800
24000
23500
22700
20200
17600
11700
7730
3180[?]
2380
1230
754
532
414
344
302
248
237
236
237
240
237
232
226
220
213
List[6]


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
150
200
273.2
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

These are not measured values.

Very high thermal conductivity measurements up to 22,600 w m−1 K−1 were reported by Fenton, E.W., Rogers, J.S. and Woods, S.D. in some journal of Physics which has its name blurred up in reference 570 on page 1458, 41, 2026–33, 1963. The data is listed on pages 6 through 8 and graphed on page 1 where Fenton and company are on curves 63 and 64.

Next the government smoothed out the curve and their recommended values are listed and graphed on page 9.

Thermophysical Properties Research Center. Performing Organization: Purdue University. Controlling Organization: Defense Logistics Agency. Documented summaries from numerous scientific journals and etc. and critical estimates. 17000 pages in 13 volumes.

Aluminium nitride 170[27]-175[32]-190[32] 293[32] 1×10^−11[32]
Aluminium oxide Pure 26[33]-30[5]-35[33]-39[27]-40[34]
NBS, Ordinary
27
16
10.5
8.0
6.6
5.9
5.6
5.6
6.0
7.2
List[35]
Slip Cast R
11.1
10.0
8.37
7.95
6.90
5.86
5.65
5.65
5.65
List: Kingery, TPRC II page 99 curve 7 ref.5[22]
Sapphire R
15.5
13.9
12.4
10.6
8.71
8.04
7.68
7.59
7.61
7.86
8.13
8.49
List: Kingery, TPRC II page 96 curve 19 ref.72[22]
293[5][33][34]

400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2200


613.2
688.2
703.2
873.2
943.2
1033.2
1093
1203.2
1258.2


591.5
651.2
690.2
775.2
957.2
1073.2
1173.2
1257.2
1313.2
1384.2
14X9.2
1508.2
1×10^−12-[33][34] The NBS recommended ordinary values are for 99.5% pure polycrystalline alumina at 98% density.[35] Slip Cast Values are taken from Kingery, W.D., J. Am Ceram. Soc., 37, 88-90, 1954, TPRC II page 99 curve 7 ref. 5 page 1159.[22] Sapphire values are taken from Kingery, W.D. and Norton, F.H., USAEC Rept. NYO-6447, 1-14, 1955, TPRC II pages 94, 96, curve 19 ref. 72 page 1160.[22]

Errata: The numbered references in the NSRDS-NBS-8 pdf are found near the end of the TPRC Data Book Volume 2 and not somewhere in Volume 3 like it says.[22]
Aluminium oxide, porous 22% Porosity 2.3[35] Constant 1000-1773[35] This is number 54 on pages 73 and 76. Shakhtin, D.M. and Vishnevskii, I.I., 1957, interval 893-1773 Kelvins.[35]
Ammonia, saturated 0.507[23] 300[23]
Argon 0.016[4]-0.01772[9]-0.0179[9][36] 298[4][9]-300[9][36]
Basalt Stephens Basalt

Sample NTS No. 1 R
1.76
1.62
1.80
1.84
1.63
1.84
1.58
1.92
1.84
Sample NTS No. 2 R
1.36
1.45
1.53
1.67
1.72
1.57
1.60
1.63
List[22]

Robertson Basalt

5% olivine, 100% solidity* & 5MPa pressure

Intrinsic: K = 2.55 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1
Air in Pores: K =1.58
Water in Pores: K = 1.97
List: Robertson pages 7, 11 & 13.[21]

576
596
658
704
748
822
895
964
1048

442
483
529
584
623
711
762
858






300

These measurements of two samples of NTS Basalt were credited to some D.R. Stephens, USAEC UCRL — 7605, 1–19, 1963. They are reported in the TPRC Data Series in Volume 2 on pages 798 and 799.

Stephens Basalt is two rocks and Robertson Basalt is one kind of rock. If you combined Robertson with his recommended lists of mineral conductivities then you would get formulas to calculate the thermal conductivities of most all the rocks in the world at every porosity over wide intervals of temperature and pressure. Unfortunately his lists are not available for free and for example his Horai list cost $42.00 on the internet: Ki-iti Horai, Thermal conductivity of Rock Forming minerals, Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 76, Issue 5, pages 1278 — 1308, February 10, 1971.

  • Solidity ≡ The ratio of the volume of solid to the bulk volume, or the ratio of bulk density to solid grain density, dB/dG. Robertson, p. 5.
Beryllium oxide 218[27]-260[37]-300[37]
TPRC Recommended
424
302
272
196
146
111
87
70
57
47
39
33
28.3
24.5
21.5
19.5
18.0
16.7
15.6
15.0
List[22]
293[37]

200
273.2
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
1×10^−12[37] Recommended values are found on page 137 of volume 2, TPRC Data Series, 1971[22]
Bismuth 7.97[9] 300[9]
Brass Cu63% 125[38] 296[38] 15,150,000[38] - 16,130,000[38] (Cu63%, Zn37%)
Brass Cu70% 109[14][39] - 121[39] 293[14]-296[39] 12,820,000[39] - 16,130,000[39] (Cu70%, Zn30%)
Brick 0.15[14]-0.6[14]-0.69[4]-1.31[4]

British 2016:
Inner leaf (1700 kg/m3): 0.62[40]
Outer leaf (1700 kg/m3): 0.84[40]
1920s Values:
Brick #1: 0.674[22]
Brick #2: 0.732[22]
293[14]-298[4]





373.2[22]
373.2[22]
Brick #1: 76.32% SiO2, 21.96%Al2O3, 1.88%Fe2O3 traces of CaO and MgO, commercial brick, density 1.795 g ⋅ cm−3.
Brick #2: 76.52%SiO2, 13.67%Al2O3, 6.77%Fe2O3, 1.77%CaO, 0.42%MgO, 0.27%MnO, no specified density. Judging from the descriptions the TPRC has put the wrong labels on their bricks, and if that is the case then Brick #1 is "Common Brick" and Brick #2 is "Red Brick." Tadokoro, Y., Science Repts. Tohoku Imp. Univ., 10, 339-410, 1921, TPRC pages 493 & 1169.[22]
Bronze 26[26]
42[41]-50[25][41]
293[25]-296[41]
5,882,000[41] - 7,143,000[41]
Sn25%[26]
(Cu89%, Sn11%)[41]
Calcium silicate 0.063[42] 373[42]
Carbon dioxide 0.0146[4]-0.01465[43]-0.0168[36] (sat. liquid 0.087[44]) 298[4]-273[43]-300[36] (293[44])
Carbon nanotubes, bulk 2.5 (multiwall)[45] - 35 (single wall, disordered mats)[45] - 200(single wall, aligned mats)[45] 300[45] "bulk" refers to a group of nanotubes either arranged or disordered, for a single nanotube, see "carbon nanotube, single".[45]
Carbon nanotube, single 3180 (multiwall)[46][47]-3500 (single wall)[48]
(SWcalc.6,600[46][49]-37,000[46][49])
320[46][47]-300[48]
(300[46][49]-100[46][49])
(Lateral)10−16[50] - (Ballistic)108[50]) values only for one single SWNT(length:2.6 μm, diameter:1.7 nm) and CNT. "Single", as opposed to "bulk" quantity (see "carbon nanotubes, bulk" ) of many nanotubes, which should not be confused with the denomination of nanotubes themselves which can be singlewall(SWNT) or multiwall(CNT)[45]
Cerium dioxide 1.70
1.54
1.00
0.938
0.851
0.765
List: TPRC II pp. 145–6[22]
1292.1
1322.1
1555.9
1628.2
1969.2
2005.9

Pears, C.D., Project director, Southern Res. Inst. Tech. Documentary Rept. ASD TDR-62-765, 20-402, 1963. TPRC Vol 2, pages 145, 146 and 1162[22]
Concrete 0.8[14] - 1.28[5] - 1.65[51] - 2.5[51] 293[5] ~61-67%CaO
Copper, commercial Wright, W. H., M. S. Thesis:
Sample 1 L
423
385
358
311
346
347
350
360
Sample 2 L
353
360
366
363
365
Lists: TPRC I page 75 curve 129[6]

Taga, M., periodical
First run: 378
Second run: 374
Third run: 378
Fourth run: 382
List: TPRC I page 75 curve 129[6]

80.06
95.34
115.62
135.53
159.46
181.56
198.35
217.30

198.53
220.90
240.88
257.38
275.40



363.2
363.2
363.2
363.2
Wright, W. H., M. S. Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1-225, 1960. TPRC Data Series Volume 1, pages 75 and 80 curve 129, ref. page 1465.[6]

Taga, commercial grade, 99.82% purity, density 8.3 g⋅cm−3. Taga, M., [Bull?], Japan Soc. Mech. Engrs., 3 (11) 346-52, 1960. TPRC Data Series Vol 1, pages 74, 79 and 1459.[6]
Copper, pure 385[14]-386[25][26]-390[5]-401[4][9][10]
368.7[25]
353.1[25]
1970s values:
TPRC (American)
2870
13800
19600
10500
4300
2050
1220
850
670
570
514
483
413
401
398
392
388
383
377
371
364
357
350
342
334
List[6]
The Soviet Union
403[52]
1960s Values
Thin Copper Foil*:

126.8
202.3
295.9
400.2
List[53][6]
293[4][5][9][10][14][25]
573[25]
873[25]



1
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
273
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300


273.15



0.427
0.671
0.981
1.322


59,170,000[10] - 59,590,000[29]

Formula Values:
6.37 ⋅ 107 at 273.15 K; 5.71 ⋅ 107 at 300K; 4.15 ⋅ 107 at 400K.[31]
International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) pure =1.7×10−8Ω•m
=58.82×106Ω−1•m−1

For main article, see: Copper in heat exchangers.

The TPRC recommended values are for well annealed 99.999% pure copper with residual electrical resistivity of ρ0=0.000851 μΩ⋅cm. TPRC Data Series volume 1 page 81.[6]

  • Out of 138 samples in the TPRC Data Series on the thermal conductivity of copper there is only one foil and that one was only measured at very low temperatures where other coppers also demonstrated extreme deviance. The blurred up reference to it on page 1465 looks like Landenfeld, P., Lynton, E.A. and Souten, R., Phys. Letters, Volume 19 page 265, 1965.
Cork 0.04[14] - 0.07[5]
1940s values:
Density=0.195 g cm−3 L
0.0381
0.0446
Density=0.104 g cm−3 L
0.0320
0.0400
List: Rowley, F.B. and others in TPRC II page 1064 & 1067 curves 1 & 3 ref 109.[22]
293[5]
---

222.0
305.5

222.0
305.5


1940s values are for oven dried cork at specified densities: Rowley, F.B., Jordan, R.C. and Lander, R.M., Refrigeration Engineering, 53, 35-9. 1947, TPRC pages 1064, 1067 & 1161.[22]
Cotton or Plastic Insulation-foamed 0.03[4][5] 293[5]
Diamond, impure 1,000[14][54] 273[54] - 293[14] 1×10^−16~[55] Type I (98.1% of Gem Diamonds) (C+0.1%N)
Diamond, natural 2,200[56] 293[56] 1×10^−16~[55] Type IIa (99%12C and 1%13C)
Diamond, isotopically enriched 3,320[56]-41,000[46][57] (99.999% 12C calc.200,000[57]) 293[56]-104[46][57] (~80[57]) (Lateral)10−16[55] - (Ballistic)108[55] Type IIa isotopically enriched (>99.9%12C)
Dolomite, NTS dolomite Specimen No. 1 R
1.08
1.14
Specimen No. 2 R
1.27
1.26
List TPRC 2 pp 811–12.[22]

521
835

523
833

Specimen No. 1 had a fine-grained appearance; 2.25 inches O.D.. 0.375 in. I.D., 12 in. long; obtained from exploratory dolomite hole No. 1, dolomite hill at level of 200 feet; density 2.80 g cm−3. Method: Radial heat flow [TPRC Volume 1 page 23a].

Stephens, D. R., USAEC UCRL — 7605. 1-19, 1963 in TPRC Data Series Volume 2, pp. 811–12.[22]

Epoxy, thermally conductive 0.682[58] - 1.038 - 1.384[59] - 4.8[60]
Ethylene glycol TPRC
0.2549
0.2563
0.2576
0.2590
0.2603
0.2616
0.2630
0.2643
List[22]
CRC
0.2645
0.2609
0.2695
List[17]

280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350


288.15
293.15
353.15

The TPRC values are posted in Volume 3 on page 177 and the CRC estimates are found in the handbook on page E-4.
Expanded polystyrene – EPS 0.03[4]-0.033[4][14][54] ((PS Only)0.1[61]-0.13[61]) 98[54]-298[4][54] (296[61]) 1×10^−14[61] (PS+Air+CO2+CnH2n+x)
Extruded polystyrene – XPS 0.029 - 0.39 98-298
Fat Beef fat
0.354
0.175
Bone fat
0.186
Pig fat
0.238
List[22]
293.2
333.2

293.2

293.2
The fats were found out by Lapshin A. and Myasnaya Ind., SSSR. Volume 25 (2) pp. 55–6, 1954. and reported in volume two of the TPRC Data Series on page 1072.[22]
Fiberglass or foam-glass 0.045[5] 293[5]
Gabbro Sligachan Gabbro
2.55
2.47
List[22]
Generic Gabbro*
2.06 ± 0.2
List: Birch and Clark in Robertson page 31[21]
309.4
323.1


300
Specimen 5 cm in diameter and 2 cm long from Sligachan Skye, density 3.1 g ⋅ cm−1. Nancarrow, H.A., Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 45, page 447-61, 1933 in TPRC Data Series Volume 2 page 816.[22]
  • This summary came from three samples in 1940.
Gallium arsenide 56[54] 300[54]
Gasket Cardboard
0.210[62]
Transite P
0.770
0.757
0.749
0.742
0.739
0.736
0.736
0.736
0.733
0.731
List: Smith, W.K. in TPRC II page 1107 curve 1 ref 390.[22]

291.15

338.7
366.5
394.3
422.1
449.8
477.6
505.4
533.2
560.9
588.7


The cardboard is in Yarwood and Castle on page 36 and the Transite is credited to some W.K. Smith who sounds like a secret agent since the rest of his credit is NOTS TP2624, 1 — 10, 1961. [AD 263771]. In any case Transite was found out in 1961 and it is some sort of asbestos — cement board with a density of 0.193 — 0.1918 grams⋅cm−1. TPRC Data Series, Volume 2, page 1107[22]

For rubber gasket see Rubber.

Glass 0.8[14]-0.93[5] (SiO2pure1[27]-SiO296%1.2[63]-1.4[63])
Pyrex 7740, Air Force, 1961 P
1.35
1.34
1.39
1.42
1.59
1.45
1.43
1.56
1.66
1.68
1.91
1.90
List: TPRC II pages 926-9 curve 81[22]

Pyrex 7740, NBS, 1963 L
1.11
1.16
1.22
1.27
1.33
1.38
1.43
List: TPRC II pages 926-9 curve 76[22]

Pyrex 7740, NBS, 1966
0.58
0.90
1.11
1.25
1.36
1.50
1.62
1.89
List[64]
293[5][14][63]

297
300
306
319
322
322
329
330
332
336
345
356



273.2
323.2
373.2
423.2
473.2
523.2
573.2



100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800

10−14[65][66]-10−12[63]-10−10[65][66] <1% Iron oxides
In 1966 Pyrex 7740 had a composition of about 80.6% SiO2, 13% B2O3, 4.3% Na2O and 2.1% Al2O3.[64] Similar glasses have a coefficient of linear expansion of about 3 parts per million per Kelvin at 20°Celsius.[67]

Density [Pyrex 774] ≈ 2.210 g ⋅ cm−3 at 32 °F. Specific heats: 0.128, 0.172, 0.202, 0.238, 0.266, 0.275 Cal. g−1 K−1 at 199.817, 293.16, 366.49, 477.60, 588.72 & 699.83 Kelvins respectively. Lucks, C.F., Deem, H.W. and Wood, W.D. in TPRC V pages 1232-3[68]

Errata: The numbered references in the NSRDS-NBS-8 pdf are found near the end of the TPRC Data Book Volume 2 and not somewhere in Volume 3 like it says.[22]
Glycerol 0.285[23]-0.29[5] 300[23]-293[5]
Gold, pure 314[14]-315[25]-318[9][26][69]
1970s values:
444
885
2820
1500
345
327
318
315
312
309
304
298
292
285
List[6]
293[25]-298[9][69]

1
2
10
20
100
200
273.2
300
400
500
600
700
800
900

45,170,000[29] - 45,450,000[69] 1970s values are found on page 137, TPRC Data Series volume 1 (1970).[6]
Granite 1.73[13] - 3.98[13]
Nevada Granite R
1.78
1.95
1.86
1.74
1.80
Scottish Granite L
3.39
3.39
List[22]
Westerly Granite
2.4(63)
2.2(83)
2.1(44)
Barre Granite
2.8(23)
2.5(18)
2.3(10)
Rockport-1*
3.5(57)
3.0(31)
2.7(12)
Rockport-2*
3.8(07)
3.2(11)
2.8(37)
List: Birch and Clark in Robertson page 35.[21]

368
523
600
643
733

306.9
320.2


273.15
373.15
473.15

273.15
373.15
473.15

273.15
373.15
473.15

273.15
373.15
473.15
(72%SiO2+14%Al2O3+4%K2O etc.)

Scottish Granite: This is granite from May Quarry in Aberdeenshire. Nancarrow, H. A., Proc. Phys. Soc. (London). 45, 447-61, 1933, TPRC II pages 818 and 1172.[22]

Nevada Granite: This granite is 34%v plagioclase, 28%v ortheoclase, 27%v quartz and 9%v biotite. Stephens, D. R., USAEC UCRL-7605, 1-19, 1963, TPRC II pages 818 and 1172.[22]
A 1960 report on the Nevada granite (Izett, USGS) is posted on the internet but the very small numbers there are hard to understand.[70]
  • Robertson says that Rockport-1 has 25% Quartz and Rockport-2 has 33% Quartz and he usually talks in volume percent. Robertson page 35.
Granite, ΔP Barre Granite*
Wet
50 bar*
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.1
1000 bar
3.2
2.8
2.6
2.4
5000 bar
4.5
4.0
3.7
3.4

Dry
50 bar
2.8(23)
2.5(18)
2.3(10)
2.1(44)
1000 bar
2.8(76)
2.5(65)
2.3(53)
2.1(84)
5000 bar
3.0(91)
2.7(57)
2.5(29)
2.3(47)
List: Robertson pages 35, 59-61[21]






273.15
373.15
473.15
573.15

273.15
373.15
473.15
573.15

273.15
373.15
473.15
573.15



273.15
373.15
473.15
573.15

273.15
373.15
473.15
573.15

273.15
373.15
473.15
573.15




Granite pillars small enough to put in your coat pocket have failed under loads that averaged out to about 1.43 ⋅ 108 Newtons/meter2 and this kind of rock has a sonic speed of about 5.6 ± 0.3 ⋅ 103 m/sec (stp), a density of about 2.7 g/cm3 and specific heat ranging from about 0.2 to 0.3 cal/g °C through the temperature interval 100-1000 °C [Stowe pages 41 & 59 and Robertson pages 70 & 86].[71][21]
  • In this particular case the solidity of the granite is 0.966.
  • A bar is 105 Pa or 105 Newtons/meter2 and pressures around 5000 bar should normally be found at depths of about 19 to 23 kilometers.
Graphene (4840±440)[72] - (5300±480)[72] 293[72] 100,000,000[73]
Graphite, natural 25-470[74]
146-246 (longitudinal), 92-175 (radial)[75]
293[74] 5,000,000-30,000,000[74]
Grease, thermally conductive greases 860 Silicone Heat Transfer Compound:
0.66
8616 Super Thermal Grease II:
1.78
8617 Super thermal Grease III:
1.0
List, MG Chemicals[76]
233.15—473.15

205.15—438.15

205.15—438.15
These thermal greases have low electrical conductivity and their volume resistivities are 1.5⋅1015, 1.8⋅1011, and 9.9⋅109 Ω⋅cm for 860, 8616 and 8617 respectively. The thermal grease 860 is a silicone oil with a Zinc Oxide filler and 8616 and 8617 are synthetic oils with various fillers including Aluminum Oxide and Boron Nitride. At 25 °C the densities are 2.40, 2.69 and 1.96 g/mL for the greases 860, 8616 and 8617 respectively.
Helium II ≳100000[77] in practice, phonon scattering at solid-liquid interface is main barrier to heat transfer. 2.2 liquid Helium in its superfluid state below 2.2 K
House American 2016

Wood Product Blow-in, Attic Insulation
0.0440 − 0.0448[78]
FIBERGLAS Blow-in, Attic Insulation
0.0474 − 0.0531[79]
PINK FIBERGLAS Flexible Insulation
0.0336 − 0.0459[80]

British

CONCRETE:
General 1.28
(2300 kg/m3) 1.63
(2100 kg/m3 typical floor) 1.40
(2000 kg/m3 typical floor) 1.13
(medium 1400 kg/m3)0.51
(lightweight 1200 kg/m3) 0.38
(lightweight 600 kg/m3) 0.19
(aerated 500 kg/m3) 0.16

PLASTER:
(1300 kg/m3) 0.50
(600 kg/m3) 0.16

TIMBER:
Timber (650 kg/m3) 0.14
Timber flooring (650 kg/m3) 0.14
Timber rafters 0.13
Timber floor joists 0.13

MISC.:
Calcium silicate board (600 kg/m3) 0.17
Expanded polystyrene 0.030 −0.038
Plywood (950 kg/m3) 0.16
Rock mineral wool 0.034 −0.042
List[40]
Wallboard, see Wallboard.

1960s Values

Dry Zero − Kapok between burlap or paper
density 0.016 g cm−3, TC=0.035 W⋅m−1K−1

Hair Felt − Felted cattle hair
density 0.176 g cm−3, TC=0.037 W⋅m−1K−1
density 0.208 g cm−3, TC=0.037 W⋅m−1K−1

Balsam Wool − Chemically treated wood fibre
density 0.035 g cm−3, TC=0.039 W⋅m−1K−1
Hairinsul − 50% hair 50% jute
density 0.098 g cm−3, TC=0.037 W⋅m−1K−1

Rock Wool − Fibrous material made from rock
density 0.096 g cm−3, TC=0.037 W⋅m−1K−1
density 0.160 g cm−3, TC=0.039 W⋅m−1K−1
density 0.224 g cm−3, TC=0.040 W⋅m−1K−1

Glass Wool − Pyrex glass curled
density 0.064 g cm−3, TC=0.042 W⋅m−1K−1
density 0.160 g cm−3, TC=0.042 W⋅m−1K−1

Corkboard − No added binder
density 0.086 g cm−3, TC=0.036 W⋅m−1K−1
density 0.112 g cm−3, TC=0.039 W⋅m−1K−1
density 0.170 g cm−3, TC=0.043 W⋅m−1K−1
density 0.224 g cm−3, TC=0.049 W⋅m−1K−1

Corkboard − with asphaltic binder
density 0.232 g cm−3, TC=0.046 W⋅m−1K−1

Cornstalk Pith Board: 0.035 − 0.043

Cypress
density 0.465 g cm−3, TC=0.097 W⋅m−1K−1

White pine
density 0.513 g cm−3, TC=0.112 W⋅m−1K−1

Mahogany
density 0.545 g cm−3, TC=0.123 W⋅m−1K−1

Virginia pine
density 0.545 g cm−3, TC=0.141 W⋅m−1K−1

Oak
density 0.609 g cm−3, TC=0.147 W⋅m−1K−1

Maple
density 0.705 g cm−3, TC=0.159 W⋅m−1K−1
List[81]
American 2016: Flexible insulation from Owens Corning includes faced and unfaced rolls of glass wool and with foil.[80]

1960s values: All thermal conductivities from Cypress to Maple are given across the grain.[81]
Hydrogen 0.1819[82] 290 Hydrogen gas at room temperature.
Ice 1.6[14]-2.1[5]-2.2[54]-2.22[83]

The Historic Ice Authorities
van Duser 1929
2.09
2.161
2.232
2.303
2,374
2.445

Choi & Okos/Bonales 1956 — 2017
2.2199
2.3854
2.6322
2.9603
3.3695
3.8601

Ratcliffe/Bonales 1962 — 2017
2.0914
2.2973
2.5431
2.8410
3.2086
3.6723
List[84]

Clark, S.P. Jr., 1966*
2.092
2.552
List: Clark, S.P. Jr. in Robertson p. 58[21]
293[5][14] - 273[54][83]





273.15
253.15
233.15
213.15
193.15
173.15


273.15
253.15
233.15
213.15
193.15
173.15


273.15
253.15
233.15
213.15
193.15
173.15



273.15
143.15



Bonales says that his posted formulas are lined up with his old authorities though more recent ones (and Bonales among them) have come to believe that ices that come to low temperatures remember a cooling rate.,.[85][84]

The formulas are: 1)van Duser: k=2.09(1-0.0017 T(°C)); 2)Choi & Okos: k=2.2199-6.248 ⋅ 10−3 T(°C) + 1.0154 ⋅ 10−4 T(°C)2; 3)Ratcliffe: k=2135 T(K)-1.235.

k is given in w ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1.

Errata: Contrary to what they say the formula of Bonales and Sanz cannot be fitted to their data and also it is not consistent with the results of Choi and Okos since their formula is a typo and also Choi and Okos did not did not cook up a linear function to start with. Instead the formula that would fit some of the Bonales data is k ≈ 2.0526 - 0.0176TC and not k = -0.0176 + 2.0526T as they say on page S615 and also the values they posted for Alexiades and Solomon do not fit the other formula that they posted on table 1 on page S611 and the formula that would fit over there is k = 2.18 - 0.01365TC and not k = 2.18 - 0.01365TK.

  • The Clark Ice has a density of 0.9 g/cm−3. Robertson page 58.
Indium phosphide 80[54] 300[54]
Insulating firebrick Sheffield Pottery, 2016:
NC-23
0.19
0.20
0.23
0.26
NC-26
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.30
NC-28
0.29
0.32
0.33
0.36
List[86]
1940s Blast Furnace:
1.58
1.55
1.53
List[22]

533
811
1089
1366

533
811
1089
1366

533
811
1089
1366


636.2
843.2
1036.2
Sheffield pottery: Standard ASTM 155 Grades, 05/10/2006:
NC-23, Cold Crushing Strength=145 lbs/inch2, density=36 lbs/ft3
NC-26, Cold Crushing Strength=220 lbs/inch2, density=46 lbs/ft3
NC-28, Cold Crushing Strength=250 lbs/inch2, density=55 lbs/ft3
[86]
---
1940s Blast Furnace: Kolechkova, A. F. and Goncharov, V. V., Ogneupory, 14, 445-53, 1949, TPRC pages 488, 493 & 1161.[22]
Iron, pure 71.8[26]-72.7[25]-79.5[14]-80[4]-80.2[54]-80.4[9][87]
55.4[25]
34.6[25]

TPRC
149
224
297
371
442
513
580
645
705
997
814
555
372
265
204
168
146
132
94
83.5
80.3
69.4
61.3
54.7
48.7
43.3
38.0
32.6
29.7
29.9
27.9
28.2
29.9
30.9
31.8
List[6]

The Soviet Union
86.5[52]
293[14][25]-298[4]-300[9][54][87]
573[25]
1273[25]


2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
273.2
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1183
1183
1200
1300
1400
1500



273.15
9,901,000[87] - 10,410,000[29] The TPRC recommended values are for well annealed 99.998% pure iron with residual electrical resistivity of ρ0=0.0327 μΩ⋅cm. TPRC Data Series volume 1 page 169.[6]
Iron, cast 55[4][26]

Tadokoro Cast Iron*

White
12.8
13.3
14.3
14.5
17.3

Grey
29.5
29.7
30.0
30.1
31.1
List: Tadokoro, curves 39 & 40 in TPRC Vol. I, pp 1130–31[6]

Donaldson Cast Iron*

48.5
48.1
46.9
47.3
46.9
46.0
List: Donaldson, curve 1 in TPRC Vol. I, pp 1129 & 1131[6]
298[4]





303.2
323.2
362.2
373.2
425.2


303.2
323.2
361.2
373.2
427.2





353.70
376.70
418.20
429.70
431.70
447.20



(Fe+(2-4)%C+(1-3)%Si)

Apart from a thermal conductivity a boiler company also has an interface heat transfer coefficient Q and also some Kurganov has posted this simplification that water flowing in tubes has Q ≈ 500 - 1200 W/(m2K).[88]

  • These Tadokoro Irons are 3.02% C, 0.089% Cu, 0.53% Mn, 0.567% P, 0.074% S, 0.57% Si and 3.08% C, 0.136% Cu, 0.44% Mn, 0.540% P, .074% S and 0.58% Si, White Cast and Grey Cast respectively.

By comparison the Donaldson Iron is 2.80% C, 0.10% Mn, 0.061% P, 0.093% S and 0.39% Si. It has 0.76% graphitic carbon and 2.04% combined carbon and the thermal conductivity measurements come with a 2% error estimate. Tadokoro, Y., J., Iron Steel Inst. (Japan), 22, 399 — 424, 1936 and Donaldson, J.W., J. Iron Steel Inst. (London), 128, p. 255-76, 1933.

Laminates, metal non-metal Taylor I
30 varnished silicon steel foils each of thickness 0.014 inches (0.356 mm): density 7.36 g cm−3; measured near a temperature of 358.2 K under pressure in the range 0 — 132 psi:
0 psi 0.512 w m−1 K−1
20 psi 0.748
40 psi 0.846
60 psi 0.906
80 psi 0.925
100 psi 0.965
120 psi 0.992
132 psi 1.02
120 psi 1.00
100 psi NA*
80 psi 0.984
60 psi 0.945
40 psi 0.906
20 psi 0.846
0 psi 0.591
Taylor II
30 varnished silicon steel foils each of thickness 0.0172 inches (0.4368 mm); density 7.51 g cm−3; measured near a temperature of 358.2 K under pressure in the range 0 — 128 psi:
0 psi 0.433 w m−1 K−1
20 psi 0.807
40 psi 0.965
60 psi 1.04
80 psi 1.10
100 psi 1.18
120 psi 1.24
128 psi 1.26
120 psi 1.26
100 psi 1.22
80 psi 1.18
60 psi 1.14
40 psi 1.10
20 psi 0.984
0 psi 0.630
Taylor III
30 silicon steel foils each of thickness 0.0172 inches (0.4368 mm); density 7.79 g cm−3; measured near a temperature of 358.2 K under pressure in the range 0 — 125 psi:
0 psi 0.496 w m−1 K−1
10 psi 0.748
22.5 psi 0.945
125 psi 1.65
100 psi 1.59
80 psi 1.54
47 psi 1.38
20 psi 1.14
0 psi 0.709
List: Taylor, T.S., Elec. World, 76 (24), 1159 — 62, 1920.[22]
*The report in the Data Series says that the Taylor I laminate had a thermal conductivity of 0.0996 w cm−1 K−1 at 100 psi in descent and that is an obvious typo [NA]. What would fit is 0.00996 w cm−1 K−1 = 0.996 w m−1 K−1. TPRC Volume 2, pp 1037–9.
Lead, pure 34.7[14][25]-35.0[4][26]-35.3[9][89]
29.8[25]

TPRC
2770
4240
3400
2240
1380
820
490
320
230
178
146
123
107
94
84
77
66
59
50.7
47.7
45.1
43.5
39.6
36.6
35.5
35.2
33.8
32.5
31.2
List[6]

The Soviet Union
35.6[52]
293[14][25]-298[4]-300[9][89]
573[25]


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
25
30
40
50
100
200
273.2
300
400
500
600



273.15
4,808,000[29] - 4,854,000[89] The TPRC List is the TPRC estimate for well annealed Lead of 99.99+% purity and residual electrical resistivity ρ0=0.000880 μΩ cm. TPRC Data Series Volume 1, page 191.[6]

This material is superconductive (electrical) at temperatures below 7.193 Kelvins. Weast page E-87.[17]
Limestone 1.26[13] - 1.33[13]
Indiana Limestone R
1.19
1.21
1.19
1.11
1.12
1.07
1.03
0.62
0.57
0.54
List[90]
Queenstone Grey L
1.43
1.41
1.40
1.33
List1.43[22]
Generic Limestone R*
Air in Pores
Solidity = 1.0: K = 2.67*
Solidity = 0.9: K = 2.17
Solidity = 0.8: K = 1.72
Solidity = 0.7: K = 1.32

Water in Pores
Solidity = 1.0: K = 2.97
Solidity = 0.9: K = 2.52
Solidity = 0.8: K = 2.12
Solidity = 0.7: K = 1.77
List: Robertson forumla 6 and page 10&16.[21]
----

472
553
683
813
952
1013
1075
1181
1253
1324


395.9
450.4
527.6
605.4

300












Mostly CaCO3 and the "Indiana Limestone" is 98.4% CaCO3, 1% quartz and 0.6% hematite.[90]
By comparison Queenstone Grey is a mixture of dolomite and calcite containing 22% MgCO2. Density=2.675 g cm−3. Niven, C.D., Can J. Research, A18, 132-7, 1940, TPRC pages 821 and 1170.[22]
  • Generic Limestone R is relatively pure polycrystaline calcite, solidity is the quotient of the solid grain volume divided by the bulk volume and K is thermal conductivity in W⋅m−1⋅K−1.
Manganese 7.81[4] lowest thermal conductivity of any pure metal
Marble 2.07[13]-2.08[4]-2.94[4][13] 298[4]
Methane 0.030[4]-0.03281[91] 298[4]-273[91]
Mineral wool insulation 0.04[4][5][14] 293[5]-298[4]
Nickel 90.9[9]-91[4] 298[4][9]
Nitrogen, pure 0.0234[14]-0.024[4]-0.02583[9]-0.026[36][54] 293[14]-298[4]-300[9][36][54] (N2) (1 atm)
Norite 2.7 ± 0.4
List: Misener and others in Robertson page 31.[21]
300 This summary came from five samples in 1951.
Oxygen, pure (gas) 0.0238[14]-0.024[4]-0.0263[36]-0.02658[9] 293[14]-298[4]-300[9][36] (O2) (1 atm)
Oil Transformer Oil
CRC Oil
Regular
0.177
Light Heat
0.132
List[92]
Yarwood and Castle
0.135[62]



343.15 — 373.15

303.15 — 373.15


273.15
Yarwood and Castle have their transformer oil on page 37.
Paper Ordinary Paper
Engineeringtoolbox
0.05[4]
Yarwood and Castle
0.125[62]
Oil Impregnated Paper
0.180 — 0.186[22]


298[4]

291.15

294.7 — 385.2
The oil-impregnated paper was about 0.05 inches thick and it was loaded under about 2 PSI. TPRC Volume 2, page 1127.

Yarwood and Castle has the thermal conductivity of their paper on page 36
Perlite, (1 atm) 0.031[4] 298[4]
Perlite in partial vacuum 0.00137[4] 298[4]
Pine 0.0886
0.0913
0.0939
0.0966
0.0994
0.102
List[22]
222.0
238.7
255.4
272.2
288.9
305.5

Density=0.386 g cm−3. Rowley, F. B., Jordan, R. C. and Lander, R. M., Refrigeration Engineering, 53, 35-9, 1947, TPRC pages 1083 and 1161.[22]
Plastic, fiber-reinforced 0.23[93] - 0.7[93] - 1.06[5] 293[5] - 296[93] 10−15[93] - 100[93] 10-40%GF or CF
Polyethylene, high-density 0.42[4] - 0.51[4] 298[4]
Polymer, high-density 0.33[93] - 0.52[93] 296[93] 10−16[93] - 102[93]
Polymer, low-density 0.04[93] - 0.16[5] - 0.25[5] - 0.33[93] 293[5] - 296[93] 10−17[93] - 100[93]
Polyurethane foam 0.03[4] 298[4]
Porcelain, electrical porcelain 1940s Values
Sample 1
1.90 — 2.27
Sample 2
1.40 — 2.15
Sample 3
1.84 — 2.24


388.2 — 1418.2

395.2 — 1456.2

385.2 — 1396.2
Starting material was 19.0 flint, 37.0 feldspar, 7.0 Edgar plastic kaolin, 22.0 Edgar Nocarb clay, and 15.0 Kentucky old mine No. 4 ball clay, ball milled for 15 hours, slip cast and fired to 1250 °C; 25% open pores; bulk density 2.5 g ⋅ cm−3. Norton, F.H. and Kingery, W.D., USAEC Rept. NYO — 601, 1 — 52, 1943 in TPRC Vol. 2 page 937[22]
Propylene glycol 0.2007[17] 293.15 — 353.15 This hearsay value is posted in the 48th Edition of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics on page E-4.[17]
Pyroxenite 4.3 ± 0.1
List: Birch and Clark in Robertson, page 31.[21]
300 This summary came from 2 samples in 1940.
Quartz, single crystal 12[54] to c axis, 06.8[54] to c axis
Rutgers University
11.1 to c axis, 5.88 to c axis
9.34 to c axis, 5.19 to c axis
8.68 to c axis, 4.50 to c axis
List[94]
NBS
6.00 to c axis, 3.90 to c axis
5.00 to c axis, 3.41 to c axis
4.47 to c axis, 3.12 to c axis
4.19 to c axis, 3.04 to c axis
List[95]
300

311
366
422


500
600
700
800

The noted authorities have reported some values in three digits as cited here in metric translation but they have not demonstrated three digit measurement.[96]

Errata: The numbered references in the NSRDS-NBS-8 pdf are found near the end of the TPRC Data Book Volume 2 and not somewhere in Volume 3 like it says.[22]
Quartz, fused, or vitreous silica, or fused silica 1.46[97]-3[5]
1.4[54]
England
0.84
1.05
1.20
1.32
1.41
1.48
List[98]
America
0.52
1.13
1.23
1.40
1.42
1.50
1.53
1.59
1.73
1.92
2.17
2.48
2.87
3.34
4.00
4.80
6.18
List[95]
293[5][97]
323[54]

123
173
223
273
323
373


100
200
223
293
323
373
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400

1.333E-18[65] - 10−16[97]
Quartz, slip-cast First Run
0.34
0.39
0.45
0.51
0.62
Second Run
0.63
0.66
0.69
List[99]
500
700
900
1100
1300

900
1000
1100
This material which must have started out like unfired pottery was slip cast from fused silica. Then it was dried four days at 333 K before being tested. It was 9 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick, density 1.78 ⋅ cm−3. The first run went to 1317K and then on the second run the same insulator proved to be more conductive. 1959.[99]
Quartz, powdered 0.178
0.184
0.209
0.230
0.259
List: TPRC II pages 177-180[22]
373.2
483.2
588.2
673.2
723.2

In the particular case the powdered quartz has been roughly competitive with insulating firebrick. The noted grain sizes ranged from 0.3 to 1 mm diameter and the density was 0.54 grams ⋅ cm−3. Kozak, M.I. Zhur. Tekh. Fiz., 22 (1), 73-6, 1952. Reference No. 326, page 1166.[22]
Redwood bark Whole: Density=0.0641 g cm−3 L
0.0286
0.0307
0.0330
0.0356
0.0379
0.0407
Shredded: Density=0.0625 g cm−3 L
0.0107
List[22]
222.2
239.2
255.5
272.1
288.8
305.3

318.7
Whole: Rowley, F. B., Jordan, R. C. and Lander, R. M., Refrig. Eng., 50, 541-4, 1945, TPRC pages 1084 & 1172.[22]
Shredded: Wilkes, G. B., Refrig. Eng., 52, 37-42, 1946, TPRC pages 1084 & 1162.[22]
Rice hulls (ash) 0.062[100]
Rice hulls (whole) 0.0359[100]
Rock, felsic igneous Air in Pores, 5 MPa*

Solidity* = 1

20%v Quartz: 2.21
40%v Quartz: 2.97
60%v Quartz: 3.72

Solidity = 0.9

20%v Quartz: 1.80
40%v Quartz: 2.41
60%v Quartz: 3.02

Water in Pores, 5 MPa

Solidity = 1

20%v Quartz: 2.83
40%v Quartz: 4.14
60%v Quartz: 5.46

Solidity = 0.9

20%v Quartz: 2.41
40%v Quartz: 3.47
60%v Quartz: 4.54
List: Formula values (6), page 10, Robertson.[21]
300 *5 MPa is 5 ⋅ 106 Pascals or 5 ⋅ 106 Newtons per meter2 or about fifty atmospheres pressure.


*Solidity ≡ the ratio of the volume of solid to the bulk volume, or the ratio of bulk density to solid grain density dB/dG.


Symbols: %v is percent by volume.
Rock, mafic igneous Air in Pores, 5 MPa

Solidity = 1

0 %v OPA*: 1.50
5 %v OPA : 1.58
10%v OPA: 1.65
20%v OPA: 1.80
30%v OPA: 1.95

Solidity = 0.9

0 %v OPA : 1.25
5 %v OPA : 1.31
10%v OPA: 1.37
20%v OPA: 1.49
30%v OPA: 1.62

Water in Pores, 5 MPa

Solidity = 1

0 %v OPA : 1.84
5 %v OPA : 1.96
10%v OPA: 2.09
20%v OPA: 2.34
30%v OPA: 2.59

Solidity = 0.9

0 %v OPA : 1.63
5 %v OPA : 1.73
10%v OPA: 1.83
20%v OPA: 2.04
30%v OPA: 2.24
List: Formula values (6), page 10, Robertson.[21]
300 *OPA is olivine, pyroxene and/or amphibole in any proportions.
Rubber CRC Rubber, 92%, nd
0.16[54]

Griffiths Natural Rubber 1923

0.134

Hayes Synthetic Rubbers 1960

Thiokel ST

0.268

Kel-F 3700

0.117
0.113
0.113
0.113

Carboxy Rubber, Firestone butaprene T

0.255
0.238
0.197
List Griffiths and Hayes curves 11, 41, 43 & 56 in TPRC II pp 981–984[22]



303[54]



298.2





310.9



310.9
422.1
477.6
533.2



310.9
422.1
477.6




1×10^−13~[65] The Listed Synthetic Rubbers and more of them in the data collection are credited to Hayes, R.A., Smith, F.M., Kidder, G.A., Henning, J.C., Rigby, J.D. and Hall, G.L., WADC TR 56-331 (Pt.4), 1-157, 1960 [AD 240 212].[22]
Sand, Hudson River 0.27
List: Robertson page 58[21]
303.15 This sample has a density of 1.36 g/cm3.
Sandstone 1.83[13] - 2.90[13]
2.1[101] - 3.9[101]
~95-71%SiO2
~98-48%SiO2, ~16-30% Porosity
Silica aerogel 0.003[54] (carbon black9%~0.0042[102])-0.008[102]-0.017[102]-0.02[4]-0.03[54] 98[54] - 298[4][54] Foamed glass
Silver, pure 406[14]-407[25]-418[26]
427[27]-429[4][9][54][103]-430[9]
1970s values:
TPRC
3940
7830
17200
16800
5100
1930
1050
700
550
497
471
460
450
432
430
428
427
420
413
405
397
389
382
List[6]
The Soviet Union
429[52]
293[14][25]
298[4][9][103]-300[9][54]


1
2
5
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
150
200
273.2
300
400
500
600
700
800
900


273.15
61,350,000[103] - 63,010,000[29] Highest electrical conductivity of any metal

TPRC recommended values are for well annealed 99.999% pure silver with residual electrical resistivity of ρ0=0.000620 μΩ⋅cm. TPRC Data Series volume 1 page 348 (1970).[6]
Silver, sterling 361[104]
Snow, dry 0.05[4]-0.11[14]-0.25[4] 273[4]
Sodium chloride 35.1 - 6.5 - 4.85[105] 80 - 289 - 400[105]
Soil, dry with organic matter 0.15[5][106]-1.15[106]-2[5] 293[5] composition may vary
Soil, saturated 0.6[5]-4[5] 293[5] composition may vary
Soils, temperate de Vries Soils

Mineral; density 2.65 g cm−3: K = 2.93
Organic; density 1.3 g cm−3: K = 0.251
Soil, mineral, dry; density 1.50 g cm−3: K = 0.209
Soil, mineral, saturated; density 1.93 g cm−3: K = 2.09
Soil, organic, dry; density 0.13 g cm−3: K = 0.033
Soil, organic, sat.; density 1.03 g cm−3: K = 0.502
List[107]

Higashi Soil With Water r*
Loose Packed
r = 0.0: K= 0.255 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1
r = 0.2: K= 0.534
r = 0.4: K= 0.883
r = 0.6: K= 1.162

Close Packed
r = 0.0: K= 0.372
r = 0.2: K= 0.697
r = 0.4: K= 1.127
r = 0.6: K= 1.627
List: Higashi, Akira; Hokkaido University Library[108]

Kersten Soils

Silt-Clay Soils
1.28 grams ⋅ cm−3 dry
50% Saturation: K = 0.89 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1
100% Saturation: K = 1.1
1.44 grams ⋅ cm−3 dry
50% Saturation: K = 1.0
100% Saturation: K = 1.3
1.60 grams ⋅ cm−3dry
50% Saturation: K = 1.2
100% Saturation: K = 1.5

Sandy Soil
1.60 grams ⋅ cm−3 dry
50% Saturation: K = 1.7 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1
100% Saturation: K = 2.0
List: Kersten in Farouki, figures 146 & 150, pp. 103 & 105[109]
293.2
















277.59










The TPRC Data Book has been quoting de Vries with values of 0.0251 and 0.0109 W⋅cm−3⋅Kelvin−1 for the thermal conductivities of organic and dry mineral soils respectively but the original article is free at the website of their cited journal. Errors: TPRC Volume 2 pages 847 and 1159.[22] Journal archives.[107]

Also some de Vries authorities include John Webb, "Thermal Conductivity of Soil" November 1956, Nature Volume 178, pages 1074-1075, and M.W. Makowski, "Thermal Conductivity of Soil" April 1957, Nature Volume 179, pages 778-779 and more recent notables include Nan Zhang Phd and Zhaoyu Wang PhD "Review of soil thermal conductivity and predictive models" July 2017, International Journal of Thermal Sciences Volume 117 pages 172-183.
  • r ≡ The ratio of the water mass to the dried soil mass. Higashi Soil.
Soils, frozen, below saturation Higashi Soils
Soil A, Black cultivated, 0 — 10 cm deep

Dry: K = 0.488 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1
Saturated: K = 3.151

Soil B, Brown subsoil, 25 — 30 cm deep

Dry: K = 0.232
Saturated: K = 2.604

Soil C, Yellow brown subsoil, 50 — 60 cm deep

Dry: K = 0.290
Saturated: K = 2.279

List: Higashi, Hokkaido University Library[110]

Kersten Soils

Sandy Soil

1.60 grams ⋅ cm−3 dry

50% Saturation: K = 1.7 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1
100% Saturation: K > 3.17
List: Kersten in Farouki, figure 151 page 105.[109]
268.15 ± 2K











269.26
Higashi anomalies: The very high c values that are labeled as thermal conductivities in table III on page 100 would roughly fit the thesis of the paper if they came with lower orders of magnitude. The way that the dry soils get a lot lighter between Table I on page 99 and table IV on pages 102-3 is eventually explained by the fact that Table I has pycnometer densities.

For those who may already see reasons to learn more about the thermal conductivities of the soils it is free from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. The whole thing is on reference footnote 108 with the internet link [Farouki] and it comes with graphs and with formulas.

To make it easier a lb/ft3 is about 0.01601846 grams/cm3 and a Btu in./ft2 hr °F is about 0.14413139 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1.

Soils, frozen, above saturation Higashi Soils
Soil A
r* = 0.7: K = 3.953 W ⋅ m−1 ⋅ K−1
Soil B
r = 0.8: K = 3.348
List[110]
268.15 ± 2K In this sample of two there is one very dirty kind of ice that conducts heat at nearly twice the rate of plain ice. *r ≡ The ratio of the water mass to the dried mass.
Solder, Sn/63% Pb/37% 50[111]
Lead-free solder, Sn/95.6% Ag/3.5% Cu/0.9%, Sn/95.5% Ag/3.8% Cu/0.7% (SAC) ~60[111]
Steel, carbon 36[25][26]-43[4] 50.2[14]-54[4][25][26]

Intermediate British Steels, 1933

CS 81: 0.1% C, 0.34% Mn
67.4
66.1
64.9

CS 91: 0.26% C, 0.61% Mn
56.1
55.2
54.4

CS 92: 0.44% C, 0.67% Mn
54.0
52.7
51.9
List: Naeser, G. in TPRC I pp 1186–90, curves 81, 91 and 92[6]

Tool Steel, 1.41% C, 0.23% Mn, 0.158% Si L

Water Quenched
30.5
31.0
31.8

Tempered at 150°C and air cooled
32.2
32.2
32.8

Tempered at 200°C and air cooled
33.1
33.9
33.5

Tempered at 250°C and air cooled
36.8
36.4
37.2

Tempered at 300°C and air cooled
37.7
38.5
38.1

Tempered at 350°C and air cooled
38.1
38.5
38.9
List: Hattori, D., J. Iron Steel Inst. (London) 129 (1), 189-306, 1934 in TPRC I pp 1115–1120 curves 61-66[6]
293[14][25]-298[4]




373.2
473.2
573.2


373.2
473.2
573.2


373.2
473.2
573.2






355.70
374.20
390.20


360.70
376.70
389.70


366.20
401.70
427.20


364.20
395.70
424.70


365.70
393.20
427.20


369.20
390.70
432.20


(Fe+(1.5-0.5)%C)
Steel, stainless 16.3[26][112]-16.7[113]-18[114]-24[114] 296[112][113][114] 1,176,000[113] - 1,786,000[114] (Fe, Cr12.5-25%, Ni0-20%, Mo0-3%, Ti0-trace)
Styrofoam-expanded polystyrene Dow Chemical 0.033-0.036[115]
K. T. Yucel et al. 0.036-0.046[11]
Syenite 2.18
List: Birch and Clark in Robertson page 58[21]
300 This summary came from one sample in 1940.
Thermal grease 0.4 - 3.0[citation needed]
Thermal tape 0.60[116]
Thorium dioxide 3.68
3.12
2.84
2.66
2.54
List[22]
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800

Recommended values, TPRC, Polycrystaline, 99.5% pure, 98% dense, page 198[22]
Tin TPRC
20400to the c axis, 14200 to the c axis, 18300 P*
36000to the c axis, 25000 to the c axis, 32300 P
33100to the c axis, 23000 to the c axis, 29700 P
20200to the c axis, 14000 to the c axis, 18100 P

13000to the c axis, 9000 to the c axis, (11700) P

8500to the c axis, 5900 to the c axis, (7600) P
5800to the c axis, 4000 to the c axis, (5200) P
4000to the c axis, 2800 to the c axis, (3600) P
2900to the c axis, 2010 to the c axis, (2600) P

2150 to the c axis, 1490 to the c axis, (1930) P

1650to the c axis, 1140 to the c axis, (1480) P
1290to the c axis, 900 to the c axis, (1160) P
1040to the c axis, 20 to the c axis, (930) P
850 to the c axis, 590 to the c axis, (760) P

700 to the c axis, 490 to the c axis, (630) P

590 to the c axis, 410 to the c axis, (530) P
450 to the c axis, 310 to the c axis, (400) P
360 to the c axis, 250 to the c axis, (320) P
250 to the c axis, 172 to the c axis, (222) P

200 to the c axis, 136* to the c axis, (176) P

167 to the c axis, 116 to the c axis, (150) P
(150)to the c axis, (104) to the c axis, (133) P
(137)to the c axis, (95) to the c axis, (123) P
(128)to the c axis, (89) to the c axis, (115) P

(107)to the c axis, (74) to the c axis, (96) P
(98.0)to the c axis, (68.0) to the c axis, (88.0) P
(95.0)to the c axis, (66.0) to the c axis, (85.0) P
(86.7)to the c axis, (60.2) to the c axis, (77.9) P

(81.6)to the c axis, (56.7) to the c axis, (73.3) P

(75.9)to the c axis, (52.7) to the c axis, 68.2 P
(74.2)to the c axis, (51.5) to the c axis, 66.6 P
69.3to the c axis, 48.1 to the c axis, 62.2 P
66.4to the c axis, 46.1 to the c axis, 59.6 P
List[6]

The Soviet Union
68.2[52]

1
2
3
4

5

6
7
8
9

10

11
12
13
14

15

16
18
20
25

30

35
40
45
50

70
90
100
150

200

273.2
300
400
500



273.15
*The P Conductivity is the conductivity of polycrystalline Tin.

TPRC Tin is well annealed 99.999+% pure white tin with residual electrical resistivity ρ0=0.000120, 0.0001272 & 0.000133 μΩ cm respectively for the single crystal along directions perpendicular and parallel to the c axis and for polycrystalline tin P. The recommended values are thought to be accurate to within 3% near room temperature and 3 to [unintelligible] at other temperatures. Values in parenthesis are extrapolated, interpolated, or estimated.

*It happens that the online record has the thermal conductivity at 30 Kelvins and to the c axis posted at 1.36 W⋅cm−1 K−1 and 78.0 Btu hr−1 ft−1 F−1 which is incorrect. Also the copy is blurred up enough to give you the impression that maybe what it really means is 1.36 W−1 cm−1 K−1 and 78.6 Btu hr−1 ft−1 F−1 and a type-head that got overdue for its cleaning since the secretary had a tall heap of papers on her desk and if that is the case then the multilingual expression is perfectly consistent. TPRC Data Series Volume 1, page 408.[6]

This material is superconductive (electrical) at temperatures below 3.722 Kelvins. Weast page E-75.[17]
Titanium, pure 15.6[26]-19.0[25]-21.9[9][117]-22.5[25] 293[25]-300[9][117] 1,852,000[117] - 2,381,000[29]
Titanium alloy 5.8[118] 296[118] 595,200[118] (Ti+6%Al+4%V)
Tungsten, pure 173 1440
9710
208
173[119]
118
98[120]
1
10
100
293[119]
1000
2000
18,940,000[119]
Wallboard (1929) 0.0640
0.0581
0.0633
List[22]
322.8 Stiles, H., Chem. Met. Eng.,36, 625-6, 1929, TPRC Volume 2 pages 1131 and 1172. This is commercial wallboard in three samples of it at the same mean temperature.[22]
Water 0.563[121]-0.596[121]-0.6[5][14]-0.609[23]

TPRC
0.5225*
0.5551*
0.5818
0.5918
0.6084
0.6233
0.6367
0.6485
0.6587
0.6673
0.6797
0.6864
0.6727
0.6348
0.5708
List[12]

The Soviet Union
0.599[52]
273[121]-293[5][14][121]-300[23]


250
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
370
400
450
500
550



293.15
Pure10−6[55]-Sweet10−3±1[55]-Sea1[121] <4[121]%(NaCl+MgCl2+CaCl2)

It was 1910 when the bunch who have a meter stick in France decided that this material is supposed to have a density of 0.999973 grams per cubic centimeter at temperatures close to 277.13 Kelvins and for a long time since then the bunch who have a meter stick in America have been saying that it has a specific heat of 4.18400 Joules per gram per Kelvin at a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.[122]

*The TPRC Estimates for water at 250K and 270K are for supercooled liquid. Of course the values for 400K and above are for water under steam pressure.[12]
Water vapor 0.016[4]-0.02479 (101.3 kPa)[123]
0.0471 (1 bar)[16]
293[123]-398[4]
600[16]
Wood, moist +>=12% water: 0.09091[124]-0.16[54]-0.21[124]-0.4[5]
The Royal Society:

Fir L
Specific gravity=0.6
15% moisture
⊥ to the grain U*: 0.117
Mahogany L
Specific gravity=0.70
15% m & ⊥ to the grain R*: 0.167
15% m & ⊥ to the grain T*: 0.155
15% m & to the grain: 0.310
Oak L
Specific gravity=0.60
14% m & ⊥ to the grain T: 0.117
Spruce: L
Electric Oven
3.40% m & ⊥ to the grain R: 0.122
5.80% m & ⊥ to the grain R: 0.126
7.70% m & ⊥ to the grain R: 0.129
9.95% m & ⊥ to the grain R: 0.133
17.0% m & ⊥ to the grain R: 0.142
Specific gravity=0.041
16% m & ⊥ to the grain R: 0.121
16% m & ⊥ to the grain T: 0.105
16% m & to the grain: 0.222
Teak L
Specific gravity=0.72
10% m & ⊥ to the grain T: 0.138
Walnut L
Specific gravity=0.65
12.1% m & ⊥ to the grain R: 0.145
11.3% m & ⊥ to the grain T: 0.136
11.8% m & to the grain: 0.332
List[22]
298[54]-293[5]




293.2


293.2
293.2
293.2


293.2


373.2
373.2
373.2
373.2
373.2

293.2
293.2
293.2


293.2


293.2
293.2
293.2
Species-Variable[124]

The Royal Society: Griffiths, E. and Kaye, G. W. C., Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A104, 71-98, 1923, TPRC Volume 2, pages 1073, 1080, 1082, 1086 and 1162.[22]

*The R conductivity is the thermal conductivity radial to the annual rings, T is tangential to those rings and U is unspecified. Mahogany: page 1080, Oak: page 1082, Spruce: page 1086, Teak: page 1087, Walnut: page 1089.

Method: Longitudinal Heat Flow, TPRC 1, page 24a.[6]

Note: all the percentages refer to moisture. The Fir was measured at 15%, Mahogany, 15%, Oak, 14%, Spruce, 3.40%, 5.80%, 7.70%, 9.95%, 17.0% and 16%. Teak was measured at 10% and Walnut was measured at 12.1%, 11.3% and 11.8% moisture.

Wood, unspecified 0.04[14]-0.055[4]-0.07692[124]-0.12[14]-0.17[4][124]

The Royal Society
Walnut L
⊥ to the grain & tangent to the annual rings, various pressures and thicknesses all 0.137 ± 0.001 twelve times over. Griffiths, E. and Kaye, G. W. C., Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), A104, 71-98, 1923 in TPRC 2 page 1089.[22]

Various
Pine, see Pine.
Redwood Bark, see Redwood Bark.
293[14]-298[4]





293.2




Balsa[4]-Cedar[124]-Hickory[124]/Oak[4]
Wool, Angora wool 0.0464[22] 293.2[22] Bettini, T. M., Ric. Sci. 20 (4), 464-6, 1950, TPRC pages 1092 and 1172[22]
Wool felt 0.0623[22]
0.0732[22]
313.2[22]
343.2[22]
Taylor, T. S., Mech. Eng., 42, 8-10, 1920, TPRC pages 1133 and 1161.[22]
Zinc, pure 116[55] 293[55] 16,950,000[55]
Zinc oxide 21[27]
Zirconium dioxide Slip Cast, first run (1950)
2.03
1.98
1.96
1.91
1.91
1.90
Second Run (1950)
1.81
1.80
1.92
1.90
1.95
1.92
1.97
1.98
2.04
2.29
CaO stabilized (1964)
1.54
1.64
1.64
1.76
1.62
1.79
1.80
2.46
2.33
2.80
2.56
2.70
List[22]
766.2
899.2
1006.2
1090.2
1171.2
1233.2

386.2
470.2
553.2
632.2
734.2
839.2
961.2
1076.2
1163.2
1203.2

1343.2
1513.2
1593.2
1663.2
1743.2
2003.2
2103.2
2323.2
2413.2
2413.2
2493.2
2523.2
First Run: Density=5.35 g cm−3. Norton, F. H., Kingery, W. D., Fellows, D. M., Adams, M., McQuarrie, M. C. and Coble, R. L. USAEC Rept. NYO-596, 1-9, 1950, TPRC pages 247 and 1160[22]

Second Run: Same Specimen, same USAEC Report.[22]

CaO stabilized: Density=4.046 g cm−3 (66.3% of theoretical). Feith, A. D., Gen. Elec. Co., Adv. Tech. Service, USAEC Rept. GEMP-296, 1-25, 1964, TPRC pages 247 and 1165.[22]

Some recent developments include Zirconia fibrous thermal insulation for temperatures up to about 2000 Kelvins. Various conductivities less than 0.4 w m−1 K−1. Zircar Zirconia, Inc.[125]

Material Thermal conductivity [W·m−1·K−1] Temperature [K] Electrical conductivity @ 293 K [Ω−1·m−1] Notes

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit