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List of the oldest mosques

The designation of the oldest mosque in the world requires careful use of definitions, and must be divided into two parts, the oldest in the sense of oldest surviving building, and the oldest in the sense of oldest mosque congregation. Even here, there is the distinction between old mosque buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques, and those that have been converted to other purposes; and between buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques and those that were shuttered for many decades. In terms of congregations, they are distinguished between early established congregations that have been in continuous existence, and early congregations that ceased to exist.

To be listed here a site must:

  • be the oldest mosque in a country, large city (top 50), or oldest of its type (denomination, architectural, etc.);
  • be the oldest congregation of its type (denomination).

Contents

Mentioned in the QuranEdit

The following are treated as the oldest mosques or sanctuaries[1] mentioned in the Quran:[2]

Building Image Location Country First built Notes
Al-Haram Mosque Mecca   Saudi Arabia Unknown, associated with Abraham[1] Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام‎),[a] the Kaaba sanctuary, a site of the Ḥajj (Arabic: حَـجّ‎, 'Pilgrimage'), the Qiblah (Arabic: قِـبْـلَـة‎,[9] Direction of Muslim formal prayers), and the first mosque[10][11] in Islamic thought.[12][13] Rebuilt many times, notably 1571 by the Ottomans, and the late 20th century by the Saudis, further enlargement under way since 2010.
Al-Aqsa Mosque Jerusalem (old city)   Palestine/

  Israel

Unknown,[14] associated with Abraham[1] Al-Masjid al-Aqṣá (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْاَقْـصَى‎)[2], the first Qiblah[15], site of the significant event of Isra' wal-Mi'raj, third holiest site in Islam. Although properly referring to the whole Temple Mount compound (seen as a single mosque)[note 1] today however specifically the silver-domed congregational mosque/prayer hall facing Mecca [otherwise known as Al-Qibli Mosque (see below)] located on the southern side of the compound.
Quba Mosque Medina   Saudi Arabia 622 The first mosque built by Muhammad and his companions in the 7th century CE, mentioned as the "Mosque founded on piety since the first day"[17] in the Quran. Largely rebuilt in the late 20th century.

OthersEdit

Note that the major regions, such as Africa and Eurasia, are sorted alphabetically, whereas the minor regions, such as Northeast and Northwest Africa in Africa, and Arabia and South Asia in Eurasia, are sorted by the dates in which their first mosques were reportedly established, more or less, barring those that are mentioned by name in the Quran.

AfricaEdit

Northeast Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Mosque of the Companions, Massawa Massawa   Eritrea 610-620 (approximate)[18] Believed to be the first mosque on the African continent and the first mosque in the world built by Muhammad and his companions in the 7th century.[18]
Negash Amedin Mesgid Negash   Ethiopia 620-630 Built in the 7th century in Negash, the mosque in Negash, by tradition burial site of several followers of Mohammad who, during his lifetime, fled to the Aksumite Kingdom to escape persecution in Mecca.
Masjid al-Qiblatayn Zeila   Somalia 620-630[19] Built in the 7th century in Zeila, shortly after the hijrah; known to be among the oldest mosques.
Mosque of Amr ibn al-As Cairo   Egypt 641 Named after 'Amr ibn al-'As, commander of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, by order of Caliph Umar. Built as the centre of Fustat (the newly founded capital of Egypt) in 673–642 CE, and rebuilt in 1179 and in 1875.
Mosque of Ibn Tulun Cairo   Egypt 879
Al-Hakim Mosque Cairo   Egypt 928
Al-Azhar Mosque Cairo   Egypt 972 Sunni
Arba'a Rukun Mosque Mogadishu   Somalia 1268/9 Sunni
Fakr ad-Din Mosque Mogadishu   Somalia 1269 Sunni Mosque built by Sultan Fakr ad-Din of the Sultanate of Mogadishu (10th Century – 16th Century).
Northwest Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Mosque of Uqba Kairouan   Tunisia 670 Sunni Believed to be the first mosque in the Maghreb, it was rebuilt in the 9th century.
Sidi Okba Mosque Sidi Okba   Algeria 686[20]
Al-Zaytuna Mosque Tunis   Tunisia 709 Sunni
Great Mosque of Sfax Sfax   Tunisia 850[21]
Great Mosque of Sousse Sousse   Tunisia 851[22]
Atiq Mosque, Awjila Awjila   Libya 1101 Sunni
Southeast Africa (including nearby islands of the Indian Ocean, but barring countries that are also in Southern Africa)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Shanga Mosque Shanga, Pate Island   Kenya Foundation discovered, with coins attesting dates, during the 1980s excavations. The earliest concrete evidence of Muslims in East Africa.[23]:97
Great Mosque of Kilwa Kilwa Kisiwani   Tanzania 1000-1100
Kizimkazi Mosque Dimbani   Tanzania 1107 (according to an inscription)[24]
Tsingoni Mosque Tsingoni, Mayotte   France 1538[25]
Al-Fatah Mosque (Green Mosque) Kigali   Rwanda (then German East Africa) 1913[26] Founded by coastal Swahili-speaking Tanzanian Muslims who came to Rwanda to work in the German administration.[26]
Western-Central Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Larabanga Mosque Larabanga   Ghana 1421 The oldest existing mud-brick mosque in Ghana.
Great Mosque of Kano Kano   Nigeria 15th century Built in for Emir Muhammad Rumfa
Southern Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Auwal Mosque Cape Colony   South Africa (then Cape Colony) 1798[27]
Masjid al-Qudama Caledon Street, Uitenhage, Eastern Cape   South Africa 1849[28] It is deduced that the mosque in Caledon Street was a completed building by March 1849
Grey Street Mosque (Juma Mosque) Durban[29]   South Africa 1881
Soofie Masjid Butha Buthe   Lesotho 1900 (approximate)[23]:115 Founded by Soofie Saheb at the turn of the century; the community is described as African Muslim yet speaking an Indian language.[23]:115
Habibia Soofie Saheb Jamia Masjid Rylands, Cape Town   South Africa 1905
Lobatse Masjid Lobatse   Botswana 1960s[30] Founded by Indian Muslims who were brought over during the British colonial period.
Ezulwini Mosque Ezulwini, near Mbabane   Eswatini 1978[31]
West Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Agadez Mosque Agadez   Niger 1515 Niger's oldest mosque.
Grand Mosque, Sokodé Sokodé   Togo 1820[32]

AmericasEdit

South America
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
  Suriname (then a colony of the Netherlands) 1906[33] Built by immigrant Javanese rice farmers.[33]
Mesquita Brasil (São Paulo), São Paulo   Brazil 1929[34] Previous site built in 1929;[34] current building inaugurated in 1952. First known mosque in Brazil.[35]
  Panama 1930[23] Built by the Ahmadiyya community.[23]
El Paraíso, Caracas   Venezuela 1968[36]
At-Tauhid Mosque Buenos Aires   Argentina 1983[37] Shi'ite Opened in October 1983 by the Shi'ite community of Buenos Aires and with the support of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Argentina. It is a very simple building with a subtle Islamic style in its facade.[38]
Mezquita as-Salam Santiago   Chile 1995[39] Commissioned 1989, inaugurated in 1995.
North America (including Central America and island-states of the Caribbean Sea)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Sadiq Mosque Chicago, Illinois   United States 1922
Mother Mosque of America (Moslem Temple) Ross, North Dakota   United States 1934 Built in Iowa in 1934,[citation needed] became the oldest standing mosque in America when the Ross Mosque was torn down in the 1970s. The Ross Mosque was later rebuilt in 2005.
Al-Rashid Mosque Edmonton, Alberta   Canada 1938 First purpose built mosque.
Westmoreland and Spanish Town   Jamaica 1950s[40] Constructed by the Islamic Society of Jamaica, which was founded in 1950.
  Haiti 1985[41]
Suraya Mosque Torreón   Mexico 1989 Built by the immigrants from the Middle East living in Torreón.
  Costa Rica 1995[42] Founded by the Islamic Cultural Association of Costa Rica.
Belize City[43]   Belize 2008 (approximate)[44] Founded by Belizeans who converted to Islam while in the United States.[44]

EurasiaEdit

'Eurasia' is treated here not as a continental landmass, but a combination of European and Asian countries, including island-states such as Japan and the United Kingdom.

Arabian Peninsula (including the island-state of Bahrain)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi Medina   Saudi Arabia 622 Second holiest site in Islam (after Al-Haram Mosque) and Muhammad's mosque, which houses his tomb in what was initially his and his wife Aisha's house. Largely rebuilt and greatly enlarged in the late 20th century, whilst retaining at its heart the earlier construction of the Ottomans, and landmark green dome atop the prophet's mausoleum.
Mash'ar al-Haram Mosque Muzdalifah, near Mecca   Saudi Arabia 622–623 Mosque demarcating Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـشْـعَــر الْـحَـرَام‎),[45] a Hajj site mentioned in the Quran.[46][47][48][49]
Masjid al-Qiblatain Medina   Saudi Arabia 623 Mosque originally with two Qiblah walls: One facing Jerusalem, the first Qiblah and another facing Mecca
Jawatha Mosque Al-Kilabiyah   Saudi Arabia 629 Has recently been renovated and prayers are still held in this mosque.
Great Mosque of Sana'a Sana'a   Yemen 7th century Possibly the oldest mosque in the country.
Al-Asha'ir Mosque Zabid   Yemen 629 A part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Town of Zabid.[50] Established by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, a sahabi.
Masjid Mazin Samail   Oman 600s[51] Founded by Mazin Ben Ghadooba, who is considered to be the first Omani to adopt Islam during Muhammad's lifetime.[51]
Al-Hadi Mosque Sa'dah   Yemen 897
Khamis Mosque Khamis, Manama   Bahrain 1000–1200 (approximate)[52] Though most of the structure is dated to the 11th or 12th century, it is popularly believed to have been founded by the Caliph Omar in the 600s.[53]
Al Badiyah Mosque Fujairah   United Arab Emirates 1400s[54] Some much earlier estimates have been proposed.
Greater China
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Huaisheng Mosque Guangzhou   China 627 The Huaisheng Mosque is the main mosque of Guangzhou. It has been rebuilt many times over its history. According to tradition it was originally built over 1,300 years ago in 627 CE by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, who was an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was named in memory of Muhammad.
Xianxian Mosque Guangzhou City   China 629 The mosque was originally built in 629 during the Tang Dynasty.
Great Mosque of Xi'an Xi'an, Shaanxi   China 742[55] Although the oldest stones date from the 18th century,[56] the Mosque was founded in 742[57] Built in 742, but oldest mosque in China is the Beacon Tower mosque of Guangzhou being built in 627.[58]
Macau Mosque     Macau (then Portuguese Macau)   China 1980 The first and only mosque in Macau.
Taipei Grand Mosque   Taipei   Taiwan 1947 Oldest and most famous mosque in Taiwan. Original building was firstly used in 1947, then relocated to a new site where it was reconstructed in 1960.
Jamia Mosque     Hong Kong (then British Hong Kong)   China 1890
South Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Cheraman Juma Masjid Kodungallur   India 629 Built by Malik bin Dinar, companion of Prophet Muhammad, on orders of Cheraman Perumal[59], then King of modern-day Kerala, it is the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.[60]
Palaiya Jumma Palli Kilakarai   India 630 Sunni Considered to be the first mosque to be built in Tamil Nadu, and the second mosque in India. Constructed by Yemeni merchants and trade settlers in the Pandiya Kingdom and ordered by Bazan ibn Sasan, Governor of Yemen at the time of Muhammad.[61]
Masjid al-Abrar Beruwala, Kalutara District, Western Province   Sri Lanka First century in the Hijri calendar The date has been carved in its stone pillars. It is situated in western province of Sri Lanka.
Haji Piyada Balkh   Afghanistan Second half of the 9th century[62] Considered to be the oldest Islamic building in Afghanistan.[62]
Jamia Masjid, Banbhore Banbhore, Sindh   Pakistan 727 This is the oldest mosque of Pakistan which is located in Bhambore.[63][64]
Kazimar Big Mosque Madurai   India 1284 Sunni, Hanafi Shadhili Second mosque in Tamil Nadu.
Chaqchan Mosque Khaplu, Gilgit Baltistan   Pakistan 1370 This is the oldest mosque of Gilgit Baltistan located in Khaplu.[65][66]
Sixty Dome Mosque Bagerhat   Bangladesh 1450 Built by Khan Jahan Ali, it is considered to be the second-oldest mosque in Bangladesh. The fortified structure contains eighty-one domes, sixty stone pillars and eleven mihrabs.
Neevin Mosque Lahore   Pakistan 1460
Levant (for Cyprus and Greater Syria)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Qibli Mosque (al-Jami' al-Aqsa) Jerusalem (old city)   Palestine/

  Israel

637 A Muslim prayer hall with a silver-colored lead dome located in the southern part of Al-Aqsa Mosque (Temple Mount), built by the Rashidun caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
Al-Shuaibiyah Mosque Aleppo   Syria 637
Ibrahimi Mosque Hebron   Palestine/

  Israel

637[67]
Great Mosque of Aleppo Aleppo   Syria 715
Umayyad Mosque Damascus   Syria 715 Sunni National Mosque. It was originally built after the Muslim conquest of the city in 634. The current structure dates to 715.
White Mosque Ramla   Palestine/

  Israel

720
Al-Omari Mosque Bosra   Syria 721
Great Mosque of Raqqa Raqqa   Syria 772
Arab Ahmet Mosque Arab Ahmet quarter of Nicosia   Cyprus Late 16th century[68] The mosque is named after a commander of the 1571 Ottoman army who made an expedition in 1571.[68][68][69]
Southwest Asia (excluding the Arabian peninsula, Caucasus, and Syrian region)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Ayasofya Mosque (Hagia Sophia) Istanbul   Turkey 1453 (537) Built in 537 as a Greek Orthodox cathedral, converted to a mosque in 1453, and then a museum in 1931.[70]
Great Mosque of Kufa Kufa   Iraq 639 Shia The mosque, built in the 7th century, contains the remains of Muslim ibn Aqeel – first cousin of Husayn ibn Ali, his companion Hani ibn Urwa, and the revolutionary Mukhtar al-Thaqafi.
Maqam al-Imam al-Husayn Mosque Karbala   Iraq 680 Shia Reconstructed several times, including in 1016.
Jameh Mosque of Ferdows Ferdows   Iran 7th century (possibly)
Masjid al-Hisn Mopsuestia, Adana Province   Turkey 717-720 Built by the Umayyad caliph Umar II, as part of his conversion of the city into a military base to shield Antioch from a potential Greek attack. The building fell into ruin during the reign of Al-Mu'tasim, approximately 120 years later.
Jameh Mosque of Isfahan Isfahan   Iran 771
Jameh Mosque of Fahraj Fahraj   Iran 700s[71]
Tarikhaneh Mosque Damghan   Iran 8th century
Great Mosque of Samarra Samarra   Iraq 848
Al-Askari Mosque Samarra   Iraq 944 Shia (Twelver) Shrine of the 10th and 11th Twelver Shi'ite Imams: Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari.
Imam Ali Mosque Najaf   Iraq 977 Shia, Sunni Houses the tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and fourth Caliph, and the first person of the Shia Imamate.
Great Mosque of Diyarbakır Diyarbakır   Turkey 1092 Sunni One of the oldest known mosques in modern Turkey.
Yivliminare Mosque (Alaeddin Mosque) Antalya   Turkey 1230
Aslanhane Mosque Ankara   Turkey 1290
Central Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Po-i-Kalyan Bukhara   Uzbekistan 713 Since 713 here, several edifices of main cathedral mosque were built then razed, restored after fires and wars, and moved from place to place.
Transcaucasia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Juma Mosque Shamakhi   Azerbaijan 743-744 Built in 743–744, set on fire by Armenian units of "Dashnaktsutiun" in 1918, reconstructed in 2009.
Blue Mosque Yerevan   Armenia Mid-18th century
Iberian Peninsula
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Great Mosque of Cordoba (Mezquita) Córdoba, Andalusia   Spain (then the Emirate of Córdoba) 785[72] It was built on the main (Visigothic) church of the city after the site was being divided and shared between Muslims and Christians for around seven decades. The great mosque was built by Abd al-Rahman I, the first Muslim ruler of Spain in 785,[73] it underwent successive extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries and was concluded in 10th century under the command of Almanzor. After the Christian reconquest of Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III of Castile converted the mosque into a cathedral, suffering some alterations that will end up configuring the current Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. With 23,400 square metres (2.34 ha), it was the second largest mosque in the world on the surface, after Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca, only later replaced in this respect by the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul in 1588.
Mosque of Cristo de la Luz Toledo, Castile-La Mancha   Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba) 999 (completed)[74]
Mosque of las Tornerías Toledo, Castile-La Mancha   Spain (then the Taifa of Toledo) mid-11th-century (completed)[75] Arabic: الـمـسـتـمـيـم‎, translit. al-Mustimim
Mosque of Tórtoles Tarazona, Aragon   Spain (then the Crown of Aragon) 15th-century (completed)[76] Almost not altered in the later centuries.
  Russia
Building Image Location First built Denomination Notes
Dzhuma Mosque Derbent, Dagestan (then part of the Abbasid Caliphate) 700-900 (approximate)[52]
Eastern Europe (excluding the Caucasus, European Russia and Nordic countries)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Agha Mosque Dragaš   Kosovo 1268[77] Built by Muslims who migrated from Aleppo, in Syria, to Kosovo.[77]
Dzhumaya Mosque Plovdiv   Bulgaria 1363–1364 Built during the reign of Sultan Murad II the old building was demolished and replaced by the modern-day mosque.
Sailors' Mosque Ulcinj   Montenegro 14th century
Halit Efendi Mosque Slupčane, Lipkovo Municipality   Macedonia 1415[78] It is considered to be the oldest mosque in Macedonia.[78]
Turhan Emin-Beg Mosque Ustikolina   Bosnia and Herzegovina 1448–1449[79] Built by Turhan Emin-beg. Known to have been destroyed two times (1941 and 1992) and rebuilt two times (1956 and 2007).[79]
Fatih Mosque, Elbasan Elbasan Castle   Albania 1466[80] Built by the orders of Sultan Mehmed II.[80]
Old Mosque, Plav (Imperial Mosque) Plav   Montenegro 1471[81] Built during the Ottoman rule in the city.[81]
King Mosque or Sultan Bayazit Mosque Elbasan   Albania 1482
Iljaz Mirahori Mosque Korçë   Albania 1494[82] It was built by Iljaz Hoxha, also known as Iljaz Bey Mirahor,[82] and is a Cultural Monument of Albania.[83]
Mosque of Kuklibeu Prizren   Kosovo 1534
Mosque of Muderis Ali Efendi Prizren   Kosovo 1543–1581
Mangalia Mosque Mangalia   Romania 1575 Oldest mosque in Romania
  Poland 1558 (earliest attestation in writing)[84] Tatar mosques in Poland were noted in a 1558 treatise Risale-i Tatar-i Lech.[84]
  Lithuania (then the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) 1500-1600[85] Various records indicate Lithuanian Tatars built mosques in the Duchy during the 16th century[85]
Mosque of Sinan Pasha Prizren   Kosovo 1615
Log pod Mangartom Mosque Log pod Mangartom, Municipality of Bovec   Slovenia (then Austria-Hungary) 1916[86] Built by Bosniak members of the Austro-Hungarian army.[86]
Gunja Mosque Gunja   Croatia 1969 The first and one of the few mosques in Croatia, located near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Vienna Islamic Centre-Mosque Vienna   Austria 1979[87]
Brno Mosque Brno   Czech Republic 1998[88] Construction began 1996, inaugurated 1998.[88]
Southeast Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque Tubig Indangan, Simunul island, Tawi-Tawi province   Philippines 1380[89] Founded by Makhdum Karim, who introduced Islam to the Philippines.
  Brunei 1430 (approximate)[90] Built under the direction of Sharif Ali ("Sultan Berkat"), who reigned 1425-1432.
Great Mosque of Demak Demak, Central Java   Indonesia 15th century[91] The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia.[91]
300 Years Mosque Narathiwat   Thailand 17th century It is at least one of the oldest known mosques in Thailand.[92]
Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka Central Area   Singapore 1820[93] Originally a wooden structure built by Arab merchant Syed Omar Ali Aljunied.
British Isles
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute Liverpool,   England   United Kingdom 1891[94] Liverpool Muslim Institute Several sources state that a mosque was founded in 1860 at 2 Glynrhondda Street, Cardiff, Wales. This has been rejected by an academic paper as a transcription error.[95]
Dublin Mosque and Islamic Centre Dublin   Ireland 1976[88] The first purpose-built mosque was built in Ballyhaunis in 1987.[citation needed]
Western-Central Europe (excluding the British Isles, Nordic countries, and countries that are also in Eastern Europe)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Grand Mosque of Paris Paris (first in Metropolitan France)   France 1926 This mosque was the first mosque built in France since the 8th century; it was built in the Moroccan style, and honored Muslim French veterans of World War I.[96]
Wünsdorf Mosque Wünsdorf, Berlin   Germany 1915 Erected in 1915 by the Imperial German Army administration for Muslim Allied prisoners of war in the POW camp in Wünsdorf, later used as refugee camp. In 1930 torn down due to lack of a congregation.
Mobarak Mosque The Hague   Netherlands 1955 The first known purpose-built mosque in the Netherlands.
Centre Islamique de Genève ("Little Mosque" of Geneva) Geneva    Switzerland 1961 Founded by Said Ramadan
East Asia (excluding Greater China)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Kobe Mosque Kobe   Japan 1935[97] Designed in the Turkish style by a Czech architect, confiscated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1943, and later returned.
Seoul Central Mosque Seoul   South Korea 1976[98]
Nordic countries
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Järvenpää mosque   Finland 1942 A mosque of the community of Finnish Tatars. It is considered to be the oldest mosque in Nordic countries. Finland's first Muslim cemetery was established in the 1830s for Russian troops.[99]
Hvidovre, outside Copenhagen   Denmark 1967[99] Founded by the Ahmadiyya; first purpose-built mosque in a Nordic country.
Islamic Cultural Centre Norway Oslo   Norway 1974 Founded by Pakistani-Norwegians aided by Danish Muslims; of the Sunni Deobandi school. The first Shi'i mosque, Anjuman-e Hussain, opened in 1975; the first Sunni Barelvi mosque opened in 1976.
Nasir Mosque, Gothenburg   Sweden 1976
Stockholm   Sweden 2000[100] Converted from Katarinastation, a former power station.
Reykjavík Mosque Reykjavik   Iceland 2002[101] Not a purpose-built mosque, but serves as an interim gathering site.

OceaniaEdit

Australasia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Marree Mosque Marree, South Australia   Australia 1861[102] / 1882[39] Small structure in the South Australian desert built by Australia's "Afghan" camel-drivers, has been restored.
Central Adelaide Mosque Adelaide   Australia 1888[102] The oldest major city mosque in the country.[102]
Auckland   New Zealand 1979 (begun)[103] Cornerstone laid in 1979; the first Islamic centre in the country was installed in an Auckland house bought in 1959.[103]
Melanesia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Vitogo, Nausori, and Tavua[104]   Fiji 1922 (approximate)[104] A number of wooden mosques were built by local Islamic assemblies around 1922.[104]
Port Moresby[39]   Papua New Guinea 2000[105] Islam was introduced to the island in the 1970s,[105] and the first Islamic centre established in 1988.[39]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 2:144–217;[3] 5:2;[4] 8:34;[5] 9:7–28;[6] 17:1;[2] 22:25;[7] 48:25–27.[8]
  1. ^ According to historian Oleg Grabar, "It is only at a relatively late date that the Muslim holy space in Jerusalem came to be referred to as al-haram al-sharif (literally, the Noble Sacred Precinct or Restricted Enclosure, often translated as the Noble Sanctuary and usually simply referred to as the Haram). While the exact early history of this term is unclear, we know that it only became common in Ottoman times, when administrative order was established over all matters pertaining to the organization of the Muslim faith and the supervision of the holy places, for which the Ottomans took financial and architectural responsibility. Before the Ottomans, the space was usually called al-masjid al-aqsa (the Farthest Mosque), a term now reserved to the covered congregational space on the Haram, or masjid bayt al-maqdis (Mosque of the Holy City) or, even, like Mecca's sanctuary, al-masjid al-ḥarâm,"[16]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Michigan Consortium for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (1986). Goss, V. P.; Bornstein, C. V., eds. The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades. 21. Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University. p. 208. ISBN 0918720583.
  2. ^ a b c Quran 17:1–7
  3. ^ Quran 2:144–217
  4. ^ Quran 5:2 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  5. ^ Quran 8:34 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  6. ^ Quran 9:7–28
  7. ^ Quran 22:25 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  8. ^ Quran 48:25–27
  9. ^ Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  10. ^ Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  11. ^ Quran 22:25–37
  12. ^ Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now, M. Lings, pg. 39, Archetype
  13. ^ Zeitlin, I. M. (2013-04-25). "3". The Historical Muhammad. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0745654886.
  14. ^ Elad, Amikam (1995), Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship Holy Places, Ceremonies, Pilgrimage, Brill, pp. 29–43, ISBN 90-04-10010-5
  15. ^ "The Spiritual Significance of Jerusalem: The Islamic Vision. The Islamic Quarterly. 4 (1998): pp.233-242
  16. ^ Grabar 2000, p. 203.
  17. ^ Quran 9:108 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  18. ^ a b Reid, Richard J. (12 January 2012). "The Islamic Frontier in Eastern Africa". A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present. John Wiley and Sons. p. 106. ISBN 0470658983. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  19. ^ "Liste des premières mosquées au monde prophètique, rashidun et omeyyade selon les écris historique et les traces archéologiques". Histoire Islamique (in French). 2014-06-15. Retrieved 2017-09-24.
  20. ^ Sidi 'Uqba (mosque, minaret and tomb) Museum With No Frontiers. Retrieved 8-1-2017
  21. ^ Great Mosque of Sfax. Museum with No Frontiers. Retrieved 8-2-2017.
  22. ^ Great Mosque of Sousse. Museum with No Frontiers. Retrieved 8-1-2017.
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