List of the oldest mosques

The designation of the oldest mosques in the world requires careful use of definitions, and must be divided into two parts, the oldest in the sense of oldest surviving building, and the oldest in the sense of oldest mosque congregation. Even here, there is the distinction between old mosque buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques, and those that have been converted to other purposes; and between buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques and those that were shuttered for many decades. In terms of congregations, they are distinguished between early established congregations that have been in continuous existence, and early congregations that ceased to exist. Note that the major regions, such as Africa and Eurasia, are sorted alphabetically, whereas the minor regions, such as Arabia and South Asia, are sorted by the dates in which their first mosques were reportedly established, more or less, barring those that are mentioned by name in the Quran.

To be listed here a site must:

  • be the oldest mosque in a country, large city (top 50), or oldest of its type (denomination, architectural, etc.);
  • be the oldest congregation of its type (denomination).

Mentioned in the Quran Edit

The following are treated as the oldest mosques or sanctuaries[1] mentioned in the Quran:[2]

Building Image Location Country First built Notes
Al-Haram Mosque
Mecca   Saudi Arabia Unknown, considered the oldest mosque, associated with Abraham[1] Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, Quran 2:144–217;[3] Quran 5:2;[4] Quran 8:34;[5] Quran 9:7–28;[6] Quran 17:1;[2] Quran 22:25;[7] Quran 48:25–27.[8] the holiest sanctuary, containing the Ka'bah, a site of the Ḥajj ('Pilgrimage'), the Qiblah[9] (Direction of formal prayers of Muslims), and the first mosque[10][11] in Islamic thought.[12][13] Rebuilt many times, notably 1571 by the Ottomans, and the late 20th century by the Saudis, further enlargement under way since 2010.
Haram al-Sharif, also known as the Al-Aqsa Mosque Compound
Jerusalem (old city) contested Considered the second oldest mosque in Islamic tradition,[14] associated with Abraham.[1]

The Dome of the Rock was constructed in 692, the Al-Aqsa Mosque in 705.

Al-Masjid al-Aqṣá,[2] the former Qiblah,[15] site of the significant event of Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj)[16], considered the third holiest site in Islam. The Qur'an does not specify the precise location of "the furthest place of prayer", and its meaning was debated by early Islamic scholars.[17][18][19][20] Eventually, a consensus emerged its identification with the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.[19][21]

The term Al-Aqsa properly refers to the whole Temple Mount compound (seen as a single mosque).[note 1] The mosque compound should not be confused with the silver-domed congregational mosque or prayer hall facing Mecca, commonly referred to in English as Al-Aqsa Mosque, and also known as Al-Qibli Mosque (see below).

The Sacred Monument
Muzdalifah   Saudi Arabia Unknown Al-Mashʿar Al-Ḥarām[23] a site of the Hajj.[24][25][26][27]
Quba Mosque   Medina   Saudi Arabia 622 The first mosque built by Muhammad in the 7th century CE, possibly mentioned as the "Mosque founded on piety since the first day"[28] in the Quran.[citation needed] Largely rebuilt in the late 20th century.

Africa Edit

Northeast Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Masjid As-Sahabah
Massawa   Eritrea 620s–630s[29] Believed to be the first mosque on the African continent and the first mosque in the world built by the companions of prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.[29]
Al Nejashi Mosque
Negash   Ethiopia 613 Built in the 7th century in Negash, the mosque in Negash, by tradition burial site of several followers of Mohammad who, during his lifetime, fled to the Aksumite Kingdom to escape persecution in Mecca.[30] It was recently renovated by TIKA, a Turkish cooperation organization.[31]
Masjid al-Qiblatayn
Zeila   Somalia 615[32] Built in the 7th century in Zeila, shortly after the hijrah; known to be one of the oldest mosques in the world and possibly the oldest in Africa.
Korijib Masjid Tadjoura   Djibouti 630–640 Possible the oldest mosque in the country.
Mosque of Amr ibn al-As
Cairo   Egypt 641 Named after 'Amr ibn al-'As, commander of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, by order of Caliph Umar. Built as the centre of Fustat (the newly founded capital of Egypt) in 673–642 CE, and rebuilt in 1179 and in 1875.
Mosque of Ibn Tulun
Cairo   Egypt 879
Fakr ad-Din Mosque
Mogadishu   Somalia 969 Sunni Mosque built by Sultan Fakr ad-Din of the Sultanate of Mogadishu (9th century – 13th century).
Al-Azhar Mosque
Cairo   Egypt 972 Sunni
Arba'a Rukun Mosque
Mogadishu   Somalia 1268/9 Sunni
Northwest Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Great Mosque of Kairouan
Kairouan   Tunisia 670 Sunni Believed to be the first mosque in the Maghreb, it was rebuilt in the 9th century.
Sidi Ghanim Mosque
Mila   Algeria 678 Sunni The oldest Mosque in Algeria built by Abu al-Muhajir Dinar
Sidi Okba Mosque
Sidi Okba   Algeria 686[33]
Al-Zaytuna Mosque
Tunis   Tunisia 709 Sunni
Great Mosque of Sfax
Sfax   Tunisia 850[34]
Great Mosque of Sousse
Sousse   Tunisia 851[35]
Al-Qarawiyyin mosque Fez   Morocco 859
Mosque of the Andalusians Fez   Morocco 859
Great Mosque of Tlemcen Tlemcen   Algeria 1082
Atiq Mosque, Awjila
Awjila   Libya 1101 Sunni
Kutubiyya Mosque Marrakesh   Morocco 1147
Bou Jeloud Mosque Fez   Morocco 1184-1199
Great Mosque of Salé Salé   Morocco 1196
Southeast Africa (including nearby islands of the Indian Ocean, but barring countries that are also in Southern Africa)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Shanga Mosque Shanga, Pate Island   Kenya Foundation discovered, with coins attesting dates, during the 1980s excavations. The earliest concrete evidence of Muslims in East Africa.[36]: 97 
Great Mosque of Kilwa
Kilwa Kisiwani   Tanzania 1000–1100
Kizimkazi Mosque
Dimbani   Tanzania 1107 (according to an inscription)[37]
Tsingoni Mosque
Tsingoni, Mayotte   France 1538[38]
Al-Fatah Mosque (Green Mosque) Kigali   Rwanda (then German East Africa) 1913[39] Founded by coastal Swahili-speaking Tanzanian Muslims who came to Rwanda to work in the German administration.[39]
West Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Larabanga Mosque
Larabanga   Ghana 1421 The oldest existing mud-brick mosque in Ghana.
Great Mosque of Kano Kano   Nigeria 15th century Built in for Emir Muhammad Rumfa
Agadez Mosque
Agadez   Niger 1515 Niger's oldest mosque.
Grand Mosque, Sokodé
Sokodé   Togo 1820[40]
Southern Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Auwal Mosque
Cape Colony   South Africa (then Cape Colony) 1798[41] Recognised as the first mosque established in the country.
Palm Tree Mosque
Cape Colony   South Africa (then Cape Colony) 1807 Building constructed in 1788 (235 years ago) (1788), and established as a mosque in 1807 (216 years ago) (1807).
Masjid al-Qudama Uitenhage, Eastern Cape   South Africa 1849[42] It has been deduced that the mosque was a completed building by March 1849
Grey Street Mosque (Juma Mosque)
Durban[43]   South Africa 1881
Soofie Masjid Butha Buthe   Lesotho 1900 (approximate)[36]: 115  Founded by Soofie Saheb at the turn of the century; the community is described as African Muslim yet speaking an Indian language.[36]: 115 
Habibia Soofie Saheb Jamia Masjid
Rylands, Cape Town   South Africa 1905
Lobatse Masjid Lobatse   Botswana 1960s[44] Founded by Indian Muslims who were brought over during the British colonial period.
Ezulwini Mosque Ezulwini, near Mbabane   Eswatini 1982[45]

Americas Edit

South America
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
  Suriname (then a colony of the Netherlands) 1906[46] Built by immigrant Javanese rice farmers.[46]
Mesquita Brasil (São Paulo),   São Paulo   Brazil 1929[47] Previous site built in 1929;[47] current building inaugurated in 1952. First known mosque in Brazil.[48]
  Panama 1930[49] Ahmadiyya[49]
El Paraíso, Caracas   Venezuela 1968[50]
At-Tauhid Mosque Buenos Aires   Argentina 1983[51] Shi'ite Opened in October 1983 by the Shi'ite community of Buenos Aires and with the support of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Argentina. It is a very simple building with a subtle Islamic style in its facade.[52]
Mezquita as-Salam   Santiago   Chile 1995[53] Commissioned 1989, inaugurated in 1995.
Mohammed VI Mosque Coquimbo   Chile 2007
North America (including Central America and island-states of the Caribbean Sea)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Sadiq Mosque   Chicago, Illinois   United States 1922 Ahmadiyya Oldest extant mosque in the Americas.
Mother Mosque of America
(Moslem Temple)
Cedar Rapids, Iowa   United States 1934 Oldest extant purpose-built mosque in the United States
Al-Rashid Mosque
Edmonton, Alberta   Canada 1938 First purpose-built mosque in Canada.
Westmoreland and Spanish Town   Jamaica 1950s[54] Constructed by the Islamic Society of Jamaica, which was founded in 1950.
Bridgetown Mosque Bridgetown   Barbados 1957[55] First purpose-built mosque in Barbados.
Omar bin Al-Khattab Mosque   Willemstad   Curaçao 1965[56]
  Haiti 1985[57] Converted private residence.
Suraya Mosque
Torreón   Mexico 1989 Shi'ite Built by the immigrants from the Middle East living in Torreón.
Omar Mosque   San José   Costa Rica 1995[58] Sunni Founded by the Islamic Cultural Association of Costa Rica.
Belize City[59]   Belize 2008 (approximate)[60] Founded by Belizeans who converted to Islam while in the United States.[60]
Boukman Buhara Mosque Cap-Haïtien   Haiti 2016[61] First purpose-built mosque in Haiti. Includes a minaret. Constructed by the Diyanet Foundation of Turkey following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[61]

Asia Edit

Arabian Peninsula (including the island-state of Bahrain)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Medina   Saudi Arabia 622 Second holiest site in Islam (after Al-Haram Mosque) and Muhammad's mosque, which houses his tomb in what was initially his and his wife Aisha's house. Largely rebuilt and greatly enlarged in the late 20th century, whilst retaining at its heart the earlier construction of the Ottomans, and landmark green dome atop the prophet's mausoleum.
Masjid al-Qiblatain
Medina   Saudi Arabia 623 Mosque originally with two Qiblah walls: One facing Jerusalem, the first Qiblah and another facing Mecca
Jawatha Mosque
Al-Kilabiyah   Saudi Arabia 629/639[62][63] Has recently been renovated[citation needed] and prayers are still held in this mosque.[64]
Great Mosque of Sana'a
Sana'a   Yemen 7th century Possibly the oldest mosque in the country.
Al-Asha'ir Mosque
Zabid   Yemen 629 A part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Town of Zabid.[65] Established by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, a sahabi.
Masjid Mazin
Samail   Oman 600s[66] Founded by Mazin Ben Ghadooba, who is considered to be the first Omani to adopt Islam during Muhammad's lifetime.[66]
Al-Hadi Mosque
Sa'dah   Yemen 897
Khamis Mosque
Khamis, Manama   Bahrain 1000–1200 (approximate)[67] Though most of the structure is dated to the 11th or 12th century, it is popularly believed to have been founded by the Caliph Omar in the 600s.[68]
Mosque in Al-Ain Al Ain   United Arab Emirates 1000s (Islamic Golden Age) Possible the oldest mosque in the country.[69][70]
Al Badiyah Mosque
Fujairah   United Arab Emirates 1400s[71] Some much earlier estimates have been proposed.
Greater China
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Huaisheng Mosque
Guangzhou   China 627 The Huaisheng Mosque is the main mosque of Guangzhou. It has been rebuilt many times over its history. According to tradition it was originally built over 1,300 years ago in 627 CE by Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, who was an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was named in memory of Muhammad.
Xianxian Mosque
Guangzhou City   China 629 The mosque was originally built in 629 during the Tang dynasty.
Great Mosque of Xi'an
Xi'an, Shaanxi   China 742[72] Although the oldest stones date from the 18th century,[73] the mosque was founded in 742[74] Built in 742, but oldest mosque in China is the Beacon Tower mosque of Guangzhou being built in 627.[75]
Jamia Mosque     Hong Kong (then British Hong Kong)   China 1890
Taipei Grand Mosque   Taipei   Taiwan 1947 Oldest and most famous mosque in Taiwan. Original building was firstly used in 1947, then relocated to a new site where it was reconstructed in 1960.
Kaohsiung Mosque   Taipei   Taiwan 1949 The second oldest mosque in Taiwan. The original building was built in 1949, then moved to a new location where the second building was built in 1951, and the third and final building built in 1992.
Macau Mosque     Macau (then Portuguese Macau)   China 1980 The first and only mosque in Macau.
East Asia (excluding Greater China)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Kobe Mosque
Kobe   Japan 1935[76] Designed in the Turkish style by a Czech architect, confiscated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1943, and later returned.
Seoul Central Mosque
Seoul   South Korea 1976[77]
South Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Barwada mosque
Ghogha, Gujarat India Before 623 Built by Arab traders at ancient port of Ghogha, Bhavnagar district in the state of Gujarat. The qibla (direction to be faced while offering namaaz) of the mosque is faced to Bait al Mukaddas (Jerusalem). The mosque is abandoned by devotees after the qibla was changed to Makkah in AD 623 and another mosque constructed at the same time.[78][79][80][81][82]
Cheraman Juma Masjid
Kodungallur   India 629 Built by Malik bin Dinar, companion of Prophet Muhammad, on orders of Cheraman Perumal,[83] then King of modern-day Kerala, it is the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.[84]
unnamed Ramjapur Masjid Lalmonirhat, Rangpur   Bangladesh Prophet's lifetime Sunni Possibly the earliest mosque in South Asia is under excavation in northern Bangladesh, indicating the presence of Muslims in the area around the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.[85]
Palaiya Jumma Palli
Kilakarai   India 630 Sunni Considered to be the first mosque to be built in Tamil Nadu, and the second mosque in India. Constructed by Yemeni merchants and trade settlers in the Pandiya Kingdom and ordered by Bazan ibn Sasan, Governor of Yemen at the time of Muhammad.[86]
Masjid Al-Abrar Beruwala, Kalutara District, Western Province   Sri Lanka First century in the Hijri calendar The date has been carved in its stone pillars. It is situated in western province of Sri Lanka.
Haji Piyada Balkh   Afghanistan Second half of the 9th century[87] Considered to be the oldest Islamic building in Afghanistan.[87]
Jamia Masjid, Banbhore
Banbhore, Sindh   Pakistan 727 This is the oldest mosque of Pakistan which is located in Bhambore.[88] Also believed to be the first mosque in South Asia.[89] Built after the conquest of Sindh.
Kazimar Big Mosque
Madurai   India 1284 Sunni, Hanafi, Shadhili First mosque in Madurai.
Chaqchan Mosque
Khaplu, Gilgit Baltistan   Pakistan 1370 This is the oldest mosque of Gilgit Baltistan located in Khaplu.[90][91]
Sixty Dome Mosque
Bagerhat   Bangladesh 1450 Built by Khan Jahan Ali, it is considered to be the second-oldest mosque in Bangladesh. The fortified structure contains eighty-one domes, sixty stone pillars and eleven mihrabs.
Neevin Mosque
Lahore   Pakistan 1460
Southeast Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque Tubig Indangan, Simunul island, Bangsamoro   Philippines 1380[92] Founded by Makhdum Karim, who introduced Islam to the Philippines. This is the oldest mosque in Southesast Asia.
Wapauwe Old Mosque
Kaitetu, Central Maluku Regency, Maluku   Indonesia 1414 The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia.
Ampel Mosque
Ampel, Surabaya, East Java   Indonesia 1421[93] The oldest surviving mosque in Java, and second oldest in Indonesia.
Masjid Sultan Sharif Ali Brunei   Brunei 1430 (approximate)[94] Built under the direction of Sharif Ali ("Sultan Berkat"), who reigned 1425–1432.
Great Mosque of Demak
Demak, Central Java   Indonesia 15th century[95] Oldest mosque in Central Java and second oldest in Java.[95]
300 Years Mosque Narathiwat   Thailand 17th century It is at least one of the oldest known mosques in Thailand.[96]
Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka
Central Area   Singapore 1820[97] Originally a wooden structure built by Arab merchant Syed Omar Ali Aljunied.
Levant (for Cyprus and Greater Syria)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Omari Grand Mosque Beirut Lebanon 635 Sunni The mihrab is the oldest part of the mosque, dating back to the Caliphate of Umar.
Al-Qibli Mosque (al-Jami' al-Aqsa)
Jerusalem (old city)   Palestine (disputed by Israel) 637 A Muslim prayer hall with a silver-colored lead dome located in the southern part of Al-Aqsa (Temple Mount), built by the Rashidun caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
Al-Shuaibiyah Mosque Aleppo   Syria 637
Ibrahimi Mosque
Hebron   Palestine 637[98]
Great Mosque of Aleppo
Aleppo   Syria 715
Umayyad Mosque
Damascus   Syria 715 Sunni Fourth holiest site and the national mosque of Syria. It was originally built after the Muslim conquest of the city in 634. The current structure dates to 715.
White Mosque
Ramla   Israel 720
Al-Omari Mosque
Bosra   Syria 721
Great Mosque of Raqqa Raqqa   Syria 772
Arab Ahmet Mosque
Arab Ahmet quarter of Nicosia   Cyprus Late 16th century[99] The mosque is named after a commander of the 1571 Ottoman army who made an expedition in 1571.[99][100]
Southwest Asia (excluding the Arabian peninsula, Caucasus, and Levant)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Ayasofya Mosque (Hagia Sophia)
Istanbul   Turkey 1453 (537) Built in 537 as a Greek Orthodox cathedral, converted to a mosque in 1453, and then a museum in 1931.[101] In 2020, it was again converted into a mosque by order of a Turkish court.
Great Mosque of Kufa
Kufa   Iraq 639 Shia The mosque, built in the 7th century, contains the remains of Muslim ibn Aqeel – first cousin of Husayn ibn Ali, his companion Hani ibn Urwa, and the revolutionary Mukhtar al-Thaqafi.
Maqam al-Imam al-Husayn Mosque
Karbala   Iraq 680 Shia Reconstructed several times, including in 1016.
Jameh Mosque of Ferdows Ferdows   Iran 7th century (possibly)
Al-Hisn Mosque Mopsuestia, Adana Province   Turkey 717-720 Built by the Umayyad caliph Umar II, as part of his conversion of the city into a military base to shield Antioch from a potential Greek attack. The building fell into ruin during the reign of Al-Mu'tasim, approximately 120 years later.
Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Isfahan   Iran 771
Jameh Mosque of Fahraj
Fahraj   Iran 700s[102]
Tarikhaneh Mosque
Damghan   Iran 8th century
Great Mosque of Samarra
Samarra   Iraq 848
Al-Askari Mosque
Samarra   Iraq 944 Shia (Twelver) Shrine of the 10th and 11th Twelver Shi'ite Imams: Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari.
Imam Ali Mosque
Najaf   Iraq 977 Shia, Sunni Houses the tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and fourth Caliph, and the first person of the Shia Imamate.
Great Mosque of Diyarbakır
Diyarbakır   Turkey 1092 Sunni One of the oldest known mosques in modern Turkey.
Yivliminare Mosque (Alaeddin Mosque)
Antalya   Turkey 1230
Aslanhane Mosque
Ankara   Turkey 1290
Central Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Bukhara   Uzbekistan 713 Since 713 here, several edifices of main cathedral mosque were built then razed, restored after fires and wars, and moved from place to place.
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Juma Mosque
Shamakhi   Azerbaijan 743-744 Built in 743–744, set on fire by Armenian units of "Dashnaktsutiun" in 1918, reconstructed in 2009.
Blue Mosque
Yerevan   Armenia Mid-18th century

Europe Edit

Iberian Peninsula
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Great Mosque of Cordoba (Mezquita)
Córdoba, Andalusia   Spain (then the Emirate of Córdoba) 785[103] It was built on the main (Visigothic) church of the city after the site was being divided and shared between Muslims and Christians for around seven decades. The great mosque was built by Abd al-Rahman I, the first Muslim ruler of Spain in 785,[104] it underwent successive extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries and was concluded in the 10th century under the command of Almanzor. After the Christian reconquest of Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III of Castile converted the mosque into a cathedral, the current Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. With 23,400 square metres (2.34 ha), it was the second largest mosque in the world on the surface, after Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca, only later replaced in this respect by the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul in 1588.
Small Royal Mosque inside Aljafería Palace
Zaragoza, Aragon   Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba) 1046[105] Small mosque for the monarch and his courtiers inside the Aljafería. It is accessed through a portal that ends in a horseshoe arch inspired by the Mosque of Córdoba but with S-shaped springers, a novelty that will imitate the Almoravid art and Nasrid art. The front of the mihrab is conformed by a very traditional horseshoe arch. The arch of the portal, an alfiz framed its back, in whose curved triangles two mirrored rosettes are recessed, as is the dome of the interior of the mihrab. In 2001, the original restored structures of the Aljafería were included in the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon, a World Heritage Site.[106]
Mosque of Medina Azahara
Córdoba, Andalusia   Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba) 940[107] Aljama Mosque in Madinat al-Zahara, a vast, fortified Moorish palace-city built by Abd-ar-Rahman III (912–961). The marbled, jeweled complex was plundered & destroyed first by Muslims, then by Christians when civil war ended Caliphate of Córdoba. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2018.
Mosque of Cristo de la Luz
Toledo, Castile-La Mancha   Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba) 999 (completed)[108] Built in 999 in Toledo, this building is a rarity in that it is in much the same state as it was when it was originally built.[109] The building is a small square structure. It measures roughly 8 m × 8 m. Four columns capped with Visigothic capitals divide the interior into nine compartments. Covering each of these bays is a vault that has a distinctive design that is unique unto itself. Some of the designs are more rectilinear while others embrace the curved forms of the vault more prominently. Within each one is a piece of their culture and tradition of building in the Islamic art manner.[109] The influence of the caliphate of Córdoba can be seen in the brickwork on the facade of the building which resembles those seen at the Cathedral–Mosque of Córdoba. Both Mosque of Cristo de la Luz with Cathedral–Mosque of Córdoba are the oldest examples of the Islamic culture at Spain.[110]
Mosque of las Tornerías
Toledo, Castile-La Mancha   Spain (then the Taifa of Toledo) mid-11th-century (completed)[111] Arabic: الـمـسـتـمـيـم, romanizedal-Mustimim was built in the middle of the 11th century[112] on the foundations of Roman architecture, located in the old Muslim neighborhood Arrabal de Francos. The building continued maintaining the Islamic faith in Spain well beyond the reconquista of the city by the Christian troops of Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1085, until the period of 1498–1505, when it was desacralizated by the Catholic Monarchs.
Ribat of Arrifana Archaeological site
Aljezur, Algarve   Portugal (then the Almoravid dynasty) 1130[113] Probably constructed by Abu-l-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn Qasi, governor of Silves and a rebel leader against the Almoravid dynasty. These are the only ruins of such Muslim fortress to have been identified in Portugal, excavated by Portuguese archaeologists since 2001.
Church of Nossa Senhora da Anunciação
Mértola, Alentejo   Portugal (then the Almohad Caliphate) Second-half of the 12th century[114] Unique and most identifiable former mosque in Portugal, although a mixture of Almohad and Manueline post-Gothic architecture. Rebuilt in the second half of the 12th century with some elements from the 9th century.
Seville, Andalusia   Spain (then the Almohad Caliphate) 1248 [115] Only the minaret remains. Mosque comparable in size to Great mosque of Cordoba, mostly destroyed by earthquake in 1365. Minaret used as a church bell tower was built higher in the 16th century.
Church of São Clemente
Tavira, Algarve   Portugal (then the Kingdom of Portugal) Second-half of the 13th century[116] Only parts of the original minaret remain, incorporated in the church bell tower. It's 22.7 metres tall and 4.2 metres across. Across it lies an old Muslim cemetery of Jardim dos Amuados.
Mosque of Tórtoles
Tarazona, Aragon   Spain (then the Crown of Aragon) 15th-century (completed)[117] Almost unaltered in the later centuries.
San Sebastian Minaret (Alminar De San Sebastian)   Ronda, Andalusia   Spain (then the Almohad Caliphate)

Only minaret of the medium-size mosque in Plaza Abul Beka neighborhood remains. Minaret was expanded and used as a bell tower. The mosque was converted to a church but destroyed in the 1600s during Morisco Revolts. Ronda was a Muslim city for 700 years. The city had 7 or 8 mosques, none survive today.[118]

Alminar de San Juan (Minaret of San Juan)
Building Image Location First built Denomination Notes
Dzhuma Mosque Derbent, Dagestan (then part of the Abbasid Caliphate) 700-900 (approximate)[67]
Eastern Europe (excluding the Caucasus, European Russia and Nordic countries)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Agha Mosque Dragaš   Kosovo 1268[119] Built by Muslims who migrated from Aleppo, in Syria, to Kosovo. However, the mosque is today a ruin.[119]
Dzhumaya Mosque
Plovdiv   Bulgaria 1363–1364 Built during the reign of Sultan Murad II the old building was demolished and replaced by the modern-day mosque.
Sailors' Mosque
Ulcinj   Montenegro 14th century
Halit Efendi Mosque Slupčane, Lipkovo Municipality   North Macedonia 1415[120] It is considered to be the oldest mosque in North Macedonia. However, as a result of the various renovation works, the building has been altered to such an extent that it is no longer in its original state.[120]
Turhan Emin-Beg Mosque Ustikolina   Bosnia and Herzegovina 1448–1449[121] Built by Turhan Emin-beg. Known to have been destroyed two times (1941 and 1992) and rebuilt two times (1956 and 2007).[121]
Fatih Mosque, Elbasan Elbasan Castle   Albania 1466[122] Built by the orders of Sultan Mehmed II.[122]
Old Mosque, Plav (Imperial Mosque)
Plav   Montenegro 1471[123] Built during the Ottoman rule in the city.[123]
King Mosque or Sultan Bayazit Mosque
Elbasan   Albania 1482
Iljaz Mirahori Mosque
Korçë   Albania 1494[124] It was built by Iljaz Hoxha, also known as Iljaz Bey Mirahor,[124] and is a Cultural Monument of Albania.[125]
Mosque of Kuklibeu
Prizren   Kosovo 1534
Mosque of Muderis Ali Efendi
Prizren   Kosovo 1543–1581
Esmahan Sultan Mosque
Mangalia   Romania 1575 Oldest mosque in Romania
  Poland 1558 (earliest attestation in writing)[126] Tatar mosques in Poland were noted in a 1558 treatise Risale-i Tatar-i Lech.[126]
  Lithuania (then the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) 1500–1600[127] Various records indicate Lithuanian Tatars built mosques in the Duchy during the 16th century[127]
Mosque of Sinan Pasha
Prizren   Kosovo 1615
Log pod Mangartom Mosque
Log pod Mangartom, Municipality of Bovec   Slovenia (then Austria-Hungary) 1916[128] Built by Bosniak members of the Austro-Hungarian army.[128]
Gunja Mosque
Gunja   Croatia 1969 The first and one of the few mosques in Croatia, located near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Vienna Islamic Centre-Mosque
Vienna   Austria 1979[129]
Brno Mosque
Brno   Czech Republic 1998[130] Construction began 1996, inaugurated 1998.[130]
British Isles
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute
Liverpool,   England   United Kingdom 1891[131] Liverpool Muslim Institute Several sources state that a mosque was founded in 1860 at 2 Glynrhondda Street, Cardiff, Wales. This has been rejected by an academic paper as a transcription error.[132]
Dublin Mosque and Islamic Centre Dublin   Ireland 1976[130] The first purpose-built mosque was built in Ballyhaunis in 1987.[citation needed]
Western-Central Europe (excluding the British Isles, Nordic countries, and countries that are also in Eastern Europe)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Grand Mosque of Paris
Paris (first in Metropolitan France)   France 1926 This mosque was the first mosque built in France since the 8th century; it was built in the Moroccan style, and honored Muslim French veterans of World War I.[133]
Wünsdorf Mosque
Wünsdorf, Berlin   Germany 1915 Erected in 1915 by the Imperial German Army administration for Muslim Allied prisoners of war in the POW camp in Wünsdorf, later used as refugee camp. In 1930 torn down due to lack of a congregation.
Mobarak Mosque
The Hague   Netherlands 1955 The first known purpose-built mosque in the Netherlands.
Centre Islamique de Genève ("Little Mosque" of Geneva) Geneva    Switzerland 1961 Founded by Said Ramadan
Nordic countries
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Järvenpää Mosque   Finland 1942 A mosque of the community of Finnish Tatars. It is considered to be the oldest mosque in Nordic countries. Finland's first Muslim cemetery was established in the 1830s for Russian troops.[134]
Nusrat Djahan Mosque Hvidovre, outside Copenhagen   Denmark 1967[134] Founded by the Ahmadiyya; first purpose-built mosque in a Nordic country.
Islamic Cultural Centre Norway Oslo   Norway 1974 Founded by Pakistani-Norwegians aided by Danish Muslims; of the Sunni Deobandi school. The first Shi'i mosque, Anjuman-e Hussain, opened in 1975; the first Sunni Barelvi mosque opened in 1976.
Nasir Mosque Gothenburg   Sweden 1976
Stockholm   Sweden 2000[135] Converted from Katarinastation, a former power station.
Reykjavík Mosque Reykjavik   Iceland 2002[136] Not a purpose-built mosque, but serves as an interim gathering site.

Oceania Edit

Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Marree Mosque Marree, South Australia   Australia 1861[137] / 1882[53] Small structure in the South Australian desert built by Australia's "Afghan" camel-drivers, has been restored.
Central Adelaide Mosque Adelaide   Australia 1888[137] The oldest major city mosque in the country.[137]
Auckland   New Zealand 1979 (begun)[138] Cornerstone laid in 1979; the first Islamic centre in the country was installed in an Auckland house bought in 1959.[138]
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Hidayatullah Sanoek Mosque Sanoek, South Waigeo, Raja Ampat Regency, West Papua   Indonesia 1505 (approximate) The oldest surviving mosque in Oceania[139]
Vitogo, Nausori, and Tavua[140]   Fiji 1922 (approximate)[140] A number of wooden mosques were built by local Islamic assemblies around 1922.[140]
Port Moresby[53]   Papua New Guinea 2000[141] Islam was introduced to the island in the 1970s,[141] and the first Islamic centre established in 1988.[53]

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. ^ According to historian Oleg Grabar, "It is only at a relatively late date that the Muslim holy space in Jerusalem came to be referred to as al-haram al-sharif (literally, the Noble Sacred Precinct or Restricted Enclosure, often translated as the Noble Sanctuary and usually simply referred to as the Haram). While the exact early history of this term is unclear, we know that it only became common in Ottoman times, when administrative order was established over all matters pertaining to the organization of the Muslim faith and the supervision of the holy places, for which the Ottomans took financial and architectural responsibility. Before the Ottomans, the space was usually called al-masjid al-aqsa (the Farthest Mosque), a term now reserved to the covered congregational space on the Haram, or masjid bayt al-maqdis (Mosque of the Holy City) or, even, like Mecca's sanctuary, al-masjid al-ḥarâm,"[22]

References Edit

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  5. ^ Quran 8:34 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
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  7. ^ Quran 22:25 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  8. ^ Quran 48:25–27
  9. ^ Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
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  12. ^ Mecca: From Before Genesis Until Now, M. Lings, pg. 39, Archetype
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