List of the oldest mosques
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The designation of the oldest mosques in the world requires careful use of definitions, and must be divided into two parts, the oldest in the sense of oldest surviving building, and the oldest in the sense of oldest mosque congregation. Even here, there is the distinction between old mosque buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques, and those that have been converted to other purposes; and between buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques and those that were shuttered for many decades. In terms of congregations, they are distinguished between early established congregations that have been in continuous existence, and early congregations that ceased to exist. Note that the major regions, such as Africa and Eurasia, are sorted alphabetically, whereas the minor regions, such as Northeast and Northwest Africa in Africa, and Arabia and South Asia in Eurasia, are sorted by the dates in which their first mosques were reportedly established, more or less, barring those that are mentioned by name in the Quran.
To be listed here a site must:
- be the oldest mosque in a country, large city (top 50), or oldest of its type (denomination, architectural, etc.);
- be the oldest congregation of its type (denomination).
Mentioned in the QuranEdit
|Al-Haram Mosque||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||Unknown, associated with Abraham||Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām,[a] the holiest sanctuary, containing the Ka'bah, a site of the Ḥajj ('Pilgrimage'), the Qiblah (Direction of formal prayers of Muslims), and the first mosque in Islamic thought. Rebuilt many times, notably 1571 by the Ottomans, and the late 20th century by the Saudis, further enlargement under way since 2010.|
|Al-Aqsa Mosque||Jerusalem (old city)||Palestine||Unknown, associated with Abraham||Al-Masjid al-Aqṣá, the former Qiblah, site of the significant event of Al-Isra' wal-Mi'raj, third holiest site in Islam. Although properly referring to the whole Temple Mount compound (seen as a single mosque),[note 1] today however specifically the silver-domed congregational mosque or prayer hall facing Mecca [otherwise known as Al-Qibli Mosque (see below)] located on the southern side of the compound.|
|The Sacred Monument||Muzdalifah, near Mecca||Saudi Arabia||Unknown||Al-Mashʿar Al-Ḥarām a site of the Hajj.|
|Quba Mosque||Medina||Saudi Arabia||622||The first mosque built by Muhammad in the 7th century CE, possibly mentioned as the "Mosque founded on piety since the first day" in the Quran. Largely rebuilt in the late 20th century.|
|Mosque of the Companions||Massawa||Eritrea||610-620 (approximate)||Believed to be the first mosque on the African continent and the first mosque in the world built by the companions of prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.|
|Negash Āmedīn Mesgīd||Negash||Ethiopia||620-630||Built in the 7th century in Negash, the mosque in Negash, by tradition burial site of several followers of Mohammad who, during his lifetime, fled to the Aksumite Kingdom to escape persecution in Mecca. It was recently renovated by TIKA, a Turkish cooperation organization.|
|Masjid al-Qiblatayn||Zeila||Somalia||620-630||Built in the 7th century in Zeila, shortly after the hijrah; known to be among the oldest mosques.|
|Korijib Masjid||Tadjoura||Djibouti||630-640||Possible the oldest mosque in the country.|
|Mosque of Amr ibn al-As||Cairo||Egypt||641||Named after 'Amr ibn al-'As, commander of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, by order of Caliph Umar. Built as the centre of Fustat (the newly founded capital of Egypt) in 673–642 CE, and rebuilt in 1179 and in 1875.|
|Mosque of Ibn Tulun||Cairo||Egypt||879|
|Arba'a Rukun Mosque||Mogadishu||Somalia||1268/9||Sunni|
|Fakr ad-Din Mosque||Mogadishu||Somalia||1269||Sunni||Mosque built by Sultan Fakr ad-Din of the Sultanate of Mogadishu (10th Century – 16th Century).|
|Great Mosque of Kairouan||Kairouan||Tunisia||670||Sunni||Believed to be the first mosque in the Maghreb, it was rebuilt in the 9th century.|
|Sidi Okba Mosque||Sidi Okba||Algeria||686|
|Great Mosque of Sfax||Sfax||Tunisia||850|
|Great Mosque of Sousse||Sousse||Tunisia||851|
|Atiq Mosque, Awjila||Awjila||Libya||1101||Sunni|
|Shanga Mosque||Shanga, Pate Island||Kenya||Foundation discovered, with coins attesting dates, during the 1980s excavations. The earliest concrete evidence of Muslims in East Africa.:97|
|Great Mosque of Kilwa||Kilwa Kisiwani||Tanzania||1000-1100|
|Kizimkazi Mosque||Dimbani||Tanzania||1107 (according to an inscription)|
|Tsingoni Mosque||Tsingoni, Mayotte||France||1538|
|Al-Fatah Mosque (Green Mosque)||Kigali||Rwanda (then German East Africa)||1913||Founded by coastal Swahili-speaking Tanzanian Muslims who came to Rwanda to work in the German administration.|
|Larabanga Mosque||Larabanga||Ghana||1421||The oldest existing mud-brick mosque in Ghana.|
|Great Mosque of Kano||Kano||Nigeria||15th century||Built in for Emir Muhammad Rumfa|
|Auwal Mosque||Cape Colony||South Africa (then Cape Colony)||1798|
|Masjid al-Qudama||Caledon Street, Uitenhage, Eastern Cape||South Africa||1849||It is deduced that the mosque in Caledon Street was a completed building by March 1849|
|Grey Street Mosque (Juma Mosque)||Durban||South Africa||1881|
|Soofie Masjid||Butha Buthe||Lesotho||1900 (approximate):115||Founded by Soofie Saheb at the turn of the century; the community is described as African Muslim yet speaking an Indian language.:115|
|Habibia Soofie Saheb Jamia Masjid||Rylands, Cape Town||South Africa||1905|
|Lobatse Masjid||Lobatse||Botswana||1960s||Founded by Indian Muslims who were brought over during the British colonial period.|
|Ezulwini Mosque||Ezulwini, near Mbabane||Swaziland||1978|
|Agadez Mosque||Agadez||Niger||1515||Niger's oldest mosque.|
|Grand Mosque, Sokodé||Sokodé||Togo||1820|
|Suriname (then a colony of the Netherlands)||1906||Built by immigrant Javanese rice farmers.|
|Mesquita Brasil (São Paulo),||São Paulo||Brazil||1929||Previous site built in 1929; current building inaugurated in 1952. First known mosque in Brazil.|
|Panama||1930||Built by the Ahmadiyya community.|
|El Paraíso, Caracas||Venezuela||1968|
|At-Tauhid Mosque||Buenos Aires||Argentina||1983||Shi'ite||Opened in October 1983 by the Shi'ite community of Buenos Aires and with the support of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Argentina. It is a very simple building with a subtle Islamic style in its facade.|
|Mezquita as-Salam||Santiago||Chile||1995||Commissioned 1989, inaugurated in 1995.|
|Al-Sadiq Mosque||Chicago, Illinois||United States||1922|
|Mother Mosque of America (Moslem Temple)||Ross, North Dakota||United States||1934||Built in Iowa in 1934, became the oldest standing mosque in America when the Ross Mosque was torn down in the 1970s. The Ross Mosque was later rebuilt in 2005.|
|Al-Rashid Mosque||Edmonton, Alberta||Canada||1938||First purpose built mosque.|
|Westmoreland and Spanish Town||Jamaica||1950s||Constructed by the Islamic Society of Jamaica, which was founded in 1950.|
|Suraya Mosque||Torreón||Mexico||1989||Built by the immigrants from the Middle East living in Torreón.|
|Costa Rica||1995||Founded by the Islamic Cultural Association of Costa Rica.|
|Belize City||Belize||2008 (approximate)||Founded by Belizeans who converted to Islam while in the United States.|
|Al-Masjid al-Nabawi||Medina||Saudi Arabia||622||Second holiest site in Islam (after Al-Haram Mosque) and Muhammad's mosque, which houses his tomb in what was initially his and his wife Aisha's house. Largely rebuilt and greatly enlarged in the late 20th century, whilst retaining at its heart the earlier construction of the Ottomans, and landmark green dome atop the prophet's mausoleum.|
|Masjid al-Qiblatain||Medina||Saudi Arabia||623||Mosque originally with two Qiblah walls: One facing Jerusalem, the first Qiblah and another facing Mecca|
|Jawatha Mosque||Al-Kilabiyah||Saudi Arabia||629/639||Has recently been renovated and prayers are still held in this mosque.|
|Great Mosque of Sana'a||Sana'a||Yemen||7th century||Possibly the oldest mosque in the country.|
|Al-Asha'ir Mosque||Zabid||Yemen||629||A part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Town of Zabid. Established by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, a sahabi.|
|Masjid Mazin||Samail||Oman||600s||Founded by Mazin Ben Ghadooba, who is considered to be the first Omani to adopt Islam during Muhammad's lifetime.|
|Khamis Mosque||Khamis, Manama||Bahrain||1000–1200 (approximate)||Though most of the structure is dated to the 11th or 12th century, it is popularly believed to have been founded by the Caliph Omar in the 600s.|
|Mosque in Al-Ain||Al Ain||United Arab Emirates||1000s (Islamic Golden Age)||Possible the oldest mosque in the country.|
|Al Badiyah Mosque||Fujairah||United Arab Emirates||1400s||Some much earlier estimates have been proposed.|
|Huaisheng Mosque||Guangzhou||China||627||The Huaisheng Mosque is the main mosque of Guangzhou. It has been rebuilt many times over its history. According to tradition it was originally built over 1,300 years ago in 627 CE by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, who was an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was named in memory of Muhammad.|
|Xianxian Mosque||Guangzhou City||China||629||The mosque was originally built in 629 during the Tang Dynasty.|
|Great Mosque of Xi'an||Xi'an, Shaanxi||China||742||Although the oldest stones date from the 18th century, the Mosque was founded in 742 Built in 742, but oldest mosque in China is the Beacon Tower mosque of Guangzhou being built in 627.|
|Macau Mosque||Macau (then Portuguese Macau)||China||1980||The first and only mosque in Macau.|
|Taipei Grand Mosque||Taipei||Taiwan||1947||Oldest and most famous mosque in Taiwan. Original building was firstly used in 1947, then relocated to a new site where it was reconstructed in 1960.|
|Kaohsiung Mosque||Taipei||Taiwan||1949||The second oldest mosque in Taiwan. The original building was built in 1949, then moved to a new location where the second building was built in 1951, and the third and final building built in 1992.|
|Jamia Mosque||Hong Kong (then British Hong Kong)||China||1890|
||Ghogha, Gujarat||India||Before 623||Built by Arab traders at ancient port of Ghogha, Bhavnagar district in the state of Gujarat. The qibla (direction to be faced while offering namaaz) of the mosque is faced to Bait al Mukaddas (Jerusalem). The mosque is abandoned by devotees after the qibla was changed to Makkah in AD 623 and another mosque constructed at the same time.|
|Cheraman Juma Masjid||Kodungallur||India||629||Built by Malik bin Dinar, companion of Prophet Muhammad, on orders of Cheraman Perumal, then King of modern-day Kerala, it is the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.|
|unnamed Ramjapur Masjid||Lalmonirhat, Rangpur||Bangladesh||Prophet's lifetime||Sunni||Possibl the earliest mosque in South Asia is under excavation in northern Bangladesh, indicating the presence of Muslims in the area around the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.|
|Palaiya Jumma Palli||Kilakarai||India||630||Sunni||Considered to be the first mosque to be built in Tamil Nadu, and the second mosque in India. Constructed by Yemeni merchants and trade settlers in the Pandiya Kingdom and ordered by Bazan ibn Sasan, Governor of Yemen at the time of Muhammad.|
|Masjid al-Abrar||Beruwala, Kalutara District, Western Province||Sri Lanka||First century in the Hijri calendar||The date has been carved in its stone pillars. It is situated in western province of Sri Lanka.|
|Haji Piyada||Balkh||Afghanistan||Second half of the 9th century||Considered to be the oldest Islamic building in Afghanistan.|
|Jamia Masjid, Banbhore||Banbhore, Sindh||Pakistan||727||This is the oldest mosque of Pakistan which is located in Bhambore.|
|Kazimar Big Mosque||Madurai||India||1284||Sunni, Hanafi, Shadhili||First mosque in Madurai.|
|Chaqchan Mosque||Khaplu, Gilgit Baltistan||Pakistan||1370||This is the oldest mosque of Gilgit Baltistan located in Khaplu.|
|Sixty Dome Mosque||Bagerhat||Bangladesh||1450||Built by Khan Jahan Ali, it is considered to be the second-oldest mosque in Bangladesh. The fortified structure contains eighty-one domes, sixty stone pillars and eleven mihrabs.|
|Al-Qibli Mosque (al-Jami' al-Aqsa)||Jerusalem (old city)||Palestine/||637||A Muslim prayer hall with a silver-colored lead dome located in the southern part of Al-Aqsa Mosque (Temple Mount), built by the Rashidun caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.|
|Great Mosque of Aleppo||Aleppo||Syria||715|
|Umayyad Mosque||Damascus||Syria||715||Sunni||National Mosque. It was originally built after the Muslim conquest of the city in 634. The current structure dates to 715.|
|Great Mosque of Raqqa||Raqqa||Syria||772|
|Arab Ahmet Mosque||Arab Ahmet quarter of Nicosia||Cyprus||Late 16th century||The mosque is named after a commander of the 1571 Ottoman army who made an expedition in 1571.|
|Ayasofya Mosque (Hagia Sophia)||Istanbul||Turkey||1453 (537)||Built in 537 as a Greek Orthodox cathedral, converted to a mosque in 1453, and then a museum in 1931.|
|Great Mosque of Kufa||Kufa||Iraq||639||Shia||The mosque, built in the 7th century, contains the remains of Muslim ibn Aqeel – first cousin of Husayn ibn Ali, his companion Hani ibn Urwa, and the revolutionary Mukhtar al-Thaqafi.|
|Maqam al-Imam al-Husayn Mosque||Karbala||Iraq||680||Shia||Reconstructed several times, including in 1016.|
|Jameh Mosque of Ferdows||Ferdows||Iran||7th century (possibly)|
|Masjid al-Hisn||Mopsuestia, Adana Province||Turkey||717-720||Built by the Umayyad caliph Umar II, as part of his conversion of the city into a military base to shield Antioch from a potential Greek attack. The building fell into ruin during the reign of Al-Mu'tasim, approximately 120 years later.|
|Jameh Mosque of Isfahan||Isfahan||Iran||771|
|Jameh Mosque of Fahraj||Fahraj||Iran||700s|
|Tarikhaneh Mosque||Damghan||Iran||8th century|
|Great Mosque of Samarra||Samarra||Iraq||848|
|Al-Askari Mosque||Samarra||Iraq||944||Shia (Twelver)||Shrine of the 10th and 11th Twelver Shi'ite Imams: Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari.|
|Imam Ali Mosque||Najaf||Iraq||977||Shia, Sunni||Houses the tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and fourth Caliph, and the first person of the Shia Imamate.|
|Great Mosque of Diyarbakır||Diyarbakır||Turkey||1092||Sunni||One of the oldest known mosques in modern Turkey.|
|Yivliminare Mosque (Alaeddin Mosque)||Antalya||Turkey||1230|
|Po-i-Kalyan||Bukhara||Uzbekistan||713||Since 713 here, several edifices of main cathedral mosque were built then razed, restored after fires and wars, and moved from place to place.|
|Juma Mosque||Shamakhi||Azerbaijan||743-744||Built in 743–744, set on fire by Armenian units of "Dashnaktsutiun" in 1918, reconstructed in 2009.|
|Blue Mosque||Yerevan||Armenia||Mid-18th century|
|Great Mosque of Cordoba (Mezquita)||Córdoba, Andalusia||Spain (then the Emirate of Córdoba)||785||It was built on the main (Visigothic) church of the city after the site was being divided and shared between Muslims and Christians for around seven decades. The great mosque was built by Abd al-Rahman I, the first Muslim ruler of Spain in 785, it underwent successive extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries and was concluded in 10th century under the command of Almanzor. After the Christian reconquest of Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III of Castile converted the mosque into a cathedral, suffering some alterations that will end up configuring the current Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. With 23,400 square metres (2.34 ha), it was the second largest mosque in the world on the surface, after Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca, only later replaced in this respect by the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul in 1588.|
|Mosque of Cristo de la Luz||Toledo, Castile-La Mancha||Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba)||999 (completed)|
|Mosque of las Tornerías||Toledo, Castile-La Mancha||Spain (then the Taifa of Toledo)||mid-11th-century (completed)||Arabic: الـمـسـتـمـيـم, romanized: al-Mustimim|
|Mosque of Tórtoles||Tarazona, Aragon||Spain (then the Crown of Aragon)||15th-century (completed)||Almost not altered in the later centuries.|
|Dzhuma Mosque||Derbent, Dagestan (then part of the Abbasid Caliphate)||700-900 (approximate)|
|Al-Agha Mosque||Dragaš||Kosovo||1268||Built by Muslims who migrated from Aleppo, in Syria, to Kosovo. However, the mosque is today a ruin.|
|Dzhumaya Mosque||Plovdiv||Bulgaria||1363–1364||Built during the reign of Sultan Murad II the old building was demolished and replaced by the modern-day mosque.|
|Sailors' Mosque||Ulcinj||Montenegro||14th century|
|Halit Efendi Mosque||Slupčane, Lipkovo Municipality||Macedonia||1415||It is considered to be the oldest mosque in Macedonia. However, as a result of the various renovation works, the building has been altered to such an extent that it is no longer in its original state. |
|Turhan Emin-Beg Mosque||Ustikolina||Bosnia and Herzegovina||1448–1449||Built by Turhan Emin-beg. Known to have been destroyed two times (1941 and 1992) and rebuilt two times (1956 and 2007).|
|Fatih Mosque, Elbasan||Elbasan Castle||Albania||1466||Built by the orders of Sultan Mehmed II.|
|Old Mosque, Plav (Imperial Mosque)||Plav||Montenegro||1471||Built during the Ottoman rule in the city.|
|King Mosque or Sultan Bayazit Mosque||Elbasan||Albania||1482|
|Iljaz Mirahori Mosque||Korçë||Albania||1494||It was built by Iljaz Hoxha, also known as Iljaz Bey Mirahor, and is a Cultural Monument of Albania.|
|Mosque of Kuklibeu||Prizren||Kosovo||1534|
|Mosque of Muderis Ali Efendi||Prizren||Kosovo||1543–1581|
|Mangalia Mosque||Mangalia||Romania||1575||Oldest mosque in Romania|
|Poland||1558 (earliest attestation in writing)||Tatar mosques in Poland were noted in a 1558 treatise Risale-i Tatar-i Lech.|
|Lithuania (then the Grand Duchy of Lithuania)||1500-1600||Various records indicate Lithuanian Tatars built mosques in the Duchy during the 16th century|
|Mosque of Sinan Pasha||Prizren||Kosovo||1615|
|Log pod Mangartom Mosque||Log pod Mangartom, Municipality of Bovec||Slovenia (then Austria-Hungary)||1916||Built by Bosniak members of the Austro-Hungarian army.|
|Gunja Mosque||Gunja||Croatia||1969||The first and one of the few mosques in Croatia, located near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.|
|Vienna Islamic Centre-Mosque||Vienna||Austria||1979|
|Brno Mosque||Brno||Czech Republic||1998||Construction began 1996, inaugurated 1998.|
|Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque||Tubig Indangan, Simunul island, Bangsamoro||Philippines||1380||Founded by Makhdum Karim, who introduced Islam to the Philippines.|
|Wapauwe Old Mosque||Kaitetu, Central Maluku Regency, Maluku||Indonesia||1414||The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia.|
|Ampel Mosque||Ampel, Surabaya, East Java||Indonesia||1421||The oldest surviving mosque in Java, and second oldest in Indonesia.|
|Masjid Sultan Sharif Ali||Brunei||Brunei||1430 (approximate)||Built under the direction of Sharif Ali ("Sultan Berkat"), who reigned 1425-1432.|
|Great Mosque of Demak||Demak, Central Java||Indonesia||15th century||Oldest mosque in Central Java and second oldest in Java.|
|300 Years Mosque||Narathiwat||Thailand||17th century||It is at least one of the oldest known mosques in Thailand.|
|Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka||Central Area||Singapore||1820||Originally a wooden structure built by Arab merchant Syed Omar Ali Aljunied.|
|Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute||Liverpool, England||United Kingdom||1891||Liverpool Muslim Institute||Several sources state that a mosque was founded in 1860 at 2 Glynrhondda Street, Cardiff, Wales. This has been rejected by an academic paper as a transcription error.|
|Dublin Mosque and Islamic Centre||Dublin||Ireland||1976||The first purpose-built mosque was built in Ballyhaunis in 1987.|
|Grand Mosque of Paris||Paris (first in Metropolitan France)||France||1926||This mosque was the first mosque built in France since the 8th century; it was built in the Moroccan style, and honored Muslim French veterans of World War I.|
|Wünsdorf Mosque||Wünsdorf, Berlin||Germany||1915||Erected in 1915 by the Imperial German Army administration for Muslim Allied prisoners of war in the POW camp in Wünsdorf, later used as refugee camp. In 1930 torn down due to lack of a congregation.|
|Mobarak Mosque||The Hague||Netherlands||1955||The first known purpose-built mosque in the Netherlands.|
|Centre Islamique de Genève ("Little Mosque" of Geneva)||Geneva||Switzerland||1961||Founded by Said Ramadan|
|Kobe Mosque||Kobe||Japan||1935||Designed in the Turkish style by a Czech architect, confiscated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1943, and later returned.|
|Seoul Central Mosque||Seoul||South Korea||1976|
|Järvenpää mosque||Finland||1942||A mosque of the community of Finnish Tatars. It is considered to be the oldest mosque in Nordic countries. Finland's first Muslim cemetery was established in the 1830s for Russian troops.|
|Hvidovre, outside Copenhagen||Denmark||1967||Founded by the Ahmadiyya; first purpose-built mosque in a Nordic country.|
|Islamic Cultural Centre Norway||Oslo||Norway||1974||Founded by Pakistani-Norwegians aided by Danish Muslims; of the Sunni Deobandi school. The first Shi'i mosque, Anjuman-e Hussain, opened in 1975; the first Sunni Barelvi mosque opened in 1976.|
|Stockholm||Sweden||2000||Converted from Katarinastation, a former power station.|
|Reykjavík Mosque||Reykjavik||Iceland||2002||Not a purpose-built mosque, but serves as an interim gathering site.|
|Marree Mosque||Marree, South Australia||Australia||1861 / 1882||Small structure in the South Australian desert built by Australia's "Afghan" camel-drivers, has been restored.|
|Central Adelaide Mosque||Adelaide||Australia||1888||The oldest major city mosque in the country.|
|Auckland||New Zealand||1979 (begun)||Cornerstone laid in 1979; the first Islamic centre in the country was installed in an Auckland house bought in 1959.|
|Vitogo, Nausori, and Tavua||Fiji||1922 (approximate)||A number of wooden mosques were built by local Islamic assemblies around 1922.|
|Port Moresby||Papua New Guinea||2000||Islam was introduced to the island in the 1970s, and the first Islamic centre established in 1988.|
- According to historian Oleg Grabar, "It is only at a relatively late date that the Muslim holy space in Jerusalem came to be referred to as al-haram al-sharif (literally, the Noble Sacred Precinct or Restricted Enclosure, often translated as the Noble Sanctuary and usually simply referred to as the Haram). While the exact early history of this term is unclear, we know that it only became common in Ottoman times, when administrative order was established over all matters pertaining to the organization of the Muslim faith and the supervision of the holy places, for which the Ottomans took financial and architectural responsibility. Before the Ottomans, the space was usually called al-masjid al-aqsa (the Farthest Mosque), a term now reserved to the covered congregational space on the Haram, or masjid bayt al-maqdis (Mosque of the Holy City) or, even, like Mecca's sanctuary, al-masjid al-ḥarâm,"
- Michigan Consortium for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (1986). Goss, V. P.; Bornstein, C. V. (eds.). The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades. 21. Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-9187-2058-0.
- Quran 17:1–7
- Quran 2:144–217
- Quran 5:2 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
- Quran 8:34 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
- Quran 9:7–28
- Quran 22:25 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
- Quran 48:25–27
- Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
- Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
- Quran 22:25–37
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- Quran 2:129 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
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With thousands of Hajjis, most of them in motor vehicles, rushing headlong for Muzdalifah, the potential is there for one of ... There is special grace for praying at the roofless mosque in Muzdalifah called al-Mash'ar al-Haram (the Sacred Grove) ...
- Danarto (1989). A Javanese pilgrim in Mecca. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8674-6939-4.
It was still dark when we arrived at Muzdalifah, four miles away. The Koran instructs us to spend the night at al-Mash'ar al-Haram. the Sacred Grove at Muzdalifah, as one of the conditions for the hajj . We scrambled out of the bus and looked ...
- Jones, Lindsay (2005). Encyclopedia of religion. 10. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 7159. ISBN 978-0-0286-5743-1.
The Qur'an admonishes: "When you hurry from Arafat, remember God at the Sacred Grove (al-mash' ar al-haram)," that is, at Muzdalifah (2:198). Today a mosque marks the place in Muzdalifah where pilgrims gather to perform the special saldt ...
- Ziauddin Sardar; M. A. Zaki Badawi (1978). Hajj Studies. King Abdul Aziz University. Jeddah: Croom Helm for Hajj Research Centre. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8566-4681-2.
Muzdalifah is an open plain sheltered by parched hills with sparse growth of thorn bushes. The pilgrims spend a night under the open sky of the roofless Mosque, the Sacred Grove, Al Mush'ar al-Haram. On the morning of the tenth, all depart ...
- Quran 9:108 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
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