List of the oldest mosques
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The designation of the oldest mosque in the world requires careful use of definitions, and must be divided into two parts, the oldest in the sense of oldest surviving building, and the oldest in the sense of oldest mosque congregation. Even here, there is the distinction between old mosque buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques, and those that have been converted to other purposes; and between buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques and those that were shuttered for many decades. In terms of congregations, they are distinguished between early established congregations that have been in continuous existence, and early congregations that ceased to exist.
To be listed here a site must:
- be the oldest mosque in a country, large city (top 50), or oldest of its type (denomination, architectural, etc.);
- be the oldest congregation of its type (denomination).
Named in the QuranEdit
|Al-Haram Mosque||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||Unknown, associated with Abraham||Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام),[a] a site of the Ḥajj (Arabic: حَـجّ, 'Pilgrimage'), the Qiblah (Arabic: قِـبْـلَـة, Direction of Muslim formal prayers), and the first Mosque in Islamic thought. Rebuilt many times, notably 1571 by the Ottomans, and the late 20th century by the Saudis, further enlargement under way since 2010.|
|Al-Aqsa Mosque||Old City of Jerusalem||Palestine/||Unknown, associated with Abraham||Al-Masjid al-Aqṣá (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْاَقْـصَى) or Bayṫ al-Muqaddas (Arabic: بَـيْـت الْـمُـقَـدَّس) is the third holiest site in Islam, and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. The site on which the silver-domed mosque sits is near the Dome of the Rock.|
|The Sacred Monument||Muzdalifah, near Mecca||Saudi Arabia||Unknown||Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـشْـعَــر الْـحَـرَام), a site of the Hajj.|
Note that the major regions, such as Africa and Eurasia, are sorted alphabetically, whereas the minor regions, such as Northeast and Northwest Africa in Africa, and Arabia and South Asia in Eurasia, are sorted by the dates in which their first mosques were reportedly established, more or less, barring those that are mentioned by name in the Quran.
|Negash Amedin Mesgid||Negash||Ethiopia||620-630||Built in the 7th century in Negash, the mosque in Negash, by tradition burial site of several followers of Mohammad who, during his lifetime, fled to the Aksumite Kingdom to escape persecution in Mecca.|
|Mosque of the Companions, Massawa||Massawa||Eritrea||620-630 (approximate)||Believed to be one the first mosques on the African continent.|
|Masjid al-Qiblatayn||Zeila||Somalia||620/30||Built in the 7th century in Zeila, shortly after the hijrah; known to be among the oldest mosques.|
|Mosque of Amr ibn al-As||Cairo||Egypt||641||Named after 'Amr ibn al-'As, commander of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, by order of Caliph Umar. Built as the centre of Fustat (the newly founded capital of Egypt) in 673–642 CE, and rebuilt in 1179 and in 1875.|
|Mosque of Ibn Tulun||Cairo||Egypt||879|
|Arba'a Rukun Mosque||Mogadishu||Somalia||1268/9||Sunni|
|Fakr ad-Din Mosque||Mogadishu||Somalia||1269||Sunni||Mosque built by Sultan Fakr ad-Din of the Sultanate of Mogadishu (10th Century – 16th Century).|
|Mosque of Uqba||Kairouan||Tunisia||670||Sunni||Believed to be the first mosque in the Maghreb, it was rebuilt in the 9th century.|
|Sidi Okba Mosque||Sidi Okba||Algeria||686|
|Great Mosque of Sfax||Sfax||Tunisia||850|
|Great Mosque of Sousse||Sousse||Tunisia||851|
|Atiq Mosque, Awjila||Awjila||Libya||1101||Sunni|
|Shanga, Pate Island||Kenya||Foundation discovered, with coins attesting dates, during the 1980s excavations. The earliest concrete evidence of Muslims in East Africa.:97|
|Great Mosque of Kilwa||Kilwa Kisiwani||Tanzania||1000-1100|
|Kizimkazi Mosque||Dimbani||Tanzania||1107 (according to an inscription)|
|Tsingoni Mosque||Tsingoni, Mayotte||France||1538|
|Al-Fatah Mosque||Kigali||Rwanda (then German East Africa)||1913||Founded by coastal Swahili-speaking Tanzanian Muslims who came to Rwanda to work in the German administration.|
|Larabanga Mosque||Larabanga||Ghana||1421||The oldest existing mud-brick mosque in Ghana.|
|Great Mosque of Kano||Kano||Nigeria||15th century||Built in for Emir Muhammad Rumfa.|
|Awwal Mosque||Cape Colony||South Africa (then Cape Colony)||1798|
|Masjid al-Qudama||Caledon Street, Uitenhage, Eastern Cape||South Africa||1849||It is deduced that the mosque in Caledon Street was a completed building by March 1849|
|Juma Mosque||Durban||South Africa||1881|
|Butha Buthe||Lesotho||1900 (approximate):115||Founded by Soofie Saheb at the turn of the century; the community is described as African Muslim yet speaking an Indian language.:115|
|Habibia Soofie Saheb Jamia Masjid||Rylands, Cape Town||South Africa||1905|
|Lobatse||Botswana||1960s||Founded by Indian Muslims who were brought over during the British colonial period.|
|Swaziland||1981||Heavily financed by the World Assembly of Muslim Youth|
|Agadez Mosque||Agadez||Niger||1515||Niger's oldest mosque.|
|Suriname (then a colony of the Netherlands)||1906||Built by immigrant Javanese rice farmers.|
|Mesquita Brasil (São Paulo),||São Paulo||Brazil||1929||Previous site built in 1929; current building inaugurated in 1952. First known mosque in Brazil.|
|Panama||1930||Built by the Ahmadiyya community.|
|El Paraíso, Caracas||Venezuela||1968|
|At-Tauhid Mosque||Buenos Aires||Argentina||1983||Shi'ite||Opened in October 1983 by the Shi'ite community of Buenos Aires and with the support of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Argentina. It is a very simple building with a subtle Islamic style in its facade.|
|Mezquita as-Salam||Santiago||Chile||1995||Commissioned 1989, inaugurated in 1995.|
|Al-Sadiq Mosque||Chicago, Illinois||United States||1922|
|Mother Mosque of America||Ross, North Dakota||United States||1929||Built in Iowa in 1934, became the oldest standing mosque in America when the Ross Mosque was torn down in the 1970s. The Ross Mosque was later rebuilt in 2005.|
|Al-Rashid Mosque||Edmonton, Alberta||Canada||1938||First purpose built mosque.|
|Westmoreland and Spanish Town||Jamaica||1950s||Constructed by the Islamic Society of Jamaica, which was founded in 1950.|
|Suraya Mosque||Torreón||Mexico||1989||Built by the immigrants from the Middle East living in Torreón.|
|Costa Rica||1995||Founded by the Islamic Cultural Association of Costa Rica.|
|Belize City||Belize||2008 (approximate)||Founded by Belizeans who converted to Islam while in the United States.|
|Quba Mosque||Medina||Saudi Arabia||622||Oldest mosque in the Arabian peninsula that dates to Muhammad's lifetime in the 7th century CE, but the building was largely rebuilt in the late 20th century.|
|Al-Masjid al-Nabawi||Medina||Saudi Arabia||622||Site of pilgrimage. Contains Muhammad's tomb. Largely rebuilt and greatly enlarged in the late 20th century, whilst retaining at its heart the earlier construction of the Ottomans, and landmark green dome.|
|Masjid al-Qiblatain||Medina||Saudi Arabia||623||Mosque of the two Qiblas|
|Jawatha Mosque||Al-Kilabiyah||Saudi Arabia||629||Has recently been renovated and prayers are still held in this mosque.|
|Great Mosque of Sana'a||Sana'a||Yemen||7th century||Possibly the oldest mosque in the country.|
|Al-Asha'ir Mosque||Zabid||Yemen||629||A part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Town of Zabid. Established by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, a sahabi.|
|Masjid Mazin||Sumail||Oman||600s||Founded by Mazin Ben Ghadooba, who is considered to be the first Omani to adopt Islam during Muhammad's lifetime.|
|Suq al-Khamis Mosque||Bahrain||1000–1200 (approximate)||Though most of the structure is dated to the 11th or 12th century, it is popularly believed to have been founded by the Caliph Omar in the 600s.|
|Al Badiyah Mosque||Fujairah||United Arab Emirates||1400s||Some much earlier estimates have been proposed.|
|Huaisheng Mosque||Guangzhou||China||627||The Huaisheng Mosque is the main mosque of Guangzhou. It has been rebuilt many times over its history. According to tradition it was originally built over 1,300 years ago in 627 CE by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, who was an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was named in memory of Muhammad.|
|Xianxian Mosque||Guangzhou City||China||629||The mosque was originally built in 629 during the Tang Dynasty.|
|Great Mosque of Xi'an||Xi'an, Shaanxi||China||742||Although the oldest stones date from the 18th century, the Mosque was founded in 742 Built in 742, but oldest mosque in China is the Beacon Tower mosque of Guangzhou being built in 627.|
|Macau Mosque||Macau (then Portuguese Macau)||China||1980||The first and only mosque in Macau.|
|Taipei Grand Mosque||Taipei||Taiwan||1947||Oldest and most famous mosque in Taiwan. Original building was firstly used in 1947, then relocated to a new site where it was reconstructed in 1960.|
|Jamia Mosque||Hong Kong (then British Hong Kong)||China||1890|
|Cheraman Juma Masjid||Kodungallur||India||629||Built by Malik Deenar and named for Cheraman Perumal. It is considered to be the first mosque ever built in the state of Kerala, besides the country.|
|Palaiya Jumma Palli||Kilakarai||India||630||Sunni||Considered to be the first mosque to be built in Tamil Nadu, and the second mosque in India. Constructed by Yemeni merchants and trade settlers in the Pandiya Kingdom and ordered by Bazan ibn Sasan, Governor of Yemen at the time of Muhammad.|
|Masjid al-Abrar||Beruwala, Kalutara District, Western Province||Sri Lanka||First century in the Hijri calendar||The date has been carved in its stone pillars. It is situated in western province of Sri Lanka.|
|Haji Piyada||Balkh||Afghanistan||Second half of the 9th century||Considered to be the oldest Islamic building in Afghanistan.|
|Jamia Masjid Banbhore||Banbhore, Sindh||Pakistan||727|
|Kazimar Big Mosque||Madurai||India||1284||Sunni, Hanafi Shadhili||Second mosque in Tamil Nadu.|
|Sixty Dome Mosque||Bagerhat, Khulna Division||Bangladesh||1450||Built by Khan Jahan Ali, it is considered to be the second-oldest mosque in Bangladesh. The fortified structure contains eighty-one domes, sixty stone pillars and eleven mihrabs.|
|Al-Qibli Chapel||Jerusalem||Palestine/||637||A Muslim prayer house with a silver lead dome located in the southern part of Al-Aqsa Mosque, built by the Rashidun caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.|
|Great Mosque of Aleppo||Aleppo||Syria||715|
|Umayyad Mosque||Damascus||Syria||715||Sunni||National Mosque. It was originally built after the Muslim conquest of the city in 634. The current structure dates to 715.|
|Great Mosque of Raqqa||Raqqa||Syria||772|
|Arab Ahmet Mosque||Arab Ahmet quarter of Nicosia||Cyprus||Late 16th century||The mosque is named after a commander of the 1571 Ottoman army who made an expedition in 1571.|
|Hagia Sophia||Istanbul||Turkey||537 / 1453||Built in 537 as a Christian church, converted to a mosque in 1453, and then a museum in 1931.|
|Great Mosque of Kufa||Kufah||Iraq||639||Shia||The mosque, built in the 7th century, contains the remains of Muslim ibn Aqeel – first cousin of Husayn ibn Ali, his companion Hani ibn Urwa, and the revolutionary Mukhtar al-Thaqafi.|
|Imam Hussain Mosque||Karbala||Iraq||680||Shia||Reconstructed several times, including in 1016.|
|Jameh Mosque of Ferdows||Ferdows||Iran||7th century (possibly)|
|Masjid al-Hisn||Turkey||717-720||The building fell into ruin during the reign of Al-Mu'tasim, approximately 120 years later.|
|Jameh Mosque of Isfahan||Isfahan||Iran||771|
|Jameh Mosque of Fahraj||Fahraj||Iran||700s|
|Tarikhaneh Mosque||Damghan||Iran||8th century|
|Great Mosque of Samarra||Samarra||Iraq||848|
|Al-Askari Shrine||Samarra||Iraq||944||Shia (Twelver)||Shrine of the 10th and 11th Twelver Shī‘ite Imāms: Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari.|
|Imam Ali Mosque||Najaf||Iraq||977||Shia, Sunni||Shrine of first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib, and fourth Sunni Rashidun Caliph.|
|Great Mosque of Diyarbakır||Diyarbakır||Turkey||1092||Sunni||One of the oldest known mosques in modern Turkey.|
|Po-i-Kalyan||Bukhara||Uzbekistan||713||Since 713 here, several edifices of main cathedral mosque were built then razed, restored after fires and wars, and moved from place to place.|
|Juma Mosque||Shamakhi||Azerbaijan||743-744||Built in 743–744, set on fire by Armenian units of "Dashnaktsutiun" in 1918, reconstructed in 2009.|
|The Blue Mosque, built in the mid 18th century.||Yerevan||Armenia||Mid-18th century|
|Great Mosque of Córdoba||Córdoba, Andalusia||Spain (then the Emirate of Córdoba)||785||It was built on the main (Visigothic) church of the city. The great mosque was built by Abd al-Rahman I, the first Muslim ruler of Spain in 785, it underwent successive extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries and was concluded in 10th century under the command of Almanzor. After the Christian reconquest of Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III of Castile converted the mosque into a cathedral, suffering some alterations that will end up configuring the current Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. With 23,400 square metres (2.34 ha), it was the second largest mosque in the world on the surface, after Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca, only later replaced in this respect by the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul in 1588.|
|Mosque of Cristo de la Luz||Toledo, Castile-La Mancha||Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba)||999 (completed)|
|Mosque of las Tornerías||Toledo, Castile-La Mancha||Spain (then the Taifa of Toledo)||mid-11th-century (completed)||Arabic: الـمـسـتـمـيـم, translit. al-Mustimim|
|Mosque of Tórtoles||Tarazona, Aragon||Spain (then the Crown of Aragon)||15th-century (completed)||Almost not altered in the later centuries.|
|Dzhuma Mosque||Derbent, Dagestan (then part of the Arabian Caliphate)||700-900 (approximate)|
|Al-Agha Mosque||Dragaš||Kosovo||1268||Built by Muslims who migrated from Aleppo, in Syria, to Kosovo.|
|Dzhumaya Mosque||Plovdiv||Bulgaria||1363–1364||Built during the reign of Sultan Murad II the old building was demolished and replaced by the modern-day mosque.|
|Sailors' Mosque||Ulcinj||Montenegro||14th century|
|Halit Efendi Mosque, built in 1415, is one of the oldest mosque in Macedonia.||Slupčane, Lipkovo Municipality||Macedonia||1415||it is considered to be one of the oldest mosques in Macedonia.|
|Ustikolina||Bosnia and Herzegovina||1448–1449||Built by Turhan Emin-beg. Known to have been destroyed two times (1941 and 1992) and rebuilt two times (1956 and 2007).|
|Elbasan Castle||Albania||1466||Built by the orders of Sultan Mehmed II.|
|Plav||Montenegro||1471||Built during the Ottoman rule in the city.|
|King Mosque or Sulltan Bayazit Mosque||Elbasan||Albania||1482|
|Iljaz Mirahori Mosque||Korçë||Albania||1494||It was built by Iljaz Hoxha, also known as Iljaz Bey Mirahor, and is a Cultural Monument of Albania.|
|Mosque of Kuklibeu||Prizren||Kosovo||1534|
|Mosque of Muderis Ali Efendi||Prizren||Kosovo||1543–1581|
|Poland||1558 (earliest attestation in writing)||Tatar mosques in Poland were noted in a 1558 treatise Risale-i Tatar-i Lech.|
|Lithuania (then the Grand Duchy of Lithuania)||1500-1600||Various records indicate Lithuanian Tatars built mosques in the Duchy during the 16th century|
|Mosque of Sinan Pasha||Prizren||Kosovo||1615|
|Log pod Mangartom Mosque||Slovenia||1916||Built by Bosniak members of the Austro-Hungarian army.|
|Gunja||Croatia||1969||One of the few mosques in Croatia, located near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.|
|Vienna Islamic Centre||Vienna||Austria||1979|
|Brno||Czech Republic||1998||Construction began 1996, inaugurated 1998.|
|Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque||Tubig Indangan, Simunul island, Tawi-Tawi province||Philippines||1380||Founded by Makhdum Karim, who introduced Islam to the Philippines.|
|Brunei||1430 (approximate)||Built under the direction of Sharif Ali ("Sultan Berkat"), who reigned 1425-1432.|
|Great Mosque of Demak||Demak, Central Java||Indonesia||15th century||The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia.|
|300 Years Mosque||Narathiwat||Thailand||17th century||It is at least one of the oldest known mosques in Thailand.|
|Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka||Singapore||1820||Originally a wooden structure built by Arab merchant Syed Omar Ali Aljunied.|
|Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute||Liverpool, England||United Kingdom||1891||Liverpool Muslim Institute||Several sources state that a mosque was founded in 1860 at 2 Glynrhondda Street, Cardiff, Wales. This has been rejected by an academic paper as a transcription error.|
|7 Harrington Street, Dublin||Ireland||1976||The first purpose-built mosque was built in Ballyhaunis in 1987.|
|Paris (first in Metropolitan France)||France||1926||This mosque was the first mosque built in France since the 8th century; it was built in the Moroccan style, and honored Muslim French veterans of World War I.|
|Berlin||Germany||1922–1924||Sources differ as to the original mosque: an Ahmadiyya mosque (Berlin Mosque) was built in 1924; the Deutsch-Moslemische Gesellschaft was built in 1922, and a wooden mosque for prisoners of war was built near Berlin during World War I. The first Islamic cemetery was founded in 1798.|
|Mobarak Mosque||The Hague||Netherlands||1955||The first known purpose-built mosque in the Netherlands.|
|Islamic Center in Geneva||Geneva||Switzerland||1961||Founded by Said Ramadan|
|Kobe Mosque||Kobe||Japan||1935||Designed in the Turkish style by a Czech architect, confiscated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1943, and later returned.|
|Seoul Central Mosque||Seoul||South Korea||1976|
|Järvenpää mosque||Finland||1942||A mosque of the community of Finnish Tatars. It is considered to be the oldest mosque in Nordic countries. Finland's first Muslim cemetery was established in the 1830s for Russian troops.|
|Hvidovre, outside Copenhagen||Denmark||1967||Founded by the Ahmadiyya; first purpose-built mosque in a Nordic country.|
|Islamic Cultural Centre Norway||Oslo||Norway||1974||Founded by Pakistani-Norwegians aided by Danish Muslims; of the Sunni Deobandi school. The first Shi'i mosque, Anjuman-e Hussain, opened in 1975; the first Sunni Barelvi mosque opened in 1976.|
|Stockholm||Sweden||2000||Converted from Katarinastation, a former power station.|
|Reykjavík Mosque||Reykjavik||Iceland||2002||Not a purpose-built mosque, but serves as an interim gathering site.|
|Marree Mosque||Marree, South Australia||Australia||1861 / 1882||Small structure in the South Australian desert built by Australia's "Afghan" camel-drivers, has been restored.|
|Central Adelaide Mosque||Adelaide||Australia||1888||The oldest major city mosque in the country.|
|Auckland||New Zealand||1979 (begun)||Cornerstone laid in 1979; the first Islamic centre in the country was installed in an Auckland house bought in 1959.|
|Vitogo, Nausori, and Tavua||Fiji||1922 (approximate)||A number of wooden mosques were built by local Islamic assemblies around 1922.|
|Port Moresby||Papua New Guinea||2000||Islam was introduced to the island in the 1970s, and the first Islamic centre established in 1988.|
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