List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts

This article attempts to list the oldest buildings in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States of America, including the oldest houses in Massachusetts and any other surviving structures. Some dates are approximate (indicated with a "c.") and based on architectural studies and historical records, while other dates are based on dendrochronology. All entries should include citation with reference to: 17th century architectural features; a report by an architectural historian; or dendrochronology. Sites on the list are generally from the First Period of American architecture. Only First Period houses built prior to 1728 are suitable for inclusion on this list or the building must be the oldest of its type.

The Fairbanks House (built 1637-1641) is the oldest house verified using dendrochronology, followed by the James Blake House (built in 1661), but most First Period structures in Massachusetts have not yet been tested with dendrochronology surveys.

Verified through surveyEdit

The following structures have been verified using dendrochronology or some other type of architectural survey.

Building Image Location First Built Short summary
Fairbanks House   Dedham 1641 The Fairbanks House is the oldest verified wood-frame house in North America after timbers were dated from 1637–1641 using dendrochronology. This home is largely preserved in its original state with the central complex being the oldest. Later additions (including wings, and lean-tos on the original structure) were added after 1800 as the family's descendants grew in numbers.[1][2]
James Blake House   Dorchester 1661 The James Blake House is the oldest verified house in Boston as determined by a dendrochronology study conducted in 2007.[3][4] This structure is noteworthy as it contains West England country framing which is rarely seen in the United States.[3] In 1895, the James Blake House was moved to its present location as the city needed to make room for avenue widening.[5] The house retains the same "probable appearance" exterior as built minus two gables that were present at the front end.[3]
Pickering House   Salem 1664 The Pickering House is located at 18 Broad Street in the Chestnut Street District, and has been owned by the same family since it was built. Results from a dendrochronology study conducted in 2007 show that the oldest parts of the house date to the winter of 1663-4. The extended parlour portion of the house was completed roughly 19 years later.[6] Most of the home's exterior was reworked in 1841 with Gothic Revival style features. The interior of the house has since been restored to its colonial appearance.
Gedney House   Salem 1665 Shipwright Eleazer Gedney acquired the land for a house on April 20, 1664, and a construction date of 1665 was confirmed by dendrochronology in 2002.[7] While the oldest timbers date to 1664-65, the house has since been modified to its present form. The south end lean-to (later replaced by 1800) was raised to accompany two stories in 1706, and the end wall facing the street was given a framed overhang. A complete gutting of the interior for conversion into apartments occurred before SPNEA acquired the property in 1967.[7]
House of the Seven Gables   Salem 1668 The House of the Seven Gables is a National Historic Landmark. Dendrochronology studies done in 2005 dated the oldest portions of the house to 1668.[8] Later additions to the house include a lean-to and kitchen ell at the back of the house by 1693. Georgian woodwork altered the parlor wing of the original house in 1723. The back part of the original structure was removed in 1794, and in the nineteenth century the decorative gables met the same fate as they were too old fashioned.[8] These were restored along with the original 17th century appearance sometime in the early 20th century.
Merchant-Choate House   Ipswich 1671 This seventeenth century home is also known as the "Tuttle House". Dendrochronological dating shows the earliest portions of the house were completed sometime in 1671 with later additions. The house was extended to the north a year later, and repairs were done to this extension after 1761. Physical evidence shows that two single cell one-and-one-half-story cottages were put together around a central chimney possibly as late as 1705. These structures were later raised to two stories, a lean-to and rear lateral extensions were likely added on during the 18th century.[9]
Deane Winthrop House   Winthrop 1675 Dendrochronology confirms that Deane Winthrop built the earliest portion of his house in 1675. This original portion consists of a "single cell" structure which is two and one half stories in height. An addition to the east side was later added by Winthrop in 1695 which widened the chimney bay. The only other known modification is a lean-to spanning the four easternmost bays which was added sometime in the 18th century. There is suspicion that the foundation of the house also dates to this period based on the construction used. This would mean that the house was possibly moved to its present location.[10]
John Capen House N/A Milton[a] 1675 This house was originally built in Dorchester by John Capen in 1675.[11] As built, the structure consisted of an end chimney bay and a range of two side by side rooms. An additional room and chamber was added to the right of the chimney in the mid eighteenth century. Later additions were also added to the rear of the house along with a lean-to.[11] The house remained in the Capen family until 1909 when it was scheduled to be demolished. It was saved by Kenneth G. T. Webster, who purchased the house and moved it to Milton where it stands today.[11]
Narbonne House   Salem 1675 The Narbonne House is located on the waterfront at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site and owned by the National Park Service. Dendrochronology conducted in 2002 dated the oldest part of the house which faces west to 1675.[12] A separate story-and-one-half building with gambrel roof was attached to the original portion of the house sometime between 1725 and 1750.[12]
Whipple House   Ipswich 1677 The Whipple House is a National Historic Landmark which was dated using dendrochronology in 2002. The oldest parts of the house were shown to date to 1677 for a house that was two-and-one-half stories in height, featuring a facade gabble. Additions to the house have since been made which occurred in 1690, and later in 1790. The latter of these dates was a substantial addition at 24 feet in length east of the chimney that included a second facade gable. In 1928 the house was moved to its present location where it now serves as a museum.[13]
Coffin House   Newbury 1678 This house features one of the oldest extant examples of the principal rafter/common purlin roof.[14] The "Coffin" house (named after the original land owner) was dated using dendrochronology to 1678, with the oldest portion of the house being the south west ell. Later additions include a cross-wing on the north east side which was added in 1713.[14] The house became two official dwellings in 1785, when the Coffin brothers legally divided the structure.[15]
Balch House   Beverly 1680 The oldest portion of the Balch house was found to date to 1680 via dendrochronology study.[16] This home was originally a single room cottage one-and-one-half stories in height, with a now removed chimney bay. Later descendants of the Balch family constructed the single room two-story southern part of the house in 1721. The original portion of the house was raised to two stories, and attached to this newer portion which created a central chimney. Modern restoration work was undertaken in 1921-1922, and again in 1961-1962.[16]
Hart House   Ipswich 1680 Dendrochronology shows that the earliest portion of the "Hart" house dates to 1680.[17] The house as built was originally a two-and-one half story single room plan house, with a chimney bay on the east end. An addition was later added onto the opposite side of the chimney c. 1725. Restorations to the house to make it more original took place in 1902 when it was used as a guest house. The Hart House now serves as a tavern, minus a portion of the original structure that was purchased by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the 1930s as an exhibit.[17]
Cooper-Frost-Austin House   Cambridge 1681 The Cooper-Frost-Austin House was originally built as a single room structure with a chimney bay, and integral lean-to.[18] This two-and-one half story structure was later expanded with the addition of west rooms and lean-to behind them sometime after 1718.[18] It was around this time period that a one-story porch was also added. SPNEA acquired the house in 1912, and it was restored by architect Joseph Everett Chandler.[18]
Pierce House (Dorchester, Massachusetts)   Dorchester 1683 Dendrochronology has dated the oldest portion of the Pierce House to 1683.[19] This section is now located in the middle of the house as additions were added to the two-and-one half story single room plan structure. The house was extended to the west shortly after 1712 and a lean-to was added over time on the entire back side. Further additions were added to the east end of the home in 1765. The kitchen in the west portion of the lean-to was rebuilt and extended slightly to the north in the nineteenth century.[19]
20 White Place   Brookline 1683 The oldest parts of 20 White Place date to 1683, according to a dendrochronology study done in 2007.[20] This home was originally built as a single room structure, and was moved in 1854 to its present location. Its estimated that during this time the exterior was given its "Italianate" appearance.[20] Several one-story additions have since been added to the rear of the building. Interior changes include space rearrangement on both stories.[20] 20 White Place is now a private residence protected through Historic New England's stewardship easement program.[21]
Boardman House   Saugus 1692 Formerly known as the Scotch Boardman House, the Boardman House has been dated using dendrochronology to 1692.[22] Originally the home had a two-room plan, with a typical hall-and-parlor configuration around a central chimney stack. A lean-to kitchen was added to the house by 1696, and further modifications to the interior were undertaken in the early 1700s. Other than the reconstruction of the lean-to in 1731 the house has not undergone any major changes. The Boardman House now acts as a restored museum.[22]
Paine-Dodge House   Ipswich 1694 [23]
Parson Capen House   Topsfield 1694 Dendrochronology dates the Parson Capen House to 1694, when it was originally built as the parsonage for the local Congregational Church.[24][25] It was first owned by the Reverend Joseph Capen. While it remains unknown what exact changes were made to the house over the centuries, financial analyst Bill Griffeth has stated that the structure is one of the best preserved homes from its period in New England.[26] The Topsfield Historical Society currently operates the Parson Capen House as a museum.[27]
Dwight-Derby House   Medfield 1697 The earliest portion of the "Dwight-Derby" house is the southwest block, which has been dated to 1697 using dendrochronology.[28] An extension in the form of a cross wing was added to the east side in 1713.[28] The town of Medfield bought the Dwight-Derby House in 1996, after which restorations took place. It was reported in July 2011 that the Dwight-Derby House was 75% restored to originality.[29]
Benjamin Abbot House   Andover 1711 Dendrochronology has determined that the eastern (right) side of the house was built in 1711.[30]
Old Garrison House   Rockport 1711 The "Old Garrison" house was dated to 1711 through dendrochronology done in 2004.[31] This test was only able to get a single core sample from a log to the left-hand end of the building due to numerous problems.[31] Local histories suggest that the house may in fact be older as an unverified date as early as 1675 has been given.
Robert Haskell House N/A Beverly 1712 The original parts of the "Robert Haskell" house include the east rooms and chimney bay, which were built with an integral lean-to in 1712.[32] Dendrochronology shows that the western portion of the house was built later on another site in 1724 with an integral lean-to.[32] These two halves were joined together in Beverly at some point in time based on the side-by-side framing and differences in roof pitch. The lean-to on the east side has since been raised from its original height to two-stories.[32]
The Old Castle   Rockport 1712 Dendrochronology confirms that a build date of 1712 coincides with the home's deed history.[33] The house as built originally consisted of hall and parlor on either side of a central chimney with two chambers and an attic above. A small lobby entry with stairs was present at the front in the central bay.[33] The Old Castle received a back lean-to long kitchen in 1792 when the home was divided by two branches of the original owner's family. Eventually, both portions of the house were purchased by the town of Rockport in 1929.[33] This house is now a museum today.
Holt Hill Farmhouse   Andover 1714 [34]
Bardeen-Culver Barn N/A Dedham[b] 1715 The Bardeen-Culver Barn was built no later than 1715 in West Newbury.[35] Three of the original four bays of the barn survive today with some of the reused posts dating before 1700. The barn was dismantled in 2003 and reassembled in Dedham to serve as a visitors center for the Fairbanks House.[35]
Bradford House   Kingston 1715 [36]
John Quincy Adams Birthplace   Quincy 1717 John Quincy Adams Birthplace dates to 1717 via dendrochronology, and was purchased by the Adams family in 1744.[37] This two-room plan building with a central chimney was bequeathed to John Quincy Adams in 1761.[37] An additional lean-to was added sometime in 1764 along with the door trim and secondary entrance. John Quincy Adams was born in this house in 1767, and lived in it until 1783. John Quincy Adam's Birthplace is now owned and operated as a museum by the Federal government of the United States through the National Park Service.
John Adams Birthplace   Quincy 1722 Oldest existing building within which a future President of the United States was born (John Adams, October 30, 1735)[38] The front portion of the his birthplace was dated to 1722 by dendrochronology. Other portions of the house including the framing on the east side incorporates a number of reused timbers dating to the 1670s.[39] John Adams Birthplace is now owned and operated as a museum by the Federal government of the United States through the National Park Service.[38][39]
Bellingham-Cary House   Chelsea 1724 The earliest frontal portion of the "Bellingham-Cary" house dates to 1724 by dendrochronology study.[40] An extension was added to the rear of the house in 1765.[40] Further enlargements were made to the home until 1791 to create its present appearance.[41] This house is now a historic house museum which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.
Proctor House   Peabody[c] 1727 Dendrochronology shows that the "Proctor" house was built no later than 1727.[42] This house is commonly associated with John Proctor, who was hung on August 19, 1692 in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Salem Witch Trials. Historical records suggest that the house was actually built by Jon's son Thorndike as the third property on the family owned property.[43] Parts of the house date from the time of build in the 1720s to the 1900s as different families occupied the home.[42] While the Proctor House is now a private residence, the owners have shared their desire to open it up to the public.[42]

EstimatesEdit

The following structures are claimed to have been built at or around the time attested.

Building Image Location First Built Notes
Williams-Barker House   Scituate c. 1634 Core of house is believed to date from as early 1634, but is now extensively renovated[44][45] and currently operated as a tavern.[46] No dendrochronology survey.
Thomas Bourne House   Marshfield c. 1639 Located at 1308 Ocean Street;[47] Part of house is believed to date from 1639.[48] No dendrochronology survey.
Richard Sparrow House   Plymouth c. 1640 The Richard Sparrow House is a historic house and museum at 42 Summer Street in Plymouth, Massachusetts, and the allegedly the oldest surviving house in Plymouth. No dendrochronology survey.
Samuel Lucius-Thomas Howland House   Plymouth c. 1640 Located at 36 North Street near Plymouth Rock; House is believed to date from 1640.[49][50][48] No dendrochronology survey.
Joseph Andrews-Perez Lincoln House   Chatham c. 1640 House is believed to date from 1640 and was moved from Hingham to Chatham.[51][48] No dendrochronology survey.
Capt. Thomas Willett House-Upland Meadows   Kingston c. 1640 Located at 27 Wapping Road; The back ell of the house is believed to date from 1640.[52][48] No dendrochronology survey.
Col. John Barstow House   Hanover c. 1640 Located at 336 Broadway, parts of the house are believed to date from 1640.[53] No dendrochronology survey.
Wing Fort House   East Sandwich c. 1641 The oldest home in New England continuously owned by the same family; now a museum.[54] Dendrochronological dating was attempted in 2007, but was unsuccessful due to "many of the samples having too many narrow rings, some having too few rings, and to the lack of reference chronologies from the south-eastern part of Massachusetts."[55]
Edmond Hawes-Barker Hunt House   Duxbury c. 1641 aka as the Edwin Hunt House at 8 Hounds Ditch Lane; House is believed to date from 1641.[56][57][58] No dendrochronology survey.
John Doane House   Kingston c. 1644 Located at 34 Wapping Road;[59] House is believed to date from 1644.[48] No dendrochronology survey.
James Noyes House   Newbury c. 1641
Shatswell Planter's Cottage Ipswich c. 1641 Currently located on the property at 53 Jeffrey's Neck Rd where it was moved in the twentieth century from another location: "originally located at 88-90 High Street [where it was] the earliest of the three First Period structures on the site, dating to before 1646"; House is believed to date from 1646.[60] No dendrochronology survey.
John Ellis House   Sandwich c. 1641[61] located at 76 Main Street[62]
General Israel Putnam House   Danvers c. 1648
Capt. Gideon Woodwell House   Newburyport c. 1649 Located at 2 Woodwell Avenue. Possibly built using beams from the owner's merchant ship[63]
Edward Wilder House   Hingham c. 1650 oldest house in the South Hingham Historic District at 597 Main Street.[64]
Edward Brown House   Ipswich c. 1650[65] located at 27 High Street[65]
Ford House   Marshfield c. 1650[48] 91 Old Colony Lane[66][67]
Samuel Robinson-Michael Chapleman House   Salem c. 1650[68] located at 69 Essex St; large eighteenth century addition[69]
Bickman House   Weymouth c. 1650[48] located at 84 Sea Street. Right side of building is the oldest house in Weymouth[70]
Old Stockbridge Grist Mill   Scituate c. 1650 Possibly the oldest mill in Massachusetts
John Harding House   Medfield c. 1650[48] 74 Harding St. from the timbers of the old garrison, used as protection during the Indian attacks [71]
Goodspeed House   Barnstable c. 1653[48]
John Chenery House   Belmont c. 1654[48] 52 Washington Street[72]
Dexter's Grist Mill   Sandwich 1654 Currently is open to the public and still grinds corn.[73]
Retire Beckett House   Salem c. 1655[48] Currently serves as the museum store at the House of Seven Gables after being moved to that location.[74]
Keyes House   Westford c. 1656[48] 16 Francis Hill Road[75][76]
Thomas Dane House   Concord c. 1657[48] 47 Lexington Rd.[77][78]
Nicholas Wade House   Scituate c. 1657 – c. 1659[48] located at 200 Country Way, c. 1657.[79][48]
Newman-Fiske-Dodge House   Wenham 1658
Thomas Lord House   Ipswich c. 1658[48] 17 High Street[80]
James Moulton House   Wenham c. 1658[48] 123 Cherry St[81]
Caleb Moody House   West Newbury c. 1658[48] 803 Main Street[82]
Dillingham House   Brewster c. 1659[48]
Cpl. John Andrews-Richard Dummer House/The White Horse Inn House   Ipswich c. 1659[48] 34 High Street[83]
Philip Call House   Ipswich c. 1659[48] 26 High Street[84]
John Partridge House   Millis c. 1659[48]
Dillingham House   Sandwich c. 1659[48] 71 Main St[85]
Jabez Howland House   Plymouth 1667 Only surviving house in Plymouth where Pilgrims lived
Swett-Ilsley House   Newbury 1670
Judge Samuel Holten House   Danvers 1670
Chaplin-Clarke House   Rowley c. 1670 Oldest part built around 1670, lean-to section added around 1700 before a change in ownership.
Gould House   Topsfield c. 1670 73 Prospect Street, Topsfield. Earliest section 1670; addition of 1700[86]
Pickman House   Salem c. 1672[87] Recent dendrochronology finds trees felled in winter of 1671;[citation needed] museum site has not been updated, but cited source includes audio tour by architectural historian stating new results.[vague][attribution needed] Located on Charter Street behind the Peabody Essex Museum, the oldest continually operated museum in America. The house abuts the Witch Memorial is also next to the second oldest burying ground in America.
The Witch House   Salem 1675 Also called the Jonathan Corwin House, this was the home of Judge Jonathan Corwin [1] and is the only structure still standing in Salem, Massachusetts, with direct ties to the Salem Witch Trials of 1692.[2] The house is now a museum operated by the City of Salem, and is open seasonally.
Hoxie House   Sandwich c. 1675 One of the oldest houses on Cape Cod.
Auld Lang Syne (house)   Nantucket 1675 possibly the oldest house on Nantucket, and a former fisherman's cottage in Sconset
Peter Tufts House   Medford c. 1677 – c. 1678 The oldest brick house in Massachusetts.[88][89]
Eastham Windmill   Eastham 1680 Moved from Plymouth to Eastham in 1700s[90]
Paul Revere House   Boston c. 1680 Oldest building in downtown Boston.[91]
Hoar Tavern   Lincoln 1680 One of the oldest buildings in Lincoln.[92]
Old Ship Church   Hingham 1681 Oldest church building in Massachusetts; only remaining Puritan 17th century meetinghouse in America; oldest church in continuous ecclesiastical use in America.
Ironmaster's House   Saugus 1681 Also known as the Appleton House. This was part of the Saugus Iron Works, which was a major industrial complex. It has been restored and is open to the public.
John Ward House   Salem 1684 This house is a National Historic Landmark at 132 Essex Street in Salem, Massachusetts, in the Downtown Salem District; it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1968.
Whitney Hoar House   Littleton 1685 It was built in 1685 by Josiah Whitney and is the oldest home in Littleton. Home to two generations of the Howe family.
Quincy Homestead   Quincy 1686 Home to four generations of Quincys, including Dorothy Quincy Hancock. Maintained by Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation as well as the National Society of Colonial Dames in America in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Jethro Coffin House   Nantucket 1686 Oldest house on Nantucket Island on its original foundation.
William Murray House   Salem 1688 A historic house at 39 Essex Street.[93]
Claflin-Richards House   Wenham 1690 Constructed with ogee braces, an architectural hallmark of 16th- and 17th-century English dwellings.
Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm   Newbury c. 1690 One of the oldest stone buildings in New England.
Old Jail   Barnstable 1690 Oldest wooden prison in America.
Kimball Tavern   Haverhill 1692 The Kimball Tavern is among the oldest buildings in Massachusetts, and one of the oldest buildings in the city of Haverhill. A plaque identifies it as the site of the founding of Bradford College in 1802.
Stanley Lake House   Topsfield 1693 Stanley Lake House, built in 1693, is a historic house at 95 River Road in Topsfield, Massachusetts. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.
Browne House   Watertown 1694 Oldest house in Watertown.
Parker Tavern   Reading 1694 Believed to have been built in 1694 by Abraham Bryant. Operated as a tavern during the Revolution by Ephraim Parker. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. No dendrochronology.
Hart House   Lynnfield c. 1695
Isaac Goodale House   Ipswich[d] c. 1695 Date from architectural survey.[citation needed]
Manning Manse   Billerica c. 1696
Deacon Wrestling Brewster House   Kingston c. 1696 Located at 18 Brewster Brewster Road. It is believed that the house dates to c. 1696 – c. 1700.[94][48] No dendrochronology survey.
Isaac Winslow House   Marshfield 1699 Residence of a governor of the Plymouth Colony; now a museum.
Alden House   Duxbury c. 1700 A National Historic Landmark, dating to c. 1700 via dendrochronology.[95]
Solomon Kimball House   Wenham c. 1700[96] Although the house is named for its nineteenth- and early twentieth-century owner Solomon Kimball, it was built by Thomas and Mary (Solart) Kilham (or Killam). The date of construction is based on a March 6, 1695/6 timber grant to Thomas Kilham by the town of Wenham, of enough pine timber to yield 700 boards.[97]
Hatch Homestead   Marshfield c. 1700[98] Purportedly the oldest continuously occupied house in Massachusetts.
Rebecca Nurse Homestead   Danvers c. 1700 This house was built around c. 1700.[99]
John Humphreys House   Swampscott c. 1700[100]
Dickinson-Pillsbury-Witham House   Georgetown c. 1700 The Dickinson-Pillsbury-Witham House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.
Parkman Tavern   Concord c. 1700[101] Cited source estimates date of late 17th or early 18th century
Nathaniel Felton Sr. House   Peabody[c] 1700[102] Date estimate by Peabody Historical Society, owner
Capt. John Thorndike House   Beverly 1702 With addition dating to late First Period[103][failed verification]
Old Powder House   Somerville 1704 Oldest stone building in Massachusetts
Coronet John Farnum Jr. House   Uxbridge c. 1710 The Cornet John Farnum Jr. House was the site of the first Uxbridge Town Meeting in 1727. The house today is a museum and headquarters of the Uxbridge Historical Society. It is an excellent example of early New England colonial architecture.
White–Ellery House   Gloucester 1710 Affirmed traditional date in survey carried out around 2012.[citation needed]
Peak House   Medfield 1711 The Peak House is a first period cottage featuring peak style architecture and post-and-beam construction. It is the only freestanding structure of its kind and one of the earliest surviving examples of Post-medieval (Elizabethan) architecture in the United States.[104] First built in 1668, the original structure burned during King Philip's War in 1676 and was later reconstructed.[105]
Buckman Tavern   Lexington 1713 Date included in Historic Structures Report[106]
St. Michael's Church (Marblehead, Massachusetts)   Marblehead 1714 Oldest Episcopal parish church building on its original site in New England.
Parson Barnard House   North Andover 1715 Exposed, beaded beams, integral leanto.[107]
Samuel Chase House   West Newbury c. 1715 One of the few brick houses of the period.
Capt. Timothy Johnson House   North Andover c. 1720 Exposed, beaded beams; very early gambrel roof.[108]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Moved from Dorchester after 1909.[11]
  2. ^ Moved from West Newbury in 2003.[35]
  3. ^ a b Peabody was part of "Danvers" until 1855.
  4. ^ Moved from Salem in 1928

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Elsie Lathrop (2006). "Historic Houses of Early America". Kessinger. p. 218. ISBN 9781428655010.
  2. ^ Miles, D H, Worthington, M J, and Grady, A A. "Massachusetts: Fairbanks House". Development of Standard Tree-Ring Chronologies for Dating Historic Structures in Eastern Massachusetts Phase II (Oxford Dendrochronology Laboratory). Archived from the original on August 4, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b c "James Blake House". Dorchester Historical Society. Archived from the original on November 6, 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  4. ^ "Massachusetts: Blake House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  5. ^ Eve M. Kahn. "Puritan's Progress". www.period-homes.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  6. ^ "Massachusetts: The Pickering House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  7. ^ a b "Massachusetts: Gedney House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 28, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Massachusetts: Turner House, House of Seven Gables". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  9. ^ "Massachusetts: Tuttle House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  10. ^ "Massachusetts: Deane Winthrop House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on November 1, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d "Massachusetts: Capen House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on July 27, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Massachusetts: Narbonne House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  13. ^ "Massachusetts: Whipple House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on October 13, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Massachusetts: Coffin House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  15. ^ "Coffin House Newbury, Massachusetts". Historic New England. Archived from the original on July 28, 2016. Retrieved August 3, 2021.
  16. ^ a b "Massachusetts: The Balch House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  17. ^ a b "Massachusetts: The Hart House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on August 4, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  18. ^ a b c "Massachusetts: Cooper-Frost-Austin House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  19. ^ a b "Massachusetts: Pierce House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  20. ^ a b c "Massachusetts: 20 White Place". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on April 28, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  21. ^ "20 White Place". Historic New England. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  22. ^ a b "Boardman House (1692)". Historic New England. Archived from the original on June 22, 2021. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  23. ^ "Massachusetts: Paine-Dodge House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on August 17, 2021. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  24. ^ "Massachusetts: Parson Capen House". Oxford Tree-Ring Laboratory. Archived from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  25. ^ The First Functional Homes. LIFE Magazine. Vol. 38. April 18, 1955. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
  26. ^ Griffeth, Bill (2008). By Faith Alone: One Family's Epic Journey Through 400 Years of American Protestantism. Random House. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-307-33729-0.
  27. ^ "Parson Capen House". Topsfield Historical Society. Archived from the original on January 26, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2021.
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Further readingEdit