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List of chapters in the Quran

  (Redirected from List of surahs in the Quran)

The Quran is divided into chapters (surah) and further divided into verses (ayat). The real translation of the word Ayat is actually "A Sign". For a preliminary discussion about the chronological order of chapters see page Surah.

The first Sura of the Quran, consisting of seven verses

Each surah, except for the ninth is preceded by the phrase bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm ("In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful."), also known as the Basmala.[1] 29 surahs are preceded by Muqatta'at (lit. abbreviated or shortened), unique letter combinations whose meanings remain unclear.[2][3]

Contents

Table of SurasEdit

Surah
# Anglicized title(s) Arabic title(s) English title(s) Number of verses (Number of Rukūʿs) Meccan vs. Medinan Egyptian Standard Chronological Order[4][5][6] Nöldeke's Chronological Order[4] Muqatta'at (isolated letters)[3] Title refers to Main theme
1 Al-Fatihah[notes 1] al-faatiHah The Opening 007 (01) Meccan 5 48 Whole Surah [7]
  • The fundamental principles of the Qur'an in a condensed form.[7]
2 Al-Baqarah al-Baqarah The Calf, The Cow 286 (40) Medinan 87 91 Alif Lam Mim v. 67-73 [7]
3 Al Imran aal-`Imraan The Family of Imran, The House of 'Imrán 200 (20) Medinan 89 97 Alif Lam Mim v. 33, 35 [7]
4 An-Nisa' an-Nisaa' The Women 176 (24) Medinan 92 100 Whole Surah [7]
  • Unity of the human race and the mutual obligations of men and women towards one another. (v. 1) [7]
  • Rights of women.[7]
  • Questions related to family life (including marriage and inheritance).[7]
  • Peace and war.[7]
  • Relations of believers with unbelievers.[7]
  • Striving in the Cause of Allah (Jihad). (v. 95-97) [9]
5 Al-Ma'idah al-Maa'idah The Food, The Repast, The Table 120 (16) Medinan 112 114 v. 112-114 [7]
  • A series of ordinances (incl. Religious rites and social obligations).[7]
  • Corruption of the original message of the Ingeel by Jews and Christians. (v. 68-77, 116-118) [7]
6 Al-An'am al-An`aam The Cattle 165 (20) Meccan 55 89 v. 136ff.[7]
  • Human nature of Muhammad. (v. 50) [7]
  • Oneness and uniqueness of Allah. (e.g. v. 100, 103) [7]
  • Pre-Islamic superstitions concerning animals. (v. 136ff) [7]
7 Al-A'raf al-A`raaf The Heights, The Faculty of Discernment 206 (24) Meccan 39 87 Alif Lam Mim Sad v. 46, 48 [7]
8 Al-Anfal al-Anfaal The Spoils of War 075 (10) Medinan 88 95 v. 1 [7]
9 At-Tawbah at-Tawbah The Repentance 129 (16) Medinan 113 113
10 Yunus Yoonus Yunus 109 (11) Meccan 51 84 Alif Lam Ra v. 98 [7]
  • The revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad (not Muhammad’s own work). (v. 15-17, 37-38, 94) [7]
  • References to earlier prophets.[7]
  • Fundamental tenets of Islam.[7]
11 Hud Hood Hud 123 (10) Meccan 52 75 Alif Lam Ra v. 50-60
  • The revelation of God’s will through his prophets.[7]
  • More stories of earlier prophets.[7]
  • Just dealings between men.[7]
12 Yusuf Yoosuf Joseph 111 (12) Meccan 53 77 Alif Lam Ra Whole Surah
  • The story of the prophet Joseph (as an illustration of God’s unfathomable direction of men’s affairs).[7]
13 Ar-Ra'd ar-Ra`d The Thunder 043 (06) Medinan 96 90 Alif Lam Mim Ra v. 13 [7]
  • God’s revelation, through his prophets, of certain fundamental moral truths, and the concequences of accepting or rejecting them.[7]
14 Ibraheem Ibraaheem Abraham 052 (07) Meccan 72 76 Alif Lam Ra v. 35-41 [7]
  • The revelation of God’s word to all mankind, destined to lead man from darkness to light.[7]
15 Al-Hijr al-Hijr The Rocky Tract, The Stoneland, The Rock City, Al-Hijr 099 (06) Meccan 54 57 Alif Lam Ra v. 80 [7]
  • God’s guidance to man through revelation of the Qur'an, which will remain uncorrupted for all times. (v. 9) [7]
16 An-Nahl an-naHl The Honey Bees, The Bee 128 (16) Meccan 70 73 v. 68-69 [7]
  • God’s creativeness:[7]
    • Manifesed in the instincts of the bee.[7]
    • Culmination: Guidance through his revealed word.[7]
17 Al-Isra al-Israa' The Night Journey 111 (12) Meccan 50 67 v. 1 [7]
18 Al-Kahf al-Kahf The Cave 110 (12) Meccan 69 69 v. 13-20 [7]
  • A series of parables or allegories on the theme of faith in God versus excessive attachment to the life of this world. Including:[7]
    • The men of the cave. (v. 13-20) [7]
    • The rich man and the poor man. (v. 32-44) [7]
    • Moses and the unnamed sage. (v. 60-82) [7]
    • The allegory of ‘Dhu’l-Qarnayn, the Two-Horned One’. (v. 83-98) [7]
19 Maryam Maryam Mary 098 (06) Meccan 44 58 Kaf Ha Ya 'Ayn Sad v. 16-37 [7]
  • The story of Zachariah and his son John, the precursor of Jesus. (v. 2-15) [7]
  • The story of Mary and Jesus. (v. 16-37) [7]
20 Ta-Ha Taa haa Ta-Ha 135 (08) Meccan 45 55 Ta Ha [notes 2] v. 1 [7]
  • The guidance offered by God through his prophets.[7]
  • The fundamental truths inherent in all revealed religions are identical.[7]
    • The story of Moses. (v. 9-98) [7]
21 Al-Anbiya' al-Anbiyaa' The Prophets 112 (07) Meccan 73 65 v. 48-91 [7]
  • The oneness, uniqueness and transcendence of God.[7]
  • The continuity and intrinsic unity of all divine revelation.[7]
    • Stories of the prophets of old. (v. 48-91) [7]
    • The believers of all faiths belong to one single community. (v. 92) [7]
22 Al-Hajj al-Hajj The Pilgrimage 078 (10) Medinan 103 107 v. 25-38 [7]
  • The Mecca pilgrimage and some of the rituals connected with it. (v. 25-38) [7]
23 Al-Mu'minoon al-Mu'minoon The Believers 118 (06) Meccan 74 64 v. 1 [7]
  • True faith.[7]
  • The evidence of the existence of an almighty Creator, and man’s ultimate responsibility before Him.[7]
  • The unity of all religious communities, broken by man’s egotism, greed and striving after power. (v. 52-53) [7]
  • The impossibility to believe in God, without believing in life after death.[7]
24 An-Nur an-Noor The Light 064 (09) Medinan 102 105 v. 35 [7]
  • Mutual relations and ethical rules between men and women.[7]
  • The mystic parable of the ‘light of God’ ("Verse of Light"). (v. 35) [7]
25 Al-Furqan al-Furqaan The Criterion, The Standard, The Standard of True and False 077 (06) Meccan 42 66 v. 1 [7]
  • The purpose of every divine revelation is to provide a stable criterion of true and false.[7]
  • The humanness of every apostle sent by God to man. (v. 20) [7]
  • Divine revelation belongs to God’s creative activity.[7]
26 ash-Shu`ara' ash-shu`araa' The Poets 227 (11) Meccan 47 56 Ta Sin Mim v. 224 [7]
  • Man’s weakness, which causes him to reject God’s message and worship power and wealth etc.[7]
27 An-Naml an-Naml The Ant, The Ants 093 (07) Meccan 48 68 Ta Sin v. 18 [7]
28 Al-Qasas al-Qasas The Narrations, The Stories, The Story 088 (09) Meccan 49 79 Ta Sin Mim v. 25 [7]
  • Human aspects of the life of Moses.[7]
29 Al-`Ankabut al-`Ankaboot The Spider 069 (07) Meccan 85 81 Alif Lam Mim v. 41 [7]
  • The parable of ‘the spider house’, a symbol of false beliefs that are destined to be blown away by the winds of truth. (v. 41) [7]
30 Ar-Rum ar-Room The Romans, The Byzantines 060 (06) Meccan 84 74 Alif Lam Mim v. 1 [7]
  • Predictions of the near victory of the Byzantines [over the Persians] and the Battle of Badr (2 A.H.). (v. 1-7) [7]
  • God’s ability to resurrect the dead at the end of time, and the people’s ignorance of this.[7]
31 Luqman Luqmaan Luqman 034 (04) Meccan 57 82 Alif Lam Mim v. 12-19 [7]
  • The story of Luqman, a legendary sage, counselling his son. (v. 12-19) [7]
32 As-Sajdah as-Sajdah The Prostration, Worship, Adoration 030 (03) Meccan 75 70 Alif Lam Mim v. 15 [7]
  • God's creation.[11]
  • God's revelation and man's acceptance or denial.[11]
  • The Day of Judgement.[11]
33 Al-Ahzab al-aHzaab The Clans, The Confederates, The Combined Forces 073 (09) Medinan 90 103 v. 9-27 [7]
34 Saba' as-Sabaa' Sheba 054 (06) Meccan 58 85 v. 15-20 [7]
  • The insignificance of the knowledge accessible to man. (v. 9) [7]
  • The story of the people of Sheba, as an example of the impermanence of human power, wealth and glory. (v. 15-20) [7]
  • Always be conscious of God. (v. 46) [7]
35 Fatir faaTir The Originator 045 (05) Meccan 43 86 v. 1 [7]
  • God’s power to create and resurrect.[7]
  • God’s revelation of his will through his prophets.[7]
36 Yaseen Yassin Yaseen 083 (05) Meccan 41 60 Yaseen [notes 3] v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s moral responsibility, resurrection and God’s judgment.[7]
  • To be recited over the dying and in the prayers of the dead.[7]
37 As-Saffat aS-Saaffaat Those Who Set The Ranks, Drawn Up In Ranks, Those Ranged in Ranks 182 (05) Meccan 56 50 v. 1 [7]
  • Resurrection and the certainty that all human beings will have to answer before God.[7]
  • Man’s constant need of prophetic guidance.[7]
    • Stories of earlier prophets. (v. 75-148) [7]
38 Sad Saad Sad 088 (05) Meccan 38 59 Sad v. 1 [7]
  • Divine guidance and its rejection by those who are lost in fast pride.[7]
39 Az-Zumar az-Zumar The Crowds, The Troops, Throngs 075 (08) Meccan 59 80 v. 71, 73 [7]
  • The evidence of the existence and oneness of God in all manifestations of nature.[7]
  • God forgives all sins to him who repents before his death.[7]
  • Allegories of the Last Hour and the Day of Judgment.[7]
40 Ghafir Ghaafir The Forgiver (God), Forgiving 085 (09) Meccan 60 78 Ha Mim v. 3 [7]
  • Man’s false pride, worship of false values (wealth, power etc.) and his denial of divine guidance.[7]
    • Stories of earlier prophets.[7]
41 Fussilat Fussilat Expounded, Explained In Detail, Clearly Spelled Out 054 (14) Meccan 61 71 Ha Mim v. 3[7]
  • Man’s acceptance or rejection of divine revelation.[7]
42 Ash-Shura ash-ashooraa The Consultation 053 (05) Meccan 62 83 Ha Mim 'Ayn Sin Qaf v. 36 [7]
  • God is undefinable and unfathomable. (v. 11, 16) [7]
  • All prophets taught the oneness of God, so all believers of all ‘denominations’ should see themselves as ‘one single community’. (v. 13, 15) [7]
  • The law of cause and effect: In the life to come man will only harvest ‘what his own hands have wrought’ in this world.[7]
43 Az-Zukhruf az-Zukhruf The Gold Adornments, The Ornaments of Gold, Luxury, Gold 089 (07) Meccan 63 61 Ha Mim v. 35 [7]
  • To equal anyone or anything with God is sprititually destructive and logically unacceptable.[7]
  • People’s blind adherence to the faith of their forefathers. (v. 22-23) [7]
44 Ad-Dukhan ad-Dukhaan The Smoke 059 (03) Meccan 64 53 Ha Mim v. 10 [7]
  • Through revelation worldly pride is eventually brought to naught.[11]
45 Al-Jathiyah al-Jaathiyah The Kneeling Down, Crouching 037 (04) Meccan 65 72 Ha Mim v. 28 [7]
  • The humility with which all human beings will face their final judgment on resurrection. (v. 28) [7]
46 Al-Ahqaf al-aHqaaf Winding Sand-tracts, The Dunes, The Sand-Dunes 035 (04) Meccan 66 88 Ha Mim v. 21 [7]
47 Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad 038 Medinan 95 96 v. 2 [7]
  • Fighting (qital) in God’s cause.[7]
48 Al-Fath al-fatH The Victory, Conquest 029 Medinan 111 108 v. 1 [7]
49 Al-Hujurat al-Hujuraat The Private Apartments, The Inner Apartments 018 Medinan 106 112 v. 4 [7]
  • Social ethics.[7]
    • Reverence to Muhammad and the righteous leaders after him.[7]
    • The brotherhood of all believers and all mankind. (v. 10, 13) [7]
    • The difference between true faith and outward observance of religious formalities. (v. 14 ff.) [7]
50 Qaf Qaaf Qaf 045 Meccan 34 54 Qaf v. 1 [7]
51 Ad-Dhariyat adh-Dhaariyaat The Wind That Scatter, The Winnowing Winds, The Dust-Scattering Winds 060 Meccan 67 39 v. 1 [7]
52 At-Tur aT-Toor The Mount, Mount Sinai 049 Meccan 76 40 v. 1 [7]
53 An-Najm an-Najm The Star, The Unfolding 062 Meccan 23 28 v. 1 [7]
  • Muhammad’s experience of an ascension to heaven (Mi’raj, including his vision of the Sidrat al-Muntaha, the Lote-Tree of the Extremity). (v. 13-18) [7]
54 Al-Qamar al-Qamar The Moon 055 Meccan 37 49 v. 1 [7]
55 Ar-Rahman ar-raHmaan The Most Merciful, The Most Gracious 078 Medinan 97 43 v. 1 [7]
56 Al-Waqi'ah al-Waaqi`ah The Inevitable, The Event, That Which Must Come to Pass 096 Meccan 46 41 v. 1 [7]
57 Al-Hadeed al-Hadeed The Iron 029 Medinan 94 99 v. 25 [7]
58 Al-Mujadilah al-Mujaadilah The Pleading, The Pleading Woman 022 Medinan 105 106 v. 1 [7]
  • Divorce.[7]
  • Faith and denial.[7]
  • Hypocrisy.[7]
  • The attitude believers should have toward non-believers.[7]
59 Al-Hashr al-Hashr The Mustering, The Gathering, Exile, Banishment 024 Medinan 101 102 v. 2 [7]
  • The conflict between the Muslim coummunity and the Jewish tribe of Banu’n-Nadir of Medina.[7]
60 Al-Mumtahanah al-MumtaHanah The Examined One, She That Is To Be Examined 013 Medinan 91 110 v. 10 [7]
  • The believers’ relations with unbelievers.[7]
61 As-Saff as-Saff The Ranks, Battle Array 014 Medinan 109 98 v. 4 [7]
  • A call to unity between professed belief and actual behaviour.[7]
62 Al-Jumu'ah al-Jumu`ah The Congregation, Friday 011 Medinan 110 94 v. 9-10 [7]
63 Al-Munafiqun al-Munafiqoon The Hypocrites 011 Medinan 104 104 Whole Surah [7]
64 At-Taghabun at-Taghaabun The Cheating, The Mutual Disillusion, The Mutual Loss and Gain, Loss and Gain 018 (02) Medinan 108 93 v. 9 [7]
65 At-Talaq aT-Talaaq Divorce 012 (02) Medinan 99 101 Whole Surah
  • Divorce (waiting period, remarriage).[7]
66 At-Tahreem at-taHreem The Prohibition 012 (02) Medinan 107 109 v. 1 [7]
  • Certain aspects of Muhammad’s personal and family life.[7]
67 Al-Mulk al-Mulk The Dominion, Sovereignty, Control 030 (02) Meccan 77 63 v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s inability to understand the mysteries of the universe, and his dependence on guidance through divine revelation.[7]
68 Al-Qalam al-Qalam The Pen 052 (02) Meccan 2 18 Nun v. 1 [7]
69 Al-Haqqah al-Haaqqah The Sure Reality, The Laying-Bare of the Truth 052 (02) Meccan 78 38 v. 1
70 Al-Ma'aarij al-Ma`aarij The Ways of Ascent, The Ascending Stairways 044 (02) Meccan 79 42 v. 3 [7]
  • The unwillingness to believe, caused by the restlessness inherent in human nature.[7]
71 Nuh Nooh Noah 028 (02) Meccan 71 51 Whole Surah
  • The story of Noah.[7]
    • The struggle against blind materialism and the lack of spiritual values.[7]
72 Al-Jinn al-Jinn The Spirits, The Unseen Beings 028 (02) Meccan 40 62 v. 1 [7]
73 Al-Muzzammil al-Muzzammil The Enfolded One, The Enshrouded One, Bundled Up, The Enwrapped One 020 (02) Meccan 3 23 v. 1 [7]
74 Al-Muddathir al-Muddaththir The One Wrapped Up, The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak, The Enfolded One 056 (02) Meccan 4 2 v. 1 [7]
  • This short early surah outlines almost all fundamental Qur'anic concepts.[7]
75 Al-Qiyamah al-Qiyaamah Resurrection, The Day of Resurrection, Rising Of The Dead 040 (02) Meccan 31 36 v. 1 [7]
  • The concept of resurrection.[7]
76 Al-Insan al-Insan The Human, Man 031 (02) Medinan 98 52 v. 1 [7]
77 Al-Mursalat al-Mursalaat Those Sent Forth, The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth 050 (02) Meccan 33 32 v. 1 [7]
  • The gradual revelation of the Qur'an.[7]
78 An-Naba' an-Naba' The Great News, The Announcement, The Tiding 040 (02) Meccan 80 33 v. 2 [7]
  • Life after death.[7]
  • Resurrection and God’s ultimate judgment.[7]
79 An-Nazi'at an-Naazi`aat Those Who Tear Out, Those Who Drag Forth, Soul-snatchers, Those That Rise 046 (02) Meccan 81 31 v. 1 [7]
80 `Abasa `Abasa He Frowned 042 (01) Meccan 24 17 v. 1 [7]
81 At-Takweer at-Takweer The Folding Up, The Overthrowing, Shrouding in Darkness 029 (01) Meccan 7 27 v. 1 [7]
  • The Last Hour and man’s resurrection.[7]
82 Al-Infitar al-infiTaar The Cleaving Asunder, Bursting Apart 019 (01) Meccan 82 26 v. 1 [7]
83 Al-Mutaffifeen Al-Mutaffifeen The Dealers in Fraud, Defrauding, The Cheats, Those Who Give Short Measure 036 (01) Meccan 86 37 v. 1 [7]
84 Al-Inshiqaq al-Inshiqaaq The Rending Asunder, The Sundering, Splitting Open, The Splitting Asunder 025 (01) Meccan 83 29 v. 1 [7]
85 Al-Burooj al-Burooj The Mansions Of The Stars, Constellations, The Great Constellations 022 (01) Meccan 27 22 v. 1 [7]
86 At-Tariq aT-Taariq The Night-Visitant, The Morning Star, The Nightcomer, That Which Comes in the Night 017 (01) Meccan 36 15 v. 1 [7]
87 Al-A'la al-A`laa The Most High, The All-Highest, Glory To Your Lord In The Highest 019 (01) Meccan 8 19 v. 1 [7]
88 Al-Ghashiyah al-Ghaashiyah The Overwhelming Event, The Overshadowing Event, The Pall 026 (01) Meccan 68 34 v. 1 [7]
89 Al-Fajr al-Fajr The Break of Day, The Daybreak, The Dawn 030 (01) Meccan 10 35 v. 1 [7]
90 Al-Balad al-Balad The City, The Land 020 (01) Meccan 35 11 v. 1 [7]
91 Ash-Shams ash-Shams The Sun 015 (01) Meccan 26 16 v. 1 [7]
92 Al-Lail al-Lail The Night 021 (01) Meccan 9 10 v. 1 [7]
93 Ad-Dhuha ad-DuHaa The Glorious Morning Light, The Forenoon, Morning Hours, Morning Bright, The Bright Morning Hours 011 (01) Meccan 11 13 v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s suffering and God’s justice.[7]
  • A message of hope and consolation is given to man from Allah's past mercies.
  • Man is bidden to pursue the path of goodness and proclaim the bounties of Allah.
94 Al-Inshirah ash-Sharh The Expansion of Breast, Solace, Consolation, Relief, Patient, The Opening-Up of the Heart 008 (01) Meccan 12 12 v. 1
95 Al-Teen al-Teen The Fig Tree, The Fig 008 (01) Meccan 28 20 v. 1 [7]
  • A fundamental moral verity, common to all true religious teachings.[7]
96 al-`Alaq al-`Alaq The Clinging Clot, Clot of Blood, The Germ-Cell 019 (01) Meccan 1 1 v. 2 [7]
  • The first five verses revealed to Muhammad. (v. 1-5) [7]
97 Al-Qadr al-Qadr The Night of Honor, The Night of Decree, Power, Fate, Destiny 005 (01) Meccan 25 14 v. 1 [7]
98 Al-Bayyinah al-Bayyinah The Clear Evidence, The Evidence of the Truth 008 (01) Medinan 100 92 v. 1 [7]
99 Az-Zalzala Az-Zalzala The Earthquake 008 (01) Medinan 93 25 v. 1 [7]
100 Al-Adiyat al-`Aadiyaat The Courser, The Chargers, The War Horse 011 (01) Meccan 14 30 v. 1 [7]
101 al-Qari`ah al-Qaari`ah The Striking Hour, The Great Calamity, The Stunning Blow, The Sudden Calamity 011 (01) Meccan 30 24 v. 1 [7]
102 At-Takathur at-Takaathur The Piling Up, Rivalry in World Increase, Competition, Greed for More and More 008 (01) Meccan 16 8 v. 1 [7]
  • Man’s greed and tendencies.[7]
103 Al-Asr al-`Asr The Time, The Declining Day, The Epoch, The Flight of Time 003 (01) Meccan 13 21 v. 1 [7]
104 Al-Humazah al-Humazah The Scandalmonger, The Traducer, The Gossipmonger, The Slanderer 009 (01) Meccan 32 6 v. 1 [7]
105 Al-Feel al-Feel The Elephant 005 (01) Meccan 19 9 v. 1 [7]
106 Quraish Quraish Quraysh 004 (01) Meccan 29 4 v. 1 [7]
  • The Quraysh, custodians of the Kaaba, should be thankful to God for protecting them from hunger and danger.[11]
107 Al-Maa'oun al-Maa`oon The Neighbourly Assistance, Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Assistance 007 (01) Meccan 17 7 v. 7 [7]
  • The meaning of true worship through sincere devotion and helping those in need.[11]
108 Al-Kawthar al-Kauthar Abundance, Plenty, Good in Abundance 003 (01) Meccan 15 5 v. 1 [7]
  • Spiritual riches through devotion and sacrifice.
  • Hatred results in the cutting off of all hope.[11]
109 Al-Kafiroun al-Kaafiroon The Disbelievers, The Kafirs, Those Who Deny the Truth 006 (01) Meccan 18 45 v. 1 [7]
  • The correct attitude towards those who reject faith.[11]
110 An-Nasr an-naSr The Help, Divine Support, Victory, Succour 003 (01) Medinan 114 111 v. 1 [7]
  • The last complete surah revealed before Muhammad’s death.[7]
111 Al-Masad Al-Masad The Plaited Rope, The Palm Fibre, The Twisted Strands 005 (01) Meccan 6 3 v. 5 [7]
112 Al-Ikhlas al-ikhlaaS Purity of Faith, The Fidelity, The Declaration of [God's] Perfection 004 (01) Meccan 22 44
  • The oneness of God.[7]
113 Al-Falaq al-Falaq The Daybreak, Dawn, The Rising Dawn 005 (05) Meccan 20 46 v. 1 [7]
  • Seek refuge in God from evil of others.[11]
114 Al-Nas an-Naas Mankind, Men 006 (01) Meccan 21 47 v. 1 [7]
  • Trust in God's protection from temptations.[11]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also known as: Fatihat al-Kitab ("The Opening of the Divine Writ"), Umm al-Kitab ("The Essence of the Divine Writ"), Surat al-Hamd ("The Surah of Praise"), Asas al-Qur'an ("The Foundation of the Qur'an"), and As-Sab' al-Mathani ("The Seven Oft-Repeated [Verses]"). Asad 1980, Introduction to the Sura..
  2. ^ 'Ta Ha' has also been interpreted as the invocation 'O man'. In this case, it is not counted as a Muqatta'at. Asad 1980, Footnote to the verse.
  3. ^ 'Ya Sin' has also been interpreted as the invocation 'O thou human being'. In this case, it is not counted as a Muqatta'at. Asad 1980, Footnote to the verse.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Asad 1980, Introduction to Sura 1.
  2. ^ https://www.scribd.com/doc/296556298/Who-Rearranged-the-Quran)
  3. ^ a b Asad 1980, Appendix II.
  4. ^ a b Robinson, Neal (2003). Discovering the Qurʼan: A Contemporary Approach to a Veiled Text (PDF). Georgetown University Press. pp. 25–97. ISBN 1589010248.
  5. ^ Qran.org: Quran Verses in Chronological Order
  6. ^ Chronological Order of Quranic Surahs, by Kevin P. Edgecomb (2002).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii Asad 1980, Introduction to the Sura.
  8. ^ Peters, F.E. (1993). A Reader on Classical Islam. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 9781400821181.
  9. ^ a b c Asad 1980, Footnote(s) to the verse(s).
  10. ^ Gwynne, Rosalind Ward (2014). Logic, Rhetoric and Legal Reasoning in the Qur'an: God's Arguments. Routledge Studies in the Qur'an. Routledge, UK. ISBN 1134345003. pp. 1-2.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1934). The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary. Introduction to the Sura.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit