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The following is a list of stripped Olympic medals. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is the governing body of the Olympic Games, and as such, can rule athletes to have violated regulations of the Games, for which athletes' Olympic medals can be stripped (i.e. rescinded). Stripped medals must be returned to the IOC by the offending athlete.

RecordEdit

In the case of team events, the rule was revised in March of 2003 so that the IOC can strip medals from a team based on infractions by a single team member.[1] In the table below, for stripped team medals, the athlete in violation is shown in parentheses. The international governing body of each Olympic sport can also strip athletes of medals for infractions of the rules of the sport.

From October 1968 to July 2019, a total of 146 medals have been stripped, with 9 medals declared vacant (rather than being reallocated) after being stripped. The vast majority of these have occurred since 2000 due to improved drug testing methods.

The majority of medals have been stripped in athletics (50, including 19 gold medals) and weightlifting (47, including 13 gold medals). The country with the most stripped medals is Russia (and Russian associated teams), with 46, four times the number of the next highest, and more than 30% of the total. The Post-Soviet states account for more than 60% of the overall total.

Though no athletes were caught doping at the 1980 Summer Olympics, it has been claimed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games".

A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols.[2] The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.[3]

Among particular Olympic Games, the 2008 Summer Olympics has the most stripped medals, at 50. Among Winter Olympics, the 2002 Winter Olympics has the most medals stripped with 13.

All but seven of the stripped medals involve infractions stemming from doping and drug testing:

  • Jim Thorpe was stripped of his two gold medals by the International Olympic Committee in 1913, after the IOC learned that Thorpe had taken expense money for playing baseball before the 1912 Games, violating Olympic amateurism rules that had been in place at the time. In 1982, 29 years after his death, the IOC was convinced that the disqualification had been improper, as no protest against Thorpe's eligibility had been brought within the required 30 days, and reinstated Thorpe's medals, with replicas presented to his children.
  • Marika Kilius and Hans-Jürgen Bäumler were stripped of their 1964 silver medal in figure skating for similar reasons to Thorpe, but had them reinstated in 1987.
  • Ingemar Johansson was disqualified from the gold medal fight in the 1952 heavyweight boxing competition after the referee deemed that he was "failing to show fight" to win the three-round match, and was subsequently deemed to have forfeited the minimum silver medal he would have won. Johansson said that he did not throw any punches at his opponent in the first two rounds to tire him out before releasing a barrage of punches in the third. He was eventually presented with his silver medal in 1982.[4]
  • Ibragim Samadov of the 1992 Unified Team was stripped of his bronze medal after he "hurled his bronze medal to the floor" and "stormed off the stage during the awards ceremony."[5]
  • Ara Abrahamian of Sweden was stripped of his bronze medal in 2008 for similar reasons.[6]
  • China was stripped of a team gymnastics bronze medal from 2000 in 2010 after a team member was found to have been underage at the time of the competition.

Some athletes have had medals taken away from them for different methods of cheating before physically getting on to the medal podium, such as American marathon runner Frederick Lorz at the 1904 Olympics and Swedish horse rider Bertil Sandström at the 1932 Olympics. These athletes are not included in the list as they were disqualified before physically receiving their medals, and in any case were never guaranteed to win them going in to the final round of competition.[7]

Russian wrestler Besik Kudukhov failed a drug test in 2016 from a sample taken when he competed in the 60 kg freestyle wrestling event at the 2012 Olympics. However, as Kudukhov had died in a car accident three years earlier, his medal was retained.

In a few cases, the IOC has reversed earlier rulings that stripped athletes of medals. In the case of Rick DeMont, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) recognized his gold medal performance in the 1972 Summer Olympics in 2001,[8] but only the IOC has the power to restore his medal, and it has, as of 2019, refused to do so. Rick DeMont originally won the gold medal. Following the race, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) stripped DeMont of his gold medal[9] after his post-race urinalysis tested positive for traces of the banned substance ephedrine contained in his prescription asthma medication, Marax. The positive test following the 400-meter freestyle final also deprived him of a chance at multiple medals, as he was not permitted to swim in any other events at the 1972 Olympics, including the 1,500-meter freestyle for which he was the then-current world record-holder. Before the Olympics, DeMont had properly declared his asthma medications on his medical disclosure forms, but the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) had not cleared them with the IOC's medical committee.[10] The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) has recognized his gold medal performance in the 1972 Summer Olympics in 2001.[8][8][8]

List of stripped Olympic medalsEdit

  • This is the list of Olympic medals stripped by the IOC, the governing body of the Olympics.
  • (X) medal declared vacant
  • (Y) medal yet to be reallocated or declared vacant
  • (Z) not due to doping; all others were due to doping offenses
Olympics Athlete Country Medal Event Ref
1968 Summer Olympics Modern Pentathlon team (Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall)   Sweden   Modern pentathlon, Team [11]
1972 Summer Olympics Bakhvain Buyadaa   Mongolia   Judo, Men's 63 kg (X) [12]
Cycling team (Aad van den Hoek)   Netherlands   Cycling, Men's team time trial (X) [13]
Jaime Huélamo   Spain   Cycling, Men's individual road race (X) [13]
Rick DeMont   United States   Swimming, Men's 400 m freestyle [8]
1976 Winter Olympics Galina Kulakova   Soviet Union   Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 5 km [14]
1976 Summer Olympics Valentin Khristov   Bulgaria   Weightlifting, Men's 110 kg [15]
Blagoy Blagoev   Weightlifting, Men's 82.5 kg [16]
Zbigniew Kaczmarek   Poland   Weightlifting, Men's 67.5 kg [17]
1984 Summer Olympics Martti Vainio   Finland   Athletics, Men's 10,000 m [18]
Tomas Johansson   Sweden   Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman +100 kg [19]
1988 Summer Olympics Mitko Grablev   Bulgaria   Weightlifting, Men's 56 kg [20]
Angel Guenchev   Weightlifting, Men's 67.5 kg [20]
Ben Johnson   Canada   Athletics, Men's 100 m [21]
Andor Szanyi   Hungary   Weightlifting, Men's 100 kg [22]
1992 Summer Olympics Ibragim Samadov   Unified Team   Weightlifting, Men's 82.5 kg (X, Z) [5]
2000 Summer Olympics Ashot Danielyan   Armenia   Weightlifting, Men's +105 kg [23]
Izabela Dragneva   Bulgaria   Weightlifting, Women's 48 kg [24]
Ivan Ivanov   Weightlifting, Men's 56 kg [24]
Sevdalin Minchev   Weightlifting, Men's 62 kg [24]
Gymnastics team (Dong Fangxiao)   China   Gymnastics, Women's artistic team all-around (Z) [25]
Alexander Leipold   Germany   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 76 kg [26]
Andreea Răducan   Romania   Gymnastics, Women's artistic individual all-around [27]
Marion Jones   United States   Athletics, Women's 100 m (X) [28]
  Athletics, Women's 200 m [28]
  Athletics, Women's long jump [28]
Relay team (Antonio Pettigrew, Jerome Young)   Athletics, Men's 4 × 400 m relay [29]
Lance Armstrong   Cycling, Men's road time trial (X) [30]
2002 Winter Olympics Alain Baxter   Great Britain   Alpine Skiing, Men's slalom [31]
Olga Danilova   Russia   Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 5 km + 5 km combined pursuit [32]
  Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 10 km classical [32]
Larisa Lazutina   Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 30 km classical [32][33]
  Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 15 km freestyle mass start [34]
  Cross-Country Skiing, Women's 5 km + 5 km combined pursuit [34]
Johann Mühlegg   Spain   Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 50 km classical [32]
  Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 30 km freestyle [35]
  Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 10 km + 10 km combined pursuit [35]
2004 Summer Olympics Ivan Tsikhan   Belarus   Athletics, Men's hammer throw (X) [36]
Iryna Yatchenko   Athletics, Women's discus throw [36]
Equestrian team[nb 1]
(Goldfever horse; Ludger Beerbaum rider)
  Germany   Equestrian, Team show jumping [37]
Leonidas Sabanis   Greece   Weightlifting, Men's 62 kg [38]
Adrián Annus   Hungary   Athletics, Men's hammer throw [39]
Róbert Fazekas   Athletics, Men's discus throw [40]
Ferenc Gyurkovics   Weightlifting, Men's 105 kg [41]
Waterford Crystal (horse; Cian O'Connor rider)   Ireland   Equestrian, Individual show jumping [42]
Irina Korzhanenko   Russia   Athletics, Women's shot put [43]
Svetlana Krivelyova   Athletics, Women's shot put (X) [36]
Oleg Perepetchenov   Weightlifting, Men's 77 kg [44]
Yuriy Bilonoh   Ukraine   Athletics, Men's shot put [36]
Rowing team (Olena Olefirenko)   Rowing, Women's quadruple sculls [45]
Tyler Hamilton   United States   Cycling, Men's road time trial [46]
2006 Winter Olympics Olga Pyleva   Russia   Biathlon, Women's individual [47]
2008 Summer Olympics Tigran Gevorg Martirosyan   Armenia   Weightlifting, Men's 69 kg [48]
Vitaliy Rahimov   Azerbaijan   Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 60 kg [49]
Rashid Ramzi   Bahrain   Athletics, Men's 1500 m [50]
Aksana Miankova   Belarus   Athletics, Women's hammer throw [51]
Natallia Mikhnevich   Athletics, Women's shot put [51]
Andrei Rybakou   Weightlifting, Men's 85 kg [53]
Andrei Mikhnevich   Athletics, Men's shot put [54]
Nastassia Novikava   Weightlifting, Women's 53 kg [53]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk   Athletics, Women's shot put [55]
Liu Chunhong   China   Weightlifting, Women's 69 kg [55]
Cao Lei   Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [55]
Chen Xiexia   Weightlifting, Women's 48 kg [55]
Yarelys Barrios   Cuba   Athletics, Women's discus throw [56]
Hrysopiyi Devetzi   Greece   Athletics, Women's triple jump [49]
Davide Rebellin   Italy   Cycling, Men's road race [57]
Relay team (Nesta Carter)   Jamaica   Athletics, Men's 4 × 100 m relay [58]
Ilya Ilyin   Kazakhstan   Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [51]
Irina Nekrassova   Weightlifting, Women's 63 kg [49]
Taimuraz Tigiyev   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 96 kg [53]
Mariya Grabovetskaya   Weightlifting, Women's +75 kg [49]
Asset Mambetov   Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 96 kg [49]
Kim Jong-su   North Korea   Shooting, Men's 50 m air pistol [59]
  Shooting, Men's 10 m air pistol [59][60]
Equestrian team[nb 2]
(Camiro horse; Tony André Hansen rider)
  Norway   Equestrian, team show jumping [61]
Relay team (Yuliya Chermoshanskaya)   Russia   Athletics, Women's 4 × 100 m relay [62]
Maria Abakumova   Athletics, Women's javelin throw [63]
Khasan Baroyev   Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 120 kg [49]
Tatyana Lebedeva   Athletics, Women's triple jump [58]
  Athletics, Women's long jump [58]
Relay team (Anastasiya Kapachinskaya, Tatyana Firova)   Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m relay [48]
Marina Shainova   Weightlifting, Women's 58 kg [48]
Khadzhimurat Akkayev   Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [49]
Anna Chicherova   Athletics, Women's high jump [66]
Nadezhda Evstyukhina   Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [48]
Dmitry Lapikov   Weightlifting, Men's 105 kg [49]
Tatyana Chernova   Athletics, Women's heptathlon [67]
Relay team (Denis Alexeev)   Athletics, Men's 4 × 400 m relay [63]
Yekaterina Volkova   Athletics, Women's 3000 m steeplechase [53]
Ara Abrahamian   Sweden   Wrestling, Men's Greco-Roman 84 kg (X, Z) [68]
Elvan Abeylegesse   Turkey   Athletics, Women's 5000 metres [69]
  Athletics, Women's 10000 metres [69]
Sibel Özkan   Weightlifting, Women's 48 kg [70]
Lyudmyla Blonska   Ukraine   Athletics, Women's heptathlon [71]
Vasyl Fedoryshyn   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 60 kg [72]
Olha Korobka   Weightlifting, Women's +75 kg [53]
Nataliya Davydova   Weightlifting, Women's 69 kg [49]
Victoria Tereshchuk   Modern pentathlon, Women's modern pentathlon [73]
Denys Yurchenko   Athletics, Men's pole vault [49]
Artur Taymazov   Uzbekistan   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 120 kg [72]
Soslan Tigiev   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 74 kg [53]
2012 Summer Olympics Hripsime Khurshudyan   Armenia   Weightlifting, Women's +75 kg [74]
Valentin Hristov   Azerbaijan   Weightlifting, Men's 56 kg [75]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk   Belarus   Athletics, Women's shot put [76]
Iryna Kulesha   Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [74]
Maryna Shkermankova   Weightlifting, Women's 69 kg [78]
Davit Modzmanashvili   Georgia   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 120 kg (Y) [79]
Zulfiya Chinshanlo   Kazakhstan   Weightlifting, Women's 53 kg [78]
Ilya Ilyin   Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [51]
Maiya Maneza   Weightlifting, Women's 63 kg [78]
Svetlana Podobedova   Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [78]
Jevgenij Shuklin   Lithuania   Canoeing, Men's C-1 200 m [80]
Anatolie Cîrîcu   Moldova   Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [74]
Cristina Iovu   Weightlifting, Women's 53 kg [74]
Sergey Kirdyapkin   Russia   Athletics, Men's 50 km walk [81]
Ivan Ukhov   Athletics, Men's high jump (Y) [82]
Tatyana Lysenko   Athletics, Women's hammer throw [83]
Mariya Savinova   Athletics, Women's 800 m [84]
Yuliya Zaripova   Athletics, Women's 3000 m steeplechase [85][74]
Apti Aukhadov   Weightlifting, Men's 85 kg [86]
Aleksandr Ivanov   Weightlifting, Men's 94 kg [74]
Olga Kaniskina   Athletics, Women's 20 km walk [87]
Yevgeniya Kolodko   Athletics, Women's shot put [88]
Darya Pishchalnikova   Athletics, Women's discus throw [89]
Relay team (Antonina Krivoshapka, Yulia Gushchina, Tatyana Firova)   Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m relay [90][91][92]
Svetlana Tsarukayeva   Weightlifting, Women's 63 kg [72]
Natalia Zabolotnaya   Weightlifting, Women's 75 kg [74]
Tatyana Chernova   Athletics, Women's heptathlon [93]
Svetlana Shkolina   Athletics, Women's high jump (Y) [94]
Asli Cakir Alptekin   Turkey   Athletics, Women's 1500 m [95]
Gamze Bulut   Athletics, Women's 1500 m [69]
Relay team (Tyson Gay)   United States   Athletics, Men's 4 × 100 m relay [96]
Oleksandr Pyatnytsya   Ukraine   Athletics, Men's javelin throw [97]
Yuliya Kalina   Weightlifting, Women's 58 kg [98]
Artur Taymazov   Uzbekistan   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 120 kg [99]
Soslan Tigiev   Wrestling, Men's freestyle 74 kg [100]
2014 Winter Olympics Two-man (Alexandr Zubkov, Alexey Voyevoda)   Russia   Bobsleigh, Two-man [101][102][103]
Four-man (Alexandr Zubkov, Alexey Voyevoda)   Bobsleigh, Four-man
Olga Vilukhina   Biathlon, Women's sprint [102]
Relay team (Olga Vilukhina, Yana Romanova, Olga Zaitseva)   Biathlon, Women's relay (Y) [102]
2016 Summer Olympics Izzat Artykov   Kyrgyzstan   Weightlifting, Men's 69 kg [104]
Serghei Tarnovschi   Moldova   Canoeing, Men's C-1 1000 m [105]
Gabriel Sîncrăian   Romania   Weightlifting, Men's 85 kg [106]
Mikhail Aloyan   Russia   Boxing, Men's flyweight [106]
2018 Winter Olympics Curling team (Aleksandr Krushelnitckii)   Olympic Athletes from Russia   Curling, Mixed doubles [107]

Notes:

  1. ^ The German team was not disqualified, but with Beerbaum's score excluded, it dropped from gold medalist to bronze medalist.
  2. ^ The Norwegian team was not disqualified, but with Hansen's score excluded, it dropped from bronze medalist to tenth.

List of Olympic medals stripped and later returnedEdit

Here is the list of Olympic medals that were stripped by the IOC and later returned by the IOC.

Olympics Athlete Country Medal Event Ref
1912 Summer Olympics Jim Thorpe   United States   Athletics, Men's pentathlon [108]
  Athletics, Men's decathlon [108]
1952 Summer Olympics Ingemar Johansson   Sweden   Boxing, Men's heavyweight [109]
1964 Winter Olympics Marika Kilius, Hans-Jürgen Bäumler   Germany   Figure skating, Pairs [110]
1998 Winter Olympics Ross Rebagliati   Canada   Snowboarding, Men's giant slalom [111]
2000 Summer Olympics Relay team (except Marion Jones)   United States   Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m relay [112]
Relay team (except Marion Jones)   Athletics, Women's 4 × 100 m relay [112]
2004 Summer Olympics María Luisa Calle   Colombia   Cycling, Women's points race [113]
2008 Summer Olympics Vadim Devyatovskiy   Belarus   Athletics, Men's hammer throw [114]
Ivan Tsikhan   Athletics, Men's hammer throw [114]
2014 Winter Olympics Alexander Legkov   Russia   Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 50 km freestyle [115]
Aleksandr Tretyakov   Skeleton, Men's individual [115]
Relay team (Alexander Legkov, Maxim Vylegzhanin, Alexander Bessmertnykh)   Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 4 x 10 km relay [115]
Maksim Vylegzhanin   Cross-Country Skiing, Men's 50 km freestyle [115]
Relay team (Maxim Vylegzhanin, Nikita Kryukov)   Cross-Country Skiing, Men's team sprint [115]
Olga Fatkulina   Speed Skating, Women's 500 m [115]
Albert Demchenko   Luge, Men's singles [115]
Relay team (Albert Demchenko, Tatiana Ivanova)   Luge, Team relay [115]
Elena Nikitina   Skeleton, Women's individual [115]
Nicklas Bäckström   Sweden   Ice hockey, Men's tournament [116]

Stripped, returned, and strippedEdit

Gold medals for the 2000 Olympic men's 4 × 400 metres relay were awarded to the U.S. squad of Jerome Young, Michael Johnson, Antonio Pettigrew, Angelo Taylor, Alvin Harrison and Calvin Harrison. In 2004, after Young (who ran in the heats) was retroactively banned from 1999 to 2001, all six were stripped of their medals.

In 2005, the Court of Arbitration for Sport restored the medals of the remaining five due to the fact that, according to the rules of the time, a team should not be disqualified because of a doping offense of an athlete who did not compete in the finals, but in 2008, Pettigrew admitted to the use of doping from 1997 to 2003, meaning that the team was disqualified.[117]

Medals stripped by countryEdit

A total of 37 different countries/teams have had medals stripped including the former Soviet Union, the Unified Team of 1992 and the Olympic Athletes from Russia team of 2018.

Stripped medals by country
Country       Total
  Russia (RUS) 11 21 11 43
  Belarus (BLR) 2 3 6 11
  Ukraine (UKR) 1 4 5 10
  Kazakhstan (KAZ) 5 2 2 9
  United States (USA) 5 1 2 8
  Bulgaria (BUL) 4 2 1 7
  Turkey (TUR) 1 4 0 5
  China (CHN) 3 0 1 4
  Spain (ESP) 3 0 1 4
  Hungary (HUN) 2 2 0 4
  Uzbekistan (UZB) 2 1 1 4
  Sweden (SWE) 0 1 2 3
  Armenia (ARM) 0 0 3 3
  Moldova (MDA) 0 0 3 3
  Germany (GER) 2 0 0 2
  Romania (ROM) 1 0 1 2
  Azerbaijan (AZE) 0 1 1 2
  North Korea (PRK) 0 1 1 2
  Greece (GRE) 0 0 2 2
  Bahrain (BRN) 1 0 0 1
  Canada (CAN) 1 0 0 1
  Ireland (IRL) 1 0 0 1
  Jamaica (JAM) 1 0 0 1
  Poland (POL) 1 0 0 1
  Cuba (CUB) 0 1 0 1
  Finland (FIN) 0 1 0 1
  Georgia (GEO) 0 1 0 1
  Italy (ITA) 0 1 0 1
  Lithuania (LTU) 0 1 0 1
  Mongolia (MGL) 0 1 0 1
  Great Britain (GBR) 0 0 1 1
  Kyrgyzstan (KGZ) 0 0 1 1
  Netherlands (NED) 0 0 1 1
  Norway (NOR) 0 0 1 1
  Olympic Athletes from Russia (OAR) 0 0 1 1
  Soviet Union (URS) 0 0 1 1
  Unified Team (EUN) 0 0 1 1
Total 47 49 50 146

Medals stripped by genderEdit

Men have had slightly more medals stripped overall. Men have also had slightly more gold and bronze medals stripped, but women have had more silver medals stripped.

Mixed events will be classed in the table below on which gender caused the medal to be stripped. If both genders contribute to the medal being stripped, then it should be added to both tallies. Note that Marion Jones' stripped relay medals are not counted.

Stripped medals by gender
Gender       Total Percentage
Male 27 23 27 77 52.7%
Female 20 26 23 69 47.3%
Total 47 49 50 146 100%

Medals stripped by sportEdit

A total of 18 different sports have had medals stripped: 13 from the Summer Olympics and 5 from the Winter Olympics. Athletics and Weightlifting have had by far the greatest numbers of medals stripped compared to any other sport.

Stripped medals by sport
Sport       Total
Athletics 19 18 13 50
Weightlifting 13 13 21 47
Wrestling 3 7 3 13
Cross-Country Skiing 5 3 1 9
Cycling 1 1 3 5
Equestrian 2 0 1 3
Biathlon 0 3 0 3
Bobsleigh 2 0 0 2
Gymnastics 1 0 1 2
Canoeing 0 1 1 2
Shooting 0 1 1 2
Modern Pentathlon 0 0 2 2
Swimming 1 0 0 1
Boxing 0 1 0 1
Judo 0 1 0 1
Alpine Skiing 0 0 1 1
Curling 0 0 1 1
Rowing 0 0 1 1
Total 47 49 50 146

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  4. ^ "Ingemar Johansson: Boxer who beat Floyd Patterson to win the world title". The Independent. 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
  5. ^ a b Bondy, Filip (August 3, 1992). "Barcelona: Weight Lifting – Medalist's Ban Is A Tangled Tale". New York Times.
  6. ^ Longman, Jere (August 17, 2008). "Swede Stripped of His Medal After His Angry Reaction". New York Times.
  7. ^ "Tarnished gold: Some of the 'great' Olympics cheats". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
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  11. ^ The Olympics Most Wanted by Floyd Conner. 2001.
  12. ^ Black Belt magazine January 1973
  13. ^ a b Historical Dictionary of Cycling By Bill Mallon, Jeroen Heijmans. Scarecrow Press. 2011. p. xxiv
  14. ^ Temple, Wick. "Russian star stripped of medal after use of drug". The Day. February 9, 1976.
  15. ^ "Valentin Khristov Bio, Stats, and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  16. ^ "Blagoy Blagoev Bio, Stats, and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  17. ^ "Zbigniew Kaczmarek Bio, Stats, and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  18. ^ "SPORTS PEOPLE; Finn Admits Drug Use". The New York Times. July 10, 1985.
  19. ^ "Swede Loses Silver For Using Steroids". The New York Times. Associated Press. August 6, 1984.
  20. ^ a b Johnson, William Oscar; Moore, Kenny (October 3, 1988). "The Loser". Sports Illustrated.
  21. ^ "1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold". BBC News. September 27, 1988.
  22. ^ "The Seoul Olympics – Weight Lifter Used Drug". The New York Times. September 29, 1988.
  23. ^ CNNSI.com (September 30, 2000). "More busts". CNN. Archived from the original on June 22, 2001.
  24. ^ a b c "Bulgarian lifters sent home". BBC News. September 22, 2000.
  25. ^ "China 'pained' by loss of medal". BBC News. April 29, 2010.
  26. ^ "Wrestler Leipold given ban". BBC News. November 3, 2000.
  27. ^ "Plus: Gymnastics – Romanian Loses Gold-Medal Appeal". The New York Times. December 13, 2000.
  28. ^ a b c "IOC strips Jones of all 5 Olympic medals". MSNBC.com. Associated Press. December 12, 2007.
  29. ^ http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Commissions_PDFfiles/Executive_Board/2012-06-07-IOC_EB_Decision_Regarding_the_Reallocation_of_the_Medals_and_Diplomas_in_the_mens-4x400m_Relay_Team_2000_Sydney_Games.pdf
  30. ^ "IOC Statement on Lance Armstrong". IOC. Retrieved 2013-01-17.
  31. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  32. ^ a b c d "Muehlegg, Lazutina test positive, stripped of golds". ESPN.com. Associated Press. February 24, 2002.
  33. ^ "Drugs test denies Lazutina gold". BBC News. February 24, 2002.
  34. ^ a b "Lazutina loses Olympic medals". BBC News. June 29, 2003.
  35. ^ a b "Danilova, Muehlegg stripped of Olympic golds". USA Today. December 18, 2003.
  36. ^ a b c d "Four Athens competitors stripped of medals". Al Jazeera. December 5, 2012.
  37. ^ "Germany stripped of show jumping gold". CBC News. January 8, 2005.
  38. ^ "Greek weightlifter stripped of bronze". The Guardian. London. August 22, 2004.
  39. ^ "Hammer throw champ's gold taken". USA Today. August 29, 2004.
  40. ^ "Gold medalist stripped after test tampering". ESPN.com. Associated Press. August 24, 2004.
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