List of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000)

This is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1951–2000) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

Lists of state leaders by century:
See also:
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

These polities are generally sovereign states, including states with limited recognition (when recognised by at least one UN member state), but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

AfricaEdit

Africa: CentralEdit

Angola

Colony, 1575–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe
United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
East Cameroon
West Cameroon
United Cameroon

Central African Republic

French colony, 1903–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Chad

Colony, 1900–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Colony, 1908–1960
For details see the Belgium under Western Europe

Congo: Republic of the

Federation of colonies, 1910–1934; Colony, 1934–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: EastEdit

Burundi

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1962
For details see Belgium under western Europe

Comoros

Overseas territory, 1946–1961
For details see France under western Europe

Djibouti

Overseas territory, 1946–1967
Overseas territory, 1967–1977
For details see France under western Europe

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Kenya

British colony and protectorate, 1920–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Madagascar

Colony, 1897–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Mauritius

Colony, 1810–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Rwanda

Seychelles

British colony, 1903–1976
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Somalia

Protectorate, 1884–1940, 1941–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
United Nations trust territory of Italy, 1950–1960
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe

Tanzania

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Uganda

British protectorate, 1894–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: NorthcentralEdit

Libya

Allied military administration, 1942–1951
  • Idris, Emir (1949–1951), King (1951–1969)
  • Idris, Emir (1949–1951), King (1951–1969)

Tunisia

Protectorate, 1881–1956
For details see France under western Europe

Africa: NortheastEdit

Egypt

Sudan

Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt, 1899–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: NorthwestEdit

Algeria

French Départements, 1830–1962
For details see France under western Europe
  • People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
  • Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1965–1976)
  • President (1976–1978)

Morocco

French protectorate, 1912–1956; Spanish protectorate, 1912–1956; Tangier International Zone, 1924–1956
Overseas territory, 1884–1958; Overseas province, 1958–1975
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Africa: SouthEdit

Botswana

British protectorate, 1885–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Eswatini/ Swaziland

  • Sobhuza II, Paramount Chief under British rule (1921–1968), King (1968–1982)

Lesotho

British colony, 1884–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Moshoeshoe II, Paramount Chief (1960–1966), King (1966–1990, 1995–1996)
  • Letsie III, King (1990–1995, 1996–present)

Malawi

British protectorate, 1907–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972; Territory, 1972–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

United Nations trust territory, 1946–1990
For details see the South African Republic under southern Africa

South Africa

Zambia

British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Self-governing British colony, 1953–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zimbabwe

British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: WestEdit

Benin

Colony, 1904–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Burkina Faso

  • Yempaabu, King (1941–1986)[1][2]
  • Yencabri, ruler (1942–1969)
  • Abdullahi Sandu bi Faruku, Almami (1932–1956)
  • Usman bi Amiru, Almami (1956–1959)
  • Yendieri, Boopo (1945–1976)
  • Huntani, Jafuali (1938–1952)
  • Yempaabu, Jafuali (1952–?)
  • Yamba Sorgo, Naaba (1933–1957)
  • Naaba Saaga II, Moogo-naaba (1942–1957)
  • Naaba Kugri, Moogo-naaba (1957–1982)
  • Naaba Tigre, Yatenga naaba (1914–1954)
  • Naaba Sigiri, Yatenga naaba (1954–1960)
Colony, 1919–1932, 1947–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

British colony and protectorate, 1821–1965
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Dawda Jawara, President (1970–1994)
  • Yahya Jammeh, Chairman of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (1994–1996), President (1996–2017)

Ghana

British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guinea

French colony, 1894–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951; Overseas province, 1951–1974
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

Colony, 1893–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Liberia

Mali

Colony, 1880–1958
French territory, united together with Senegal 1959–1960
For details see France under western Europe
  • Modibo Keïta, Head of State (1960–1965), President (1965–1968)
  • Moussa Traoré, Chairman of the Military Committee for National Liberation (1968–1969), Head of State (1969–1979), President (1979–1991)
  • Amadou Toumani Touré, Chairman of the National Reconciliation Council (1991), Chairman of the Transitional Committee (1991–1992)
  • Alpha Oumar Konaré, President (1992–2002)

Mauritania

French colony, 1903–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Niger

  • Zarmakoy Moumouni, King (1938–1953)
  • Zarmakoy Hamani, King (1953–1962)
French colony, 1921–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Nigeria

British colony, 1821–1957
British colony, 1914–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Senegal

  • Fode N'Gouye Joof, Maad Saloum (1935–c.1960)[4][3]
Federation of colonies, 1895–1958
For details see France under western Europe
French colony, 1848–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Sierra Leone

British colony and protectorate, 1808–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
First Republic
Military regime
Second Republic

Togo

United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe

AmericasEdit

Americas: CaribbeanEdit

Anguilla

Antigua and Barbuda

British colony, 1632–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

The Bahamas

British colony, 1648–1973
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Barbados

British colony, 1625–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Cuba

  • Fidel Castro, Prime minister (1959–1976), President of the Council of Ministers (1976–2008)

Dominica

British Colony, 1763–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Dominican Republic

Grenada

Haiti

Jamaica

Saint Kitts and Nevis

British colony, 1882–1983
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Lucia

British colony, 1802–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

British Colony, 1763–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Trinidad and Tobago

British colony, 1797–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Americas: CentralEdit

Belize

British colony, 1862–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

Honduras

Nicaragua

Panama

  • Military leaders: de facto Heads of state (1968–1989)

Americas: NorthEdit

Canada

Mexico

United States

Americas: SouthEdit

Argentina

Bolivia

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Guyana

British colony, 1814–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Co-operative Republic of Guyana

Netherlands

Dutch colony 1634–1828, 1845–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe
Constituent country 1954–2010
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Saint Kitts and Nevis

British colony, 1882–1983
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Paraguay

Peru

Suriname

Dutch colony 1667–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe
Constituent country 1954–1975
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Uruguay

Venezuela

AsiaEdit

Asia: CentralEdit

Asia: EastEdit

  • People's Republic of China
  • Mao Zedong, Chairman (1945–1976), paramount leader (1949–1976)
  • Hua Guofeng, Chairman (1976–1981), paramount leader (1976–1978)
  • Deng Xiaoping, paramount leader (1978–1989)
  • Hu Yaobang, Chairman (1981–1982), General Secretary (1982–1987)
  • Zhao Ziyang, General Secretary (1987–1989)
  • Jiang Zemin, General Secretary (1989–2002), paramount leader (1989–2002)
  • Kim Il-sung, Chairman (1949–1966), General Secretary (1966–1994)
  • Kim Jong-il, General Secretary (1997–2011)

Asia: SoutheastEdit

Brunei

British protectorate, 1888–1984

Cambodia

  • Pol Pot, General Secretary (1963–1981)
  • Heng Samrin, Chairman of the Revolutionary Council (1979–1981), Chairman of the State Council (1981–1992)
United Nations protectorate, 1992–1993

East Timor

United Nations protectorate, 1999–2002

Indonesia

  • Suharto, Acting President (1967–1968), President (1968–1998)
United Nations protectorate, 1962–1963

Laos

Malaysia

Myanmar / Burma

  • U Nu, Prime minister (1948–1956)
  • Ba Swe, Prime minister (1956–1957)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1957–1958)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1958–1960)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1960–1962)
  • Ne Win, Prime minister (1962–1974)

Philippines

Third Philippine Republic
Fourth Philippine Republic
Fifth Philippine Republic
Fourth Philippine Republic

Singapore

Thailand

Vietnam

  • Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–present)

Asia: SouthEdit

Afghanistan

Bangladesh

Bhutan

India

Maldives

Nepal

Pakistan

  • Monarchs –

Sri Lanka

  • Monarchs –

Asia: WestEdit

Bahrain

Protectorate of the United Kingdom, 1861–1971

Cyprus

Colony, 1878–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

  • Ibn Saud, Emir (1902–1921), Sultan (1921–1927), King (1926–1953)
  • Saud, King (1953–1964)
  • Faisal, King (1964–1975)
  • Khalid, King (1975–1982)
  • Fahd, King (1982–2005)

Syria

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Yemen: North

Yemen: South

  • Muhsin ibn Farid al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (1902–1959)
  • `Abd Allah ibn Muhsin al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (1959–1967)
  • Nasir ibn `Abd Allah al-Wahidi, Sultan (1948–1967)
  • `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Sa`id al-Wahidi, Regent (1967)
  • `Awad ibn Salih al-`Awlaqi, Sultan (1935–1967)
  • `Ali ibn `Ali al-`Amiri, Emir (1947–1954)
  • Shafa`ul ibn `Ali al-`Amiri, Emir (1954–1967)
  • al-Husayn ibn `Abd Allah al-Wahidi, Sultan (1962), subordinate ruler (1962–1967)
  • al-Husain ibn 'Ali al-Kathir, Sultan (1949–1967)
  • Aydarus ibn Muhsin al-Afifi, ruler (1925–1958)
  • Mahmud ibn Aydarus al-Afifi, ruler (1958–1967)
  • Muhammad ibn Salih ibn `Umar Al Harhara, Sultan (1948–1967)
  • al-Fadl V ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-'Abdali, Sultan (1947–1952)
  • 'Ali III ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-'Abdali, Sultan (1952–1958)
  • al-Fadl VI ibn 'Ali al-'Abdali, Sultan (1958–1967)
  • Ahmad ibn `Abd Allah Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (mid-20th century–1952)
  • `Isa ibn `Ali ibn Salim Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (1952–1967)
British Colony, 1937–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Yemen: United

  • Ali Abdullah Saleh, Chairman of the Presidential Council (1990–1994), President (1994–2012)

EuropeEdit

Europe: BalkansEdit

Albania

Bulgaria

  • Georgi Damyanov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1950–1958)
  • Dimitar Ganev, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1958–1964)
  • Georgi Traykov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1964–1971)
  • Todor Zhivkov, Chairman of the State Council (1971–1990), President (1990)
  • Petar Mladenov, President (1990)

Cyprus

Greece

Kosovo

Yugoslavia: Serbia & Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina

Yugoslavia: Croatia

United Nations protectorate, 1996–1998

Yugoslavia: Macedonia

Yugoslavia: Slovenia

Europe: Baltic statesEdit

Estonia

Latvia

Lithuania

Europe: British IslesEdit

Ireland

United Kingdom

Europe: CentralEdit

Austria

Czechoslovakia

Germany

  • Walter Ulbricht, General Secretary (1950–1953), First Secretary (1953–1971)
  • Erich Honecker, First Secretary (1971–1976), General Secretary (1976–1989)
  • Egon Krenz, General Secretary (1989)
  • Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of West Germany (1982–1990), Chancellor of reunified Germany (1990–1998)
  • Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor (1998–2005)

Hungary

Liechtenstein

Poland

Switzerland

Europe: EastEdit

Belarus

Moldova

  • Igor Smirnov, Chairman of the Provisional Supreme Soviet (1990), of the Republic (1990–1991)
  • Andrey Manoylov, Acting Chairman of the Republic (1991)
  • Igor Smirnov, Chairman of the Republic (1991), President (1991–2011)

Romania

  • Constantin Ion Parhon, President of the Provisional Presidium (1947–1948), President of the Presidium (1948–1952)
  • Nicolae Ceaușescu, President of the State Council (1967–1974), President (1974–1989)

Russia

  • Nikolay Shvernik, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1946–1953)
  • Kliment Voroshilov, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1953–1960)
  • Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1960–1964)
  • Anastas Mikoyan, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1964–1965)
  • Nikolai Podgorny, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1965–1977)
  • Leonid Brezhnev, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1977–1982)
  • Yuri Andropov, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1983–1984)
  • Konstantin Chernenko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1984–1985)
  • Andrei Gromyko, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1985–1988)
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1988–1990), President (1990–1991)

Ukraine

Europe: NordicEdit

Denmark

Finland

Iceland

Norway

Sweden

Europe: SouthcentralEdit

Italy

Malta

British colony, 1813–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

San Marino

Vatican

Europe: SouthwestEdit

Andorra

Portugal

Spain

Europe: WestEdit

Belgium

France

Luxembourg

  • Charlotte, Grand Duchess (1919–1964)
  • Jean, Grand Duke (1964–2000)
  • Henri, Grand Duke (2000–present)

Monaco

Netherlands

Eurasia: CaucasusEdit

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

OceaniaEdit

Oceania: Australia and Papua New GuineaEdit

Australia

Papua New Guinea

United Nations Trust Territory of Australia, 1946–1975
For details see Australia
United Nations Trust Territory of Australia, 1946–1975
For details see Australia or the United Kingdom under the British Isles, Europe
New Guinea: United Nations Trust Territory of Australia, 1949–1975
Papua: Australian external territory (1949–1975)
For details see Australia

Oceania: PacificEdit

Fiji

British colony, 1874–1970
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

French Polynesia

Protectorate of France, 1887/1888–1959
Overseas territory of France, 1959–2003

Kiribati

Marshall Islands

Micronesia

Nauru

New Zealand

New Zealand protectorate, 1907–present
For details see the New Zealand under Oceania

Palau

Samoa and American Samoa

Solomon Islands

British protectorate, 1893–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Tonga

Tuvalu

United States

United Nations Trust Territory under the administration of the United States, 1947–1994

Vanuatu

British-French Condominium, 1906–1980
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles and France under western Europe

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 123.
  2. ^ Madiéga, Y. Georges (1988). "Les Koarima de Koarimadeni: un groupe Kurumba en milieu gulmance". Tribus (in French) (37): 53–62.
  3. ^ a b Sheridan, Michael J. et Nyamweru, Celia, African sacred groves: ecological dynamics & social change, James Currey, 2008, p. 141 ISBN 0821417894
  4. ^ a b Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
  5. ^ Said., Zahlan, Rosemarie (2016). The Origins of the United Arab Emirates : a Political and Social History of the Trucial States. Taylor and Francis. p. 239. ISBN 9781317244653. OCLC 945874284.