Open main menu

List of state leaders in the 16th century

State leaders in the 15th centuryState leaders in the 17th centuryState leaders by year

This is a list of state leaders in the 16th century (1501–1600) AD.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 16th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Contents

AfricaEdit

Africa: CentralEdit

Angola

Kilukeni dynasty
Kwilu dynasty
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

Chad

  • Birni Besse, Mbangi (1522–1536)
  • Lubatko, Mbangi (1536–1548)
  • Malo, Mbangi (1548–1568)
  • ‘Abdallah, Mbangi (1568–1608)

Congo: Belgian

  • Lushanjela Shanga, Nyim (16th century)
  • Bo Shanga, Nyim (16th century)
  • Shamba Bolongongo, Nyim (c.1600)

Congo: French

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: EastEdit

Great Lakes area

Burundi
  • Ntare I Rushatsi Cambarantama, King (c.1530–c.1550)
  • Mwezi I Baridamunka, King (c.1550–c.1580)
  • Mutaga I Mutabazi, King (c.1580–c.1600)
Rwanda
Uganda

Horn of Africa area

Eritrea
Ethiopia
  • Sadi, King (1495–1530)
  • Madi Gafine/Gafo, King (1530–1565)
  • Bong-he, King (1565–1605)
Somalia
  • Garaad Ali Dable, King (1491–1503)
  • Garaad Liban, King (1503–1525)
  • Garaad Yuusuf, King (1525–1555)
  • Garaad Mohamud III, King (1555–1585)
  • Garaad Abdale, King (1585–1612)

Madagascar

Africa: NorthcentralEdit

Ifriqiya

Africa: NortheastEdit

Egypt

Sudan

Africa: NorthwestEdit

Morocco

Africa: SouthEdit

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: WestEdit

Benin

  • Ozolua, Oba (1480–1504)[7]
  • Esigie, Oba (1504–1547)
  • Orhogbua, Oba (1547–1580)
  • Ehengbuda, Oba (1580–1602)

Burkina Faso

  • Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520)
  • Gori, Nunbado (1520–1553)
  • Bogora, Nunbado (1553–1571)
  • Kampadiboaghi, Nunbado (1571–1615)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Niger

  • Muhammad Gao, Askiya (1592)
  • Nuh I, Askiya (c.1592–1599)[8]
  • al-Mustafa, Askiya (c.1600)

Nigeria

Senegal

 
Apartment of the Maad Saloum (king of Saloum) in 1821.
  • Malaw tane Joof, (variation: Maléotane Diouf - French spelling in Senegal), Maad Saloum (1567)[11]

AsiaEdit

Asia: CentralEdit

Kazakhstan

  • Ahmad Alaq, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1487–1503)
  • Mahmud, Khan of Western Moghulistan (1487–1508)
  • Mansur, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1503–1508), of All Moghulistan (1508–1514), of Eastern Moghulistan (1514–1548)
  • Shah, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1543–1560)
  • Muhammad ibn Mansur, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1570)
  • Šamba, Khan (1492-1493, 1497-1505)
  • Beyazıt, Khan (1505-1513)

Russia

Tajikistan

Tibet

Uzbekistan

 
The battle between Shah Ismail I and Muhammad Shaybani in 1510.
  • Ilbars I, Khan (1511–1518)
  • Sultan Haji, Khan (1518–1519)
  • Hasan Quli, Khan (1519–1524)
  • Sufyan, Khan (1529–1535)
  • Bujugha, Khan (1524–1529)
  • Avnik, Khan (1535–1538)
  • Qal, Khan (1539–1549)
  • Aqatay, Khan (1549–1557)
  • Dust Muhammad, Khan (1557–1558)
  • Haji Muhammad I, Khan (1558–1602)

Asia: EastEdit

China: Ming dynasty

Japan

Tributary state of the Ming dynasty, 1429–1644

Korea

Mongolia

Asia: SoutheastEdit

Brunei

Cambodia

Indonesia

Indonesia: Java
  • Sri Baduga, Maharaja (1482–1521)
  • Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa, Maharaja (1521–1535)
  • Ratu Dewata, Maharaja (1535–1543)
  • Ratu Sakti, Maharaja (1543–1551)
  • Nilakendra, Maharaja (1551–1567)
  • Raja Mulya, Maharaja (1567–1579)
  • Raden Arya Wilatikta, King (fl.1513)
  • Kyai Arya Ngrasena, King (early 16th century)
  • Kyai Arya Gegelang, King (early 16th century)
  • Kyai Arya Batubang, King (mid 16th century)
  • Pangeran Arya Balewot, King (mid 16th century)
  • Pangeran Sekar Tanjung, King (late 16th century)
  • Pangeran Ngangsar, King (late 16th century)
  • Pangeran Arya Pamalad, King (fl.1587)
  • Arya Salempe, King (16th/17th century)
  • Sunan Giri, Sultan (1485–1506)
  • Sunan Dalem, Sultan (1506–1545/46)
  • Sunan Seda Margi, Sultan (1545/46–1548)
  • Sunan Prapen, Sultan (1548–1605)
  • Kyai Sinuhun Ngampeldenta, Adipati (fl.c.1500)[16]
  • Pecat Tanda Terung, Adipati (fl.c.1513)
  • Pangeran Tundungmusuh, Adipati (16th century)
  • Pangeran Lena, Adipati (16th century)
  • Pangeran Jebuk, Adipati (16th century)
  • Pangeran Wanakrama, Adipati (late 16th century)
  • Panembahan Rama, Adipati (16th/17th century)
  • Pangeran Surabaya, Adipati (16th/17th century)
  • Bima Koncar/Minak Sumedhe, King (15th/16th century)[17]
  • Menak Pentor, King (fl.1513)
  • Santaguna, King (fl.c.1575)
  • N.N., King (fl.1588)
  • N.N., King (?–1597)
  • Menak Sepetak, King (fl.1513)[18]
  • Adipati Dengkol, King (16th century)
  • Sunan Gunungjati, Sultan (1479–1568)
  • Fatahillah, General (1568–1570)
  • Panembahan Ratu, Sultan (c.1570–1649)
  • Ki Pragalba, Sultan (?–1531)[20]
  • Raden Pratanu, Sultan (1531–1592/96)
  • Raden Kara, Sultan (1592/6–1621)
  • Raden Tumenggung Kanduruwan, Sultan (?–1579)[21]
  • Pangeran Ellor I, Sultan (c.1579–?)
  • Pangeran Wetan, Sultan (c.1600)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Adlullah, Sultan (1495–1506)
  • Muhammad Syah III, Sultan (1506–1507)
  • Abdullah, Sultan (1507–1509)
  • Ahmad V, Sultan (1509–1514)
  • Zainal Abidin IV, Sultan (1514–1517)
  • Panglima Dewa Shahdan, Raja (1568–1580)
  • Panglima Dewa Sakti, Raja (1580–1612)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Mangkubumi, Maharaja (15th/16th century)
  • Tumenggung, Maharaja (?–1526)
  • Suriansyah, Sultan (1520–1546)
  • Rahmatullah, Sultan (1546–1570)
  • Hidayatullah I, Sultan (1570–1595)
  • Mustain Billah, Sultan (1595–1638)
  • Timbang Paseban, Governor, Sultan (1600–1609)
  • Datuk Mencang (Seorang bangsawan dari Brunei), beristrikan Asung Luwan, ruler (1555–1594)
  • Singa Laut, Menantu dari Datuk Mencang, ruler (1594–1618)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • Batara Gowa, King (15th/16th century)
  • Pakere Tau Tunijallo ri Passukki, King (c.1510)
  • Tumapa'risi', King (c.1510–1546)
  • Lakiung, King (1546–1565)
  • Marompa, King (1565)
  • Bontolangkasa, King (late 16th century)
  • Tuni Pasulu, King (c.1593)
  • Alau'ddin, Sultan (1593–1639)
  • Risaolebbi, Datu (1465–1507)
  • Dewaraja, Datu (1507–1541)
  • Tosangkawana, Datu (1541–1556)
  • Maoge, Datu (1556–1571)
  • E Tenri Rawe’, Datu (1571–1587)
  • Andi Pattiware’ Daeng Parabung, Datu (1587–1615)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
  • Muhammad Bakir, Sultan (c.1500)[22]
  • Zainal Abidin, Sultan (pre-1512–c.1557)
  • Bayansirullah/ Dom João, Sultan (c.1557–1578/79)
  • Dom Henrique, Sultan (1578/79–1581)
  • Alauddin I, Sultan (1581–c.1609)
  • Kaicil Yusuf, Sultan (fl.1514–1521)[23]
  • Kaicil Firuz Alauddin, Sultan (c.1532–1536)
  • Katarabumi, Sultan (1536–1552)
  • Kaicili Guzarate, Sultan (1552–?)
  • Jamaluddin/Ciri Leliati, Sultan (1495–1512)[24]
  • Al-Mansur I, Sultan (before 1512–1526)
  • Amiruddin Iskandar Dul-Karna’in, Sultan (1526–c.1560)
  • Kie Mansur, Sultan (c.1560–?)
  • Kaicili Bungua, Sultan (fl.1570)
  • Gaua, Iskandar Sani, Sultan (pre-1582)
  • Gapi Baguna, Sultan (pre-1582–1599)
  • Mole Majimu, Sultan (1599–1627)
  • Bayanullah, Sultan (1500–1522)[25][26][27][28]
  • Hidayatullah, Sultan (1522–1529)
  • Abu Hayat, Sultan (1529–1533)
  • Tabariji, Sultan (1533–1534)
  • Khairun Jamil, Sultan (1535–1570)
  • Babullah Datu Shah, Sultan (1570–1583)
  • Said Barakat Shah, Sultan (1583–1606)

Laos

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia
Jambi dynasty
Champa dynasty
  • Bendaharas –
  • Muzaffar Riayat Shah I, Sultan (1528–1549)
  • Mansur Shah I, Sultan (1549–1577)
  • Ahmad Tajuddin Shah, Sultan (1577–1584)
  • Tajul Ariffin Shah, Sultan (1584–1594)
  • Alauddin Riayat Shah I, Sultan (1594–1603)
Malaysian Borneo

Myanmar / Burma

Philippines

  • Siagu, Rajah (?–1521)
  • Tagkan, Lakan (15th/16th century)
  • Palaba, ruler (mid 16th century)
  • Laboy, ruler (mid 16th century)
  • Kalamayin, Rajah (1570s)
  • Dailisan, Datu (c.1563)
  • Padojinog, Datu (15th/16th century)
  • Kabnayag, Datu (?–1565)
  • Lubay, Datu (16th century)
  • Parang the Limp, Rajah (15th/16th century)
  • Humabon, Rajah (c.1521)
  • Tupas, Rajah (?—1565)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Thailand

Mangrai dynasty
  • Kaeo or Mueangkaeo, King (1495–1525)
  • Ket or Muangketklao, King (1525–1538, 1543–1545)
  • Saikham, King (1538–1543)
  • Chiraprapha, Queen (1545–1546)
  • Setthathirat, King (1546–1547)
  • Mekuti, King (1551–1558)
Burmese rule
Suphannaphum dynasty
Sukhothai dynasty
  • Mahathammarachathirat, King of Sukhothai (1548–1569), King of Ayutthaya (1569–1590)
  • Naresuan, King of Sukhothai (1570–1590), King of Ayutthaya (1590–1605)

Vietnam

Asia: SouthEdit

Bengal

  • Prabhat Roy, King (1500–1516)
  • Majha Gosain, King (1516–1532)
  • Burha Parbat Ray, King (1532–1548)
  • Bar Gosain, King (1548–1564)
  • Bijay Manik, King (1564–1580)
  • Pratap Ray, King (1580–1596)
  • Dhan Manik, King (1596–1612)

Maldives

  • Hassan VII, Sultan (1510–1511)
  • Sharif Ahmed, Sultan (1511–1513)
  • Ali III, Sultan (1513)
  • Kalu Mohamed, Sultan (1513–1529)
  • Hassan VIII, Sultan (1529–1549)
  • Mohamed III, Sultan (1549–1551)
  • Hassan IX, Sultan (1551–1552)
  • Aboobakuru II, Sultan (1554–1557)
  • Ali IV, Sultan (1557–1558)
  • Dom Manoel, King (1558–1573)
  • Dom Manoel, King (1573–1583)
  • Dom João, King (1583–1603)

Sri Lanka

Colony, 1505–1658
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Asia: WestEdit

EuropeEdit

Europe: British IslesEdit

Scotland

Ireland

Europe: CentralEdit

Europe: EastEdit

Europe: NordicEdit

Europe: SouthcentralEdit

Europe: SouthwestEdit

Navarre

Portugal

Spain

Europe: WestEdit

Eurasia: CaucasusEdit

North AmericaEdit

 
Moctezuma II, from Historia de la conquista de México by Antonio de Solis

MexicoEdit

 
Gastón de Peralta, 3rd Marquess of Falces

South AmericaEdit

Inca

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Joyce (M.A.) & Torday (E.), Notes ethnographiques sur les peuples communément appelés Bakuba, ainsi que sur les peuplades apparentées, les Bushongo. Bruxelles 1910 ;page 17–19
  2. ^ Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia) (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), p. 64.
  3. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  4. ^ Information about pre-Oromo kings from Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia), (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), pp. 28–30.
  5. ^ MacMichael, H. A. (1922). "Appendix I: The Chronology of the Fung Kings". A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People Who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfūr. Volume II. Cambridge University Press. p. 431. OCLC 264942362.
  6. ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm (1999). "Genealogical Tables and King-Lists". The Sudan of the Three Niles: The Funj Chronicle 910–1288 / 1504–1871. Islamic History and Civilization, 26. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 182–186. ISBN 978-90-04-11256-8.
  7. ^ Ben-Amos (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. p. 32.
  8. ^ The Tarikh al-Sudan states that Askiya Nuh ruled for 7 years.
  9. ^ Dates calculated on the basis of Lange, Diwan, 77-94; id., Kingdoms, 552.
  10. ^ From now on dates follow Lange, Diwan, 80-94.
  11. ^ Ba, Abdou Bouri, « Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip » (avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin), Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 38, série B, numéro 4, octobre 1976 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2012-03-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ L. Petech (1980), 'Ya-ts'e, Gu-ge, Pu-rang: A new study', The Central Asiatic Journal 24, pp. 85–111; R. Vitali (1996), The kingdoms of Gu.ge Pu.hrang. Dharamsala: Tho.ling gtsug.lag.khang.
  13. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls. [Rome 1949; Giuseppe Tucci, Deb T'er Dmar Po Gsarma. Rome 1971; Per K. Sørensen & Guntram Hazod, Rulers on the Celestial Plain. Wien 2007; Olaf Czaja, Medieval rule in Tibet, Vol. I-II. Wien 2013.
  14. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, 1949; Giuseppe Tucci, 1971; Olaf Czaja, 2013.
  15. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, 1949; Hugh E. Richardson, A Short History of Tibet. New York 1962.
  16. ^ De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 156–68; Truhart (2003), p. 1235.
  17. ^ Arifin (1995); De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 192–8.
  18. ^ De Graaf & Pigeaud (1974), p. 179–84.
  19. ^ Hall (1981), p. 972; Stokvis, Sultan (1888); Truhart (2003), p. 1228–9..
  20. ^ Sutherland (1973–1974).
  21. ^ Nagtegaal (1995); Werdisastra (1996).
  22. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  23. ^ The pedigree and chronology of the sultans is only partly known; see Schurhammer, F. (1973–1982) Francis Xavier; His Life, His Times, Vol. I–IV. Rome: Jesuit Historical Institute; Jacobs, Hubert (1974–1984) Documenta Malucensia, Vol. I–III. Rome: Jesuit Historical Society; Fraassen, c.van (1987) Ternate, de Molukken en de Indonesische Archipel. Leiden: Leiden University (PhD Thesis).
  24. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ [3]
  28. ^ [4]
  29. ^ de Aganduru Moriz, Rodrigo (1882). Historia general de las Islas Occidentales a la Asia adyacentes, llamadas Philipinas. Colección de Documentos inéditos para la historia de España, v.78–79. Madrid: Impr. de Miguel Ginesta.
  30. ^ Encyclopaedia Of Bangladesh (Set Of 30 Vols.) By Nagendra Kr. Singh
  31. ^ His wife was Dorothea of Brandenburg (ca. 1446–March 1519, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg). Their children were Eric of Saxe-Lauenburg (1472–20 October 1522; Eric I as Prince-Bishop of Münster, Eric II as Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim) and Sophia of Saxe-Lauenburg (m. ca. 1420, d. 1462; mother of Eric II, Duke of Pomerania).
  32. ^ He was married on 8 February 1540 to Sybille of Saxe-Freiberg (Freiberg, 2 May 1515–18 July 1592, Buxtehude), daughter of Henry IV of Saxe-Wittenberg. Their children were Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg (Henry II as Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, Henry III as Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, and Henry IV as Prince-Bishop of Paderborn), Sidonia Katharina of Saxe-Lauenburg (m. Wenceslaus III Adam, Duke of Cieszyn) and Ursula of Saxe-Lauenburg-Ratzeburg (m. Henry III, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg [Dannenberg]).
  33. ^ His wife was Princess Sophia of Sweden.
  34. ^ His wife was Mary of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel) (1566–1626; daughter of Julius, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg (Wolfenbüttel)); their daughters were Juliane of Saxe-Lauenburg (26 December 1589–1 December 1630; m. 1 August 1627 to Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg) and Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg (24 May 1601–1 February 1660; m. 23 May 1624 to Philip, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg).
  35. ^ a b c d "Ahuítzotl, "El espinoso del agua" (1486-1502)" [Ahuítzotl, "Thorny Water" (1486-1502)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  36. ^ "Juan Velázquez, 12th Aztec Emperor". Geni.com. February 11, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  37. ^ a b c d "Los gobernantes que siguieron a Moctezuma, Cuitláhuac y Cuahutémoc" [The governors of Mexico who followed Moctezuma, Cuitláhuac, and Cuauhtémoc]. El Bable (in Spanish). December 16, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  38. ^ "Carlos I de España" [Charles I of Spain]. Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  39. ^ "Felipe II" [Philip II]. Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  40. ^ "Felipe III de España" [Philip III of Spain]. Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  41. ^ "Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  42. ^ "Hernán Cortés". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  43. ^ "Cristóbal de Tapia, que fue como gobernador a México" [Cristóbal de Tapia, how he was as governor of Mexico]. artehistoria.com (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  44. ^ Duplá, Víctor. "Luis Ponce de León". Lab.rtve.es (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  45. ^ "Antonio de Mendoza". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  46. ^ "Luis de Velasco". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  47. ^ "Gastón de Peralta". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  48. ^ "Biografía de Martín Enríquez de Almanza". ParatodoMexico (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  49. ^ "LORENZO SUÁREZ DE MENDOZA". Presidencia de la Republica (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  50. ^ "Pedro Moya de Contreras". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  51. ^ "ÁLVARO MANRIQUE DE ZÚÑIGA". Presidencia de la Republica (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  52. ^ "Luis de Velasco". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  53. ^ "Condes de Monterrey". Biografias y Vidas (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  54. ^ "Cortes Meets Xicotencatl, Tlaxcala Chief". American Historical Association. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  55. ^ "Zapotecs (Mesoamerica)". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  56. ^ Istmeño Oaxaqueño, Xhuncu (April 24, 2011). "COSIJOEZA Y COSIJOPÍ SICASIBI..REYES ZAPOTECAS!!!" [Cosijoeza and Cosijoi Sicasibi... Zapoteca Kings!]. Zapotecos del Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  57. ^ "Tawantinsuyu / Emperors of the Incas". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.