List of state leaders in the 15th century

  (Redirected from List of state leaders in 1411)
State leaders in the 14th centuryState leaders in the 16th centuryState leaders by year

This is a list of state leaders in the 15th century (1401–1500) AD, except for the leaders within the Holy Roman Empire, and the leaders within South Asia.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 15th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

AfricaEdit

Africa: CentralEdit

Angola

Cameroon

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: EastEdit

Great Lakes area

Rwanda
Uganda
  • Kimera, Kabaka (c.1374–c.1404)
  • Ttembo, Kabaka (c.1404–c.1434)
  • Kiggala, Kabaka (c.1434–c.1464, c.1484–c.1494)
  • Kiyimba, Kabaka (c.1464–c.1484)
  • Kayima, Kabaka (c.1494–c.1524)

Horn of Africa area

Ethiopia
  • Shongetato (also known as the Girra king), King (1425–1460)
  • Odhe/Addiotato, King (1460–1495)
  • Sadi or Shaddi/Shaditato, King (1495–1530)
  • Shongetato (also known as the Girra king), King (1425–1460)
  • Odhe/Addiotato, King (1460–1495)
  • Sadi or Shaddi/Shaditato, King (1495–1530)
Somalia
  • Warsangali Sultanate (complete list) –
  • Garaad Siciid, King (1392–1409)
  • Garaad Ahmed, King (1409–1430)
  • Garaad Siciid II, King (1430–1450)
  • Garaad Mohamud II, King (1450–1479)
  • Garaad Ciise II, King (1479–1487)
  • Garaad Omar, King (1487–1495)
  • Garaad Ali Dable, King (1491–1503)

Africa: NortheastEdit

Egypt

Africa: NorthcentralEdit

Ifriqiya

Africa: NorthwestEdit

Morocco

Marinid dynasty
Idrisid interlude
Wattasid dynasty

Africa: SouthEdit

Mozambique

Colony, 1498–1972
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: WestEdit

Benin

  • Orobiru, Oba (1397–1434)[4]
  • Uwaifiokun, Oba (1434–1440)
  • Ezoti, Oba (1473–1474) [5]
  • Ewuare I, Oba (1440–1473)
  • Olua, Oba (1475–1480)
  • Ozolua, Oba (1480–1504)

Burkina Faso

  • Tenin, Nunbado (1395–1425)
  • Tokurma, Nunbado (1425–1470)
  • Gima, Nunbado (1470–1520)

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Nigeria

  • Kori, Alaafin (c.1400–?)
  • Oluaso, Alaafin (?–c.1500)

Senegal

  • Mbegan Ndour, Maad Saloum (c.1493)[7]

AmericasEdit

Americas: NorthEdit

Mexico

  • Dzawindanda / Atonal (II), ruler (?–1458)[8]
under the Tepanec suzerainty
Emperors of the Triple Alliance (Aztec Empire)
  • Tetzotzomoc, Tlatoani (1367–1426)[17]
  • Tayauh, Tlatoani (1426)[17]
  • Maxtla, Tlatoani (1426–1428)[17]
  • Totoquilhuaztli, Tlatoani (c.1400–1430)[18]
  • Totoquilhuaztli, Tlatoani (1430–1469)[18]
  • Chimalpopoca, Tlatoani (1469–?)[18]
  • Zaachila Yoo, King (1386–1415)
  • Zaachila II, King (1415–1454)
  • Zaachila III, King (1454–1487)
  • Cocijoeza / Cosijoeza, King (1487–1521)

Americas: SouthEdit

AsiaEdit

Asia: CentralEdit

Kazakhstan

From 1370 on, the Chagatai Khans were puppets of Timur
  • Yunus, Khan of Western Moghulistan (1462–1469)
  • Dost Muhammad, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1462–1468)
  • Kebek Oghlan, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1469)
  • Yunus, Khan of All Moghulistan (1469–1487)
  • Ahmad Alaq, Khan of Eastern Moghulistan (1487–1503)
  • Mahmud, Khan of Western Moghulistan (1487–1508)
  • Engke Temür, Khan (1393–1405)
Vassal of China, 1404–1430s
  • Toqto, Khan (1405–1411)
  • Mengli Temür, Khan (1411–1425)
Vassal of the Northern Yuan dynasty, 1430s–1455
  • Budaširi, Khan (1425–1439)
  • Khalīl sulṭān, Khan (1439–1457)
Vassal of China, 1455–1457
  • Bürege, Khan (1457–1460)
  • Nugandaširi, Khan (1460–1472)
  • Baγ Temür, Rival Khan (1466–1472)
  • Qanšin, Khan (1472–1488)
  • Engke Bolad, Khan (1488–1492, 1493–1497)
  • Šamba, Khan (1492–1493, 1497–1505)

Russia

Tibet

Uzbekistan

Asia: EastEdit

China: Ming dynasty

Japan: Main

Japan: Ryukyu

Tributary state of the Ming dynasty
  • Bunei, Chief (1398–1406)
Tributary state of the Ming dynasty
Tributary state of the Ming dynasty
First Shō Dynasty
Tributary state of the Ming dynasty, 1429–1644
Second Shō Dynasty

Korea

Mongolia

  • Batula, leader (1399–1408)
  • Togoon Taishi, leader (1408–1438)
  • Esen, leader (1438–1454)
  • Amasanj, leader (1454–1455)
  • Ishtömör (Ush-Temür), leader (1455–1469)

Asia: SoutheastEdit

Brunei

Cambodia

  • In Reachea, King (1394–c.1421)
  • Ponhea Yat, King of Khmer Empire (1405–1431), King of Cambodia (1431–1463)

Indonesia

Indonesia: Java
  • Prabu Raja Wastu, Maharaja (1371–1475)
  • Prabu Susuk tunggal, Maharaja (1475–1482)
  • Sri Baduga, Maharaja (1482–1521)
  • Sira Lena, King (14th/15th century)
  • Raden Arya Dikara, King (15th century)
  • Arya Teja, King (15th century)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Zainal Abidin I, Sultan (1349–1406)
  • Nahrasyiyah, Queen (1406–1428)
  • Zainal Abidin II, Sultan (1428–1438)
  • Shalahuddin, Sultan (1438–1462)
  • Ahmad II, Sultan (1462–1464)
  • Abu Zaid Ahmad III, Sultan (1464–1466)
  • Ahmad IV, Sultan (1466–1466)
  • Mahmud, Sultan (1466–1468)
  • Zainal Abidin III, Sultan (1468–1474)
  • Muhammad Syah II, Sultan (1474–1495)
  • Al-Kamil, Sultan (1495–1495)
  • Adlullah, Sultan (1495–1506)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Sari Kaburangan, Maharaja (15th century)
  • Sukarama, Maharaja (15th century)
  • Mangkubumi, Maharaja (15th/16th century)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • I Puang Lowe Lembang, King (14th/15th century)
  • I Tuniatabanri, King (15th century)
  • Karampang ri Gowa, King (15th century)
  • Tunatangka Lopi, King (15th century)
  • Batara Gowa, King (15th/16th century)
  • Tanra Balusu, Datu (1365–1402)
  • Toampanangi, Datu (1402–1426)
  • Batara Guru II, Datu (1426–1458)
  • La Mariawa, Datu (1458–1465)
  • Risaolebbi, Datu (1465–1507)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
  • Muhammad Bakir, Sultan (c.1500)[27]
  • Matagena, King (1372–1405)[28]
  • Jamaluddin/Ciri Leliati, Sultan (1495–1512)
  • Komala Pulu/ Bessi Muhammad Hassan, King (1377–1432)[citation needed]
  • Marhum/ Gapi Baguna II, King (1432–1486)
  • Zainal Abidin, Sultan (1486–1500)
  • Bayanullah, Sultan (1500–1522)

Laos

Malaysia: Peninsular

  • Parameswara Teluk Chini, Maharaja (c.1411)
  • Dewa Sura, Maharaja (?–1454)
  • Bendaharas –

Myanmar / Burma

  • 艾乌萨, Saopha (1390–1403)
  • 伊康伽, Saopha (1403–1416)
  • Sao Shan, Saopha (1416–1441)
  • Sao Shan Sili, Saopha (1441–1456)
  • 艾劳康, Saopha (1456–1474)
  • Ai Lao (艾劳), Saopha (1474–1501)
  • Sawlon the Elder,[note 1] Saopha (c.1482–?)

Philippines

  • Kalantiaw, Datu (1365–1437)
  • Manduyog, Datu (1437–?)
  • Padojinog, Datu (15th/16th century)
  • Bantug, Rajah (c.15th century)
  • Parang the Limp, Rajah (15th/16th century)
  • Kamayin, King (1406–1408)
  • Taymey, King (1408–1409)
  • Liyu, King (1409–?)

Thailand

  • Saenmueangma, King (1385–1401)
  • Samfangkaen, King (1402–1441)
  • Tilokkarat, King (1441–1487)
  • Yotchiangrai, King (1487–1495)
  • Kaeo or Mueangkaeo, King (1495–1525)
Uthong dynasty
Suphannaphum dynasty

Vietnam

  • Jaya Simhavarman V, King (1400–1441)
  • Maija Vijaya, King (1441–1446)
  • Moho Kouei-Lai, King (1446–1449)
  • Moho Kouei-Yeou, King (1449–1458)
  • Moho P'an-Lo-Yue, King (1458–1460)
  • P'an-Lo T'ou-Ts'iuan, King (1460–1471)

Asia: SouthEdit

See also List of state leaders in the 15th-century south Asia

Asia: WestEdit

Turkey

Yemen

  • Badr as-Sahab ibn al-Habrali Bu Tuwairik, Sultan (1395–1430)
  • Muhammad ibn 'Ali, Sultan (c.1430–c.1450)
  • Dscha'far ibn 'Abdallah, Sultan (c.1493)

EuropeEdit

Europe: BalkansEdit

Europe: British IslesEdit

Scotland

England and Ireland

Ireland

  • Pilib Ruadh mac Briain, King (1371–1403)
  • Ardghal mac Briain, King (1403–1416)
  • Brian mac Ardghail, King (1416–1442)
  • Ruaidhri mac Ardghail, King (1442–1446)
  • Aodh Ruadh mac Ruaidhri, King (1446–1453)
  • Feidhlimidh mac Briain, King (1453–1466)
  • Eochan mac Ruaidhri, King (1466–1467)
  • Reamonn mac Ruaidhri, King (1467–1484)
  • Aodh Óg mac Aodha Ruaidh, King (1485–1496)
  • Brian mac Reamoinn, King (1496–1497)
  • Rossa mac Maghnusa, King (1497–1513)
  • Maelmordha, ruler (1403–1411)
  • Richard, ruler (1411–1418)
  • Owen, ruler (1418–1449)
  • Farrell, ruler (1450)
  • John, ruler (1450–1460)
  • Cathal O'Reilly, ruler (1467)
  • Turlough, ruler (1468–1487)
  • John, son of Turlough O'Reilly, ruler (1487–1491)
  • John, son of Cathal O'Reilly, ruler (1491–1510)
  • Tigernán mór Ó Ruairc, King (1376–1418)
  • Aodh buidhe Ó Ruairc, King (1418–1419)
  • Tadhg Ó Ruairc, King (1419–1424)
  • Art Ó Ruairc, King (1419–1424)
  • Tadhg Ó Ruairc, King (1424–1435)
  • Lochlann Ó Ruairc, King (1435–1458)
  • Donnchadh bacagh Ó Ruairc, King (1435–1445)
  • Donnchadh Ó Ruairc, King (1445–1449)
  • Tigernán óg Ó Ruairc, King (1449–1468)
  • Donnchadh losc Ó Ruairce, King (1468–1476)
  • Domnall Ó Ruairc, King (1468–1476,)
  • Feidhlimidh Ó Ruairc, King (1476–1500)
  • Eóghan Ó Ruairc, King (1500–1528)
  • Conchobair Óg mac Diarmata, King (1398–1404)
  • Ruaidri Caech mac Diarmata, King (1404–1421)
  • Tomaltach an Einigh mac Diarmata, King (1421–1458)
  • Aedh mac Diarmata, King (1458–1465)
  • Conochobar Óg mac Diarmata, King (1456–1478)
  • Ruaidri Óg mac Diarmata, King (1478–1486)
  • Conchobair mac Diarmata, King (1486–1497)
  • Tadhg mac Diarmata, King (1497–1499)
  • Cormac mac Diarmata, King (1499–1528)

Europe: CentralEdit

See also List of state leaders in the 15th-century Holy Roman Empire

Hungary

Poland

  • Siemowit IV the Younger, Duke of Płock and Rawa (1381–1426)
  • Trojden II, co-Duke of Płock and Rawa (1426–1427)
  • Siemowit V, co-Duke of Płock and Rawa (1426–1434), Duke of Rawa (1434–1442)
  • Casimir II, co-Duke of Płock and Rawa (1426–1434), Duke of Bełz (1434–1442)
  • Władysław I, co-Duke of Płock and Rawa (1426–1434), Duke of Płock (1434–1442), of Płock and Rawa-Rawa (1442–1455)
  • Margareta of Opava-Ráciborz, Duchess of Rawa-Gostynin (1442–1459)
  • Anna of Oleśnica, Paul Giżycki, Regents of Płock and Rawa-Rawa (1455–1459)
  • Siemowit VI, co-Duke of Płock and Rawa (1455–1462)
  • Władysław II, co-Duke of Płock and Rawa (1459–1462)
  • Casimir III, co-Duke of Warsaw (1454–1462), of Masovia (1462–1471), Duke of Płock (1471–1475)
  • Janusz II, co-Duke of Warsaw (1454–1462), of Masovia (1462–1471), Duke of Płock (1475–1495)
  • Konrad III the Rudy, co-Duke of Warsaw (1454–1462), of Masovia (1462–1471), Duke of Czersk (1471–1495), of Warsaw (1488–1495), of Masovia (1495–1503)

Europe: EastEdit

Europe: NordicEdit

Kalmar Union

Europe: SouthcentralEdit

 
States of Italy in 1494.
See also List of state leaders in the 15th-century Holy Roman Empire#Italy
  • Niccolò III, Marquis of Ferrara and Modena (1393–1441), of Reggio (1405–1441)
  • Leonello, Marquis (1441–1450)
  • Borso, Marquis(1450–1452), Duke (1452–1471)[31]

Southern Italy

Europe: SouthwestEdit

Iberian Peninsula: Christian

  • Henry IV, claimant king (1462–1463)
  • Peter V, claimant king (1463–1466)
  • René, claimant king (1466–1472)

Marca Hispanica

Europe: WestEdit

France

Low Countries

For the succeeding rulers, see the County of Artois under the List of state leaders in the 16th-century Holy Roman Empire

Eurasia: CaucasusEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to (Fernquest 2006: 36) Sawlon became saopha of Mohnyin c. 1482 and died in 1532, meaning he ruled for 50 years. Zatadawbon Yazawin (Zata 1960: 47) says Sawlon was born only in 1486. It means the Sawlon who came to power in 1482 was likely Sawlon's father.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  2. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lvi. Amnon Orent, "Refocusing on the History of Kafa prior to 1897: A Discussion of Political Processes" in African Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2. (1970), p. 268.
  3. ^ Information about pre-Oromo kings from Werner J. Lange, History of the Southern Gonga (Southwestern Ethiopia), (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1982), pp. 28–30.
  4. ^ "Oba Ewuare II Coronation Speech 2016". Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  5. ^ Ben-Amos (1995). The Art of Benin Revised Edition. p. 32.
  6. ^ Dates calculated on the basis of Lange, Diwan, 77-94; id., Kingdoms, 552.
  7. ^ Ba, Abdou Bouri, « Essai sur l’histoire du Saloum et du Rip » (avant-propos par Charles Becker et Victor Martin), Bulletin de l'IFAN, tome 38, série B, numéro 4, octobre 1976 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2012-03-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Mixtecs of Coixtlahuaca (Mixteca)". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  9. ^ "Huitzilíhuitl, "Pluma de colibrí" (1396–1417)" [Huitzilíhuitl, “Hummingbird Feather” (1396–1417)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  10. ^ "Chimalpopoca, "Escudo humeante (1417–1426)" [Chimalpopoca, "Smoking Shield" (1417–1426)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  11. ^ "Acamapichtli el primer Huey Tlatoani de los Mexicas" [Acamapichtli the first Supreme Leader of the Mexicas)]. Historia.com (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  12. ^ "Itzcóatl, "Serpiente de obsidiana" (1427–1440)" [Itzcóatl, “Obsidian Serpent” (1427–1440)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  13. ^ "Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, "El que se muestra enojado, el que flecha al cielo" (1440–1469)" [Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, "He who shows anger, He who shoots to heaven)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  14. ^ Castañeda de la Paz, María). "Axayácatl". Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  15. ^ "Tízoc, "El que hace sacrificio" (1481–1486)" [Tízoc, “He who makes sacrifices” (1481–1486)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  16. ^ "Ahuítzotl, "El espinoso del agua" (1486–1502)" [Ahuítzotl, "Thorny Water" (1486–1502)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  17. ^ a b c "Tepanec (Mesoamerica)". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c "Tlacopan / Tacuba (Aztecs) (Mesoamerica)". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  19. ^ "Zapotecs (Mesoamerica)". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  20. ^ "Qosqo of the Incas". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  21. ^ "Tawantinsuyu / Emperors of the Incas". The History Files. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  22. ^ L. Petech (1980), 'Ya-ts'e, Gu-ge, Pu-rang: A new study', The Central Asiatic Journal 24, pp. 85–111; R. Vitali (1996), The kingdoms of Gu.ge Pu.hrang. Dharamsala: Tho.ling gtsug.lag.khang.
  23. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, Tibetan Painted Scrolls. [Rome 1949; Giuseppe Tucci, Deb T'er Dmar Po Gsarma. Rome 1971; Per K. Sørensen & Guntram Hazod, Rulers on the Celestial Plain. Wien 2007; Olaf Czaja, Medieval rule in Tibet, Vol. I-II. Wien 2013.
  24. ^ Giuseppe Tucci, 1949; Giuseppe Tucci, 1971; Olaf Czaja, 2013.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681.
  26. ^ Ricklefs (1991)
  27. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  28. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  29. ^ Radu Praznaglava[better source needed]
  30. ^ Radu Praznaglava[better source needed]
  31. ^ a b Tuohy, Thomas (2002). Herculean Ferrara : Ercole d'Este, 1471–1505, and the invention of a Ducal capital (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, published with the assistance of the Istituto di Studi Rinascimentali, Ferrara. p. 211. ISBN 978-0521522632.
  32. ^ Secondotto, John III and Theodore, who were the sons of Elisabeth, daughter of James III of Majorca, and of John II of Montferrat, have been called dukes. Historiae et Urbium Regionum Italiae rariores, Volume 114, Cronica del Montferrato, Benvenuto Sangiorgio, Arnaldo Forni Editore 1780.
  33. ^ "Battle of the Centuries". Science Reference Services. Library of Congress. 25 July 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  34. ^ Casola, Pietro; Newett, Mary Margaret (1907). "Notes". Canon Pietro Casola's Pilgrimage to Jerusalem in the Year 1494. Manchester University Press. p. 371.
  35. ^ Norwich, John J. (1983). A History of Venice. Penguin Books. p. 363. ISBN 0140066233.