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Solar storms are caused by disturbances on the Sun, most often coronal clouds associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produced by solar flares emanating from active sunspot regions, or, less often, from coronal holes.

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Active stars produce disturbances in space weather with the field of heliophysics the science that studies such phenomena; itself primarily an interdisciplinary combination of solar physics and planetary science. In the Solar System, the Sun can produce intense geomagnetic and proton storms capable of causing severe damage to technology including but not limited to large scale power outages, disruption or blackouts of radio communications (including GPS), and temporary to permanent disabling of satellites and other spaceborne technology. Intense solar storms may also be hazardous to high-latitude, high-altitude aviation and to human spaceflight.[1] Geomagnetic storms are the cause of auroras.[2] The most significant known solar storm occurred in September 1859 and is known as the "Carrington event".[3] The damage from the most potent solar storms is capable of existentially threatening the stability of modern human civilization,[4][5] although proper preparedness and mitigation can substantially reduce the hazards.[6] Proxy data from Earth, as well as analysis of stars similar to the Sun suggest that it may be capable of producing so called superflares, those which are much larger than any flares in the historical record (as much as 1000x stronger every 5000 years).[7][8]

Notable eventsEdit

Electromagnetic, geomagnetic, and/or proton stormsEdit

Proxy evidenceEdit

Direct measurementsEdit

Events not affecting EarthEdit

The above events affected Earth (and its vicinity, known as the magnetosphere), whereas the following events occurred elsewhere in the solar system and were detected by monitoring spacecraft or other means.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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