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List of semiaquatic tetrapods

Marine otter of the west coast of South America
Hawaiian monk seal, off Kaʻula Island

This is a list of tetrapods that spend part of their life cycle or a significant fraction of their time in water, and/or obtain a significant fraction of their food from an aquatic habitat.

Semiaquatic Tetrapoda are those that are primarily or at least partly terrestrial but that spend a large amount of time swimming or otherwise occupied in water, either as part of their life cycle or as part of their normal behavior (e.g., feeding). Some marine mammals, such as the marine otter, the polar bear and pinnipeds, are semiaquatic, while others, such as the sea otter, cetaceans and sirenians, are fully aquatic. The only fully aquatic nonmarine mammals are several manatees (the Amazonian manatee and some populations of African manatee) and certain small cetaceans (river dolphins, the tucuxi, and some populations of Irrawaddy dolphin and finless porpoise). No bird species is fully aquatic, as all must lay and incubate their eggs, as well as begin raising their young, on land or ice. Among marine reptiles, marine iguanas and partly marine crocodiles (such as the saltwater crocodile and the American crocodile) are all semiaquatic. Sea turtles are almost fully aquatic, but must come ashore to lay eggs. Most sea snakes are ovoviviparous and fully aquatic (the exception being the oviparous, semiaquatic sea kraits). A few freshwater snakes are also ovoviviparous and fully aquatic (e.g., Erpeton tentaculatum and Acrochordidae), but the majority are semiaquatic. Most amphibians have an aquatic larval stage and are at least semiaquatic for that reason, but there are many exceptions to this generalization.

The aquatic component of a semiaquatic species' lifestyle may be either obligatory or facultative to varying degrees (examples of the latter are the Arctic fox, jaguar and green iguana).

Note: Dagger symbols, "†", have been used to indicate a listed taxon is extinct.

Contents

MammalsEdit

All extant fully aquatic mammals except the sea otter are found in two clades of exclusively aquatic species, Cetacea and Sirenia; the extinct desmostylians may also have been fully aquatic (these groups are thought to have entered the water about 50, 40 and 30 Ma ago, respectively). In contrast, semiaquatic mammals are widely distributed throughout the class. However, extant semiaquatic swimming marine mammals are restricted to Carnivora (among which, pinnipeds apparently appeared about 20 Ma ago). Semiaquatic (carnivorous) rodents have been noted as having larger than normal brains for their size, possibly as a consequence of using their vibrissae for acoustic detection of prey.[1][2]

 
Platypus, a semiaquatic monotreme, Tasmania
 
Asian elephant using its trunk as a snorkel, India
 
Invasive coypu, Europe
 
Muskrat, Ontario
 
Jaguar, in the Pantanal
 
Male waterbuck, Kenya
 
Female moose, Wyoming
 
Hippopotamus underwater
 
Brown pelican, Florida
 
Male wood duck, Quebec

BirdsEdit

The great majority of semiaquatic birds are found within three clades whose members are mostly semiaquatic: Aequorlitornithes, Anseriformes and Gruiformes, thought to be about 64, 47 and 41 Ma old, respectively.[12][note 1]

Nonavian dinosaursEdit

 
Spinosaurus restoration

Only a few nonavian dinosaurs are thought to have been semiaquatic. The combination of being oviparous and endothermic seems to have prevented the evolution of fully aquatic dinosaurs.

PterosaursEdit

 
Eudimorphodon restoration

A number of types of pterosaurs are thought to have been piscivores, and a few are suspected of being molluscivores.

ReptilesEdit

 
Nile crocodile swimming sequence
 
Marine iguana, Galápagos Islands
 
Chicken turtle, Florida

Semiaquatic forms are widely distributed among extant and extinct reptiles, and extinct semiaquatic or fully aquatic marine forms were once ecologically prominent.

North American eastern newt as a gilled aquatic larva, aposematic terrestrial juvenile ("red eft") and aquatic adult

AmphibiansEdit

Most amphibians have an aquatic larval stage and thus are at least semiaquatic by virtue of this fact. Many adult amphibians are also semiquatic (while others are fully aquatic or terrestrial). However, some amphibians lack an aquatic larval stage. Some frogs, such as most leiopelmatids, most ranixalids, some leptodactylids, some myobatrachids, Darwin's frog and the Seychelles frog, have nonaquatic tadpoles. Some caecilians, many frogs such as saddleback toads, most sooglossids and the greenhouse frog,[15] and most plethodontid salamanders lay eggs on land in which the larvae develop into adult form before they hatch. The alpine salamander[16] and African live-bearing toads (Nectophrynoides and Nimbaphrynoides)[17] are ovoviviparous and give birth on land. Additionally, about 75% of caecilians are viviparous.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ These dates are without calibration based on the putative late Cretaceous fossil crown avian Vegavis; its inclusion would push back the date for Anseriformes to ~69 Ma.
  2. ^ Although all extant crocodilians are semiaquatic, some recently extinct mekosuchine genera, Mekosuchus and Quinkana, were mostly or entirely terrestrial.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Voss, R. S. (1988). "Systematics and ecology of ichthyomyine rodents (Muroidea) : patterns of morphological evolution in a small adaptive radiation". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 188: 259–493 (see p. 410). Retrieved 2018-01-11. 
  2. ^ Peterhans, J. C. K.; Patterson, B. D. (1995). "The Ethiopian water mouse Nilopegamys Osgood, with comments on semi-aquatic adaptations in African Muridae". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 113 (3): 329–349 (see pp. 341–346). doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1995.tb00937.x. 
  3. ^ Nedelman, M. (2018-04-19). "Diving deep on one breath could be in a 'sea nomad's' DNA". CNN. Retrieved 2018-04-20. 
  4. ^ Zimmer, Carl (2018-04-19). "Bodies Remodeled for a Life at Sea". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-04-23. 
  5. ^ Ilardo, M. A.; Moltke, I.; Korneliussen, T. S.; Cheng, J.; Stern, A. J.; Racimo, F.; de Barros Damgaard, P.; Sikora, M.; Seguin-Orlando, A.; Rasmussen, S.; van den Munckhof, I. C. L.; ter Horst, R.; Joosten, L. A. B.; Netea, M. G.; Salingkat, S.; Nielsen, R.; Willerslev, E. (2018-04-18). "Physiological and Genetic Adaptations to Diving in Sea Nomads". Cell. 173 (3): 569–580.e15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.054. PMID 29677510. 
  6. ^ a b Walker, M. (2009-07-07). "Aquatic deer and ancient whales". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-03-26. 
  7. ^ Stadelmann, B.; Herrera, L. G.; Arroyo-Cabrales, J.; Flores-Martínez, J. J.; May, B. P.; Ruedi, M.; Miller, E. H. (2004). "Molecular Systematics of the Fishing Bat Myotis (Pizonyx) vivesi". Journal of Mammalogy. 85 (1): 133–139. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2004)085<0133:MSOTFB>2.0.CO;2. 
  8. ^ de Mello Beiseigel, B.; Zuercher, G.L. (2005). "Speotheos venaticus". Mammalian Species. 783: 1–6. doi:10.1644/783.1. 
  9. ^ "Panthera onca, Jaguar". North American Mammals. Smithsonian Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2018-01-30. 
  10. ^ Seymour, K. L. (26 October 1989). "Panthera onca" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 340 (340): 1–9. doi:10.2307/3504096. JSTOR 3504096. 
  11. ^ Meijaard, E.; Umilaela; de Silva Wijeyeratne, G. (September 2010). "Aquatic escape behaviour in mouse-deer provides insight into tragulid evolution". Mammalian Biology. 75 (5): 471–473. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2009.05.007. Retrieved 2016-04-12. 
  12. ^ a b Prum, R. O.; et al. (22 October 2015). "A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing". Nature. 526 (7574): 569–573. doi:10.1038/nature15697. PMID 26444237. 
  13. ^ Swanson, Paul L. (1950), "The iguana: Iguana iguana iguana (L)", Herpetologica, 6: 187–193, JSTOR 3890004 
  14. ^ Coles, William (2002), "Green Iguana" (PDF), U.S.V.I. Animal Fact Sheet #08, Department of Planning and Natural Resources US Virgin Islands Division of Fish and Wildlife, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-11 
  15. ^ "Eleutherodactylus planirostris". AmphibiaWeb. 2012. Retrieved 2016-04-09. 
  16. ^   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Salamander". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  17. ^ Channing, A.; Howell, K. (January 2006). Amphibians of East Africa. Comstock Pub. Associates/Cornell University Press. pp. 104–117. ISBN 978-0-8014-4374-9. OCLC 60650905. 
  18. ^ Vitt, L. J.; Caldwell, J. P. (25 March 2013). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press. p. 453. ISBN 978-0-12-386920-3. OCLC 898295183.