Open main menu

List of scientific misconduct incidents

Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in the publication of professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries gave examples of policy definitions. In Denmark, scientific misconduct is defined as "intention[al] or gross negligence leading to fabrication of the scientific message or a false credit or emphasis given to a scientist", and in Sweden as "intention[al] distortion of the research process by fabrication of data, text, hypothesis, or methods from another researcher's manuscript form or publication; or distortion of the research process in other ways."[1][2]

A 2009 systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data found that about 2% of scientists admitted to falsifying, fabricating, or modifying data at least once.[3]

Biomedical sciencesEdit

  • Anna Ahimastos-Lamberti (Australia), a former medical researcher, admitted to fabricating scientific results published in numerous major international medical journals.[4] As a result, two journal articles about a three-year clinical trial involving a medication used to treat hypertension were retracted.[5][6]
  • Bharat Aggarwal (US), a former Ransom Horne, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Cancer Research at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center,[7] resigned his position after fraud was discovered in 65 papers published by him in the area of curcumin as a treatment for cancer.[8] Aggarwal has had 28 of his publications retracted.[9]
  • Elias Alsabti (Iraq, US), was a medical practitioner who posed as a biomedical researcher. He plagiarized as many as 60 papers in the field of cancer research, many with non-existent co-authors.[10][11][12]
  • Piero Anversa (US, Italy) and Annarosa Leri (US, Italy), collaborators and former researchers at Harvard University, were found in a 2014 investigation to have "manipulated and falsified" data in their research on endogenous cardiac stem cells, and to have included "false scientific information" in grant applications; these events resulted in Partners HealthCare and Brigham and Women's Hospital paying a $10 million settlement to the US government, and pausing a clinical trial based on Anversa and Leri's work.[13][14][15] In October 2018, following many failed replications of their work, Harvard University and Brigham and Women's Hospital called for the retraction of 31 publications from the Anversa/Leri research group;[16] as of December 2018, 14 of Anversa and Leri's publications have been retracted.[17] Anversa and Leri lost a lawsuit they brought against Harvard that claimed the 2014 investigation had damaged their reputations.[18]
  • Edward Awh and graduate student David Anderson (US), formerly of the University of Oregon, retracted nine of their publications due to data fabrication.[19][20] This included an action identified by The Scientist (magazine) as a Top 10 Retraction of 2015.[21]
  • Werner Bezwoda (South Africa), formerly of the University of Witwatersrand, admitted to scientific misconduct in trials on high-dose chemotherapy on breast cancer, stating that he had "committed a serious breach of scientific honesty and integrity."[22][23][24]
  • Philippe Bois (US), chief science officer at Algafeed and former postdoctoral fellow in biochemistry at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, was found by the ORI to have falsified an image to conceal unwanted results in a retracted[25] 2005 paper published in Journal of Cell Biology, and intentionally mislabeled gel lanes in a 2005 paper published in Molecular and Cellular Biology.[26][27]
  • Joachim Boldt (Germany), an anesthesiologist formerly based at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, was stripped of his professorship and criminally investigated for forgery in his research studies.[28] Boldt has had 96 of his publications retracted.[29]
  • C. David Bridges (US), a researcher at Purdue University and formerly at Baylor College of Medicine, was found by a NIH investigation panel to have stolen ideas from a rival's manuscript that Bridges had been asked to review, and used that information to produce and publish his own research.[30][31] The investigating panel described Bridges' conduct as "an egregious misconduct of science that undermines the entire concept and practice of scientific experimentation and ethical responsibility,"[32] with NIH later stripping Bridges of his funding.[33]
  • Silvia Bulfone-Paus (Germany, UK), an immunologist at the Research Center Borstel and the University of Manchester, has had 13 of her publications retracted following investigations of alleged scientific misconduct involving image manipulation.[34][35]
  • Ranjit Chandra (Canada), former nutrition researcher at Memorial University of Newfoundland and self-proclaimed "father of nutritional immunology,"[36] was in 2015 stripped of his Order of Canada membership following accusations of scientific wrongdoing in his research.[37] In 2015 Chandra lost a $132 million case against the CBC, which in 2006 presented a documentary in which 10 of Chandra's publications were identified as “fraudulent or highly suspicious;”[38] Chandra was ordered to pay the CBC $1.6 million to cover the defendant's legal fees.[39] At least four of Chandra's publications have been retracted.[40]
  • Ching-Shih Chen (US), the former chair of cancer research at The Ohio State University, was investigated by OSU and the federal Office of Research Integrity after being anonymously reported for falsifying data. The investigation found that he mishandled images and figures in published papers, "intentionally falsified data," and did not keep any laboratory notebooks on his research, a violation of federal research policies.[41][42] Chen has had eight research publications retracted.[43]
  • Carlo M. Croce (US), an oncologist and professor of medicine at Ohio State University, has been the subject of several allegations of scientific misconduct, including data falsification, and related institutional investigations.[44][45][46] Croce has filed lawsuits against critics,[47] including a defamation lawsuit against David Sanders (biologist) of Purdue University[48] and a defamation claim against The New York Times that in 2018 was largely dismissed,[49] and has also sued OSU to reclaim a department chair position from which he was removed.[50] Croce has had nine of his publications retracted and 15 others corrected.[51]
  • John Darsee (US), a cardiologist formerly based at Harvard University, fabricated data in published research articles and more than 100 abstracts and book chapters.[52][53] In 1983 Darsee was disbarred for ten years by the US National Institutes of Health.[54] Darsee has had at least 17 of his publications retracted.[55]
  • Dipak Das (US), former director of the Cardiovascular Research Center at the University of Connecticut Health Center, was found in a University investigation to be guilty of 145 counts of fabrication or falsification of research data.[56] Das has had 20 of his publications retracted.[57]
  • Evan B. Dreyer (US), former Associate Professor of Ophthalmology at Harvard University Medical School, reported falsified and/or fabricated experimental results in manuscripts and grant applications. In 2000 Dreyer was blocked for 10 years from receiving NIH-sponsored research grants.[58][59][60]
  • Richard Eastell (UK), a medical doctor and Professor at the University of Sheffield, was found in a 2009 General Medical Council hearing to be negligent in making "untrue" and "misleading" declarations involving a trial of the osteoporosis drug Actonel.[61] Eastell had in 2006 resigned as director of research at Sheffield National Health Service Trust following allegations of "financial irregularities" connected to his research program.[62][63][64]
  • Masoumeh Ebtekar (Iran), head of the Iranian Department of Environment at Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, substantially plagiarized several previously-published articles in a 2006 paper that was later retracted.[65][66]
  • Terry Elton (US), Professor of Pharmacology at Ohio State University, was found guilty of scientific misconduct by both a University committee and the Office of Research Integrity.[67][68] Elton has had seven of his publications retracted.[69]
  • Yoshitaka Fujii (Japan), an anesthesiologist, was found to have fabricated data in at least 183 scientific papers, setting what is believed to be a record for the number of papers by a single author requiring retractions. A committee reviewing 212 papers published by Fujii over a span of 20 years found that 126 were entirely fabricated, with no scientific work done. Only 3 were found to be valid. He was also found to have forged the signatures of scientists he listed as co-authors without their knowledge.[70][71][72]
  • Alfredo Fusco (Italy), a cancer researcher at the University of Naples, has since 2012 been under criminal investigation for fraud, including manipulation of images in his published studies.[73][74] Fusco has had 21 of his publications retracted.[75]
  • Dong-Pyou Han (US), former assistant professor of biomedical sciences at Iowa State University, added human antibodies to samples of rabbit blood in an effort to falsely enhance the utility of an experimental HIV vaccine.[76][77] In 2015 Han was sentenced to nearly five years in prison and ordered to return $7.2 million to the NIH.[78]
  • Marc Hauser (US), an evolutionary biologist and former Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, was found by a University committee and the US Office of Research Integrity to have fabricated and falsified data in his research.[79][80][81][82]
  • Friedhelm Herrmann and Marion Brach (Germany), formerly of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, admitted to fabricating data in their research on cancer.[83][84] Herrmann has had 21 of his publications retracted.[85]
  • Woo-suk Hwang (Hwang Woo-suk) (South Korea), former Professor of Biotechnology at Seoul National University, was found by a University committee to have committed "deliberate fabrication" in his research on stem cells, and to have coerced female members of his research team to donate their eggs.[86] In 2009 Hwang was found guilty by the Seoul Central District Court of embezzlement and bioethical violations in connection to his research program.[87][88]
  • Sophina ("Sophie") Jamal (Canada), former Professor of Medicine at University of Toronto and former staff Endocrinologist at Women's College Hospital, Toronto, falsified data from studies of nitroglycerin compounds in osteoporosis.[89] Results published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 2011 were retracted by the Journal in 2016.[90] In 2016 Jamal received a lifetime funding ban from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research[91][92] and in 2018, her license to practice medicine was revoked by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario.[93] Jamal has had three of her publications retracted.[94]
  • Santosh Katiyar (US, India), former associate professor at the University of Alabama, Birmingham and the Birmingham VA Medical Center who investigated the effects of "natural products" upon cancer, was in 2017 dismissed from his academic positions following an institutional investigation that found evidence of image manipulation in 20 of his research papers, all of which UAB has called to be retracted.[95][96][97] Katiyar has had 12 of his research papers retracted.[98]
  • Kim Tae-kook (South Korea), formerly of the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, falsified research on modulating cellular proteins with the synthetic compound CGK733.[99][100]
  • Gideon Koren (Canada), former Director of the Motherisk Program at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, published an article without the informed consent of co-author Nancy Olivieri, and sent her anonymous harassing letters.[101][102] A December 2018 article in The Toronto Star reported apparent problems in more than 400 papers coauthored by Koren, including "inadequately peer-reviewed, failed to declare, and perhaps even obscure, conflicts of interest, and, in a handful of cases, contain lies about the methodology."[103] Koren has threatened a defamation lawsuit against the editor of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for retracting one of Koren's papers.[104]
  • Steven A. Leadon (US), former professor of radiation oncology and head of the molecular radiobiology program at the University of North Carolina, falsified and fabricated data in his research on DNA repair.[105][106][107] Leadon has had seven of his research papers retracted.[108]
  • Paolo Macchiarini (Sweden, Italy), a thoracic surgeon and researcher formerly at the Karolinska Institutet, was in 2017 found by an ethics review board to have committed research misconduct, including false claims of clinical success and falsely claiming ethical approval for his surgical interventions, in his work on the surgical implantation of artificial trachea seeded with patients' own stem cells.[109][110][111] The review board recommended that six of Macchiarini's publications be retracted.[112] Macchiarini has had five of his research papers retracted, and two have received an expression of concern.[113]
  • William McBride (Australia), a physician who discovered the teratogenicity of thalidomide, was found by an Australian medical tribunal to have "deliberately published false and misleading scientific reports and altered the results of experiments" on the effects of Debendox/Bendectin on pregnancy.[114][115][116]
  • Alirio Melendez (Singapore), a former immunologist at the National University of Singapore, was found guilty by a University committee of misconduct on an "unprecedented" scale by having fabricated, falsified or plagiarized at least 21 research papers published in international academic journals.[117][118] Melendez has had 14 of his publications retracted.[119]
  • Michael W. Miller (US), former Professor and Chair of Neuroscience at SUNY Upstate Medical University, falsified data in research publications, one manuscript submitted for publication, and four grant applications.[120][121][122] Miller has had three of his research publications retracted.[123][124]
  • Moon Hyung-in (South Korea), former Professor in the Department of Medicinal Biotechnology at Dong-A University (South Korea), used false names and email addresses to "peer review" his own research publications.[125] Moon has had 35 of his research publications retracted.[126]
  • H.M. Krishna Murthy (US), a protein crystallographer and former research associate professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, was found in 2009 by a University committee to be "solely responsible for ... fraudulent data" on protein structures published in nine papers.[127][128] In 2018 the United States Office of Research Integrity placed a 10-year ban on Federal funding for Murthy.[129] As of 2019 ten of Krishna Murthy's publications have been retracted.[130]
  • Haruko Obokata and Yoshiki Sasai of RIKEN (Japan) falsified data in the widely-publicized STAP cell fraud.[131] Obokata has had three research papers retracted,[132] and Sasai has had two papers retracted.[133]
  • Luk Van Parijs (US), former Associate Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) fabricated and falsified data in research papers, unpublished manuscripts, and grant applications. He was convicted in 2011 of making a false statement on a federal grant application.[134] Parijs has had five research publications retracted.[135]
  • Milena Penkowa (Denmark), a neuroscientist and former Professor at the Panum Institute of the University of Copenhagen, was in 2010 convicted of fraud and embezzlement of research funds, and in 2012 was found to have committed "deliberate scientific malpractice."[141][142][143] In 2017 the University of Copenhagen revoked Penkowa's doctoral degree,[144] and as of 2019 she has had seven of her publications retracted.[145]
  • Eric Poehlman (US), a former Professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Vermont, was convicted in 2005 of grant fraud after falsifying data in as many as 17 grant applications between 1992 and 2000. He was the first academic in the United States to be jailed for falsifying data in a grant application.[146][147] Poehlman has had seven of his publications retracted.[148]
  • Anil Potti (US), a former Associate Professor of Medicine at Duke University, engaged in scientific misconduct "by including false research data in ... published papers, [a] submitted manuscript, [a] grant application, and the research record."[149][150] Potti's misconduct resulted in the suspension of three clinical trials based on his research and a lawsuit filed against Duke by patients enrolled in those studies.[151] Potti has had 11 of his publications retracted.[152]
  • Erin Potts-Kant working with pulmonology researcher William Michael Foster at Duke University, had 17 papers retracted because of fraudulent data resulted from work supported through multiple research grants. Potts-Kant had earlier pleaded guilty to embezzling more than $25,000 from Duke University. Ultimately Duke University settled the case with the Federal Government for 112 million dollars. [153], [154]
  • Azza El-Remessy (US), a former Associate Professor of the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy, falsified Western blot data in published manuscripts.[155][156] El-Remessy has had six research papers retracted, three papers corrected, and two papers attached to an expression of concern.[157]
  • Scott Reuben (US), a former Professor of Anesthesiology at Tufts University, falsified and fabricated clinical trials involving painkiller medications.[158][159] Reuben pleaded guilty in 2010 to one count of health care fraud and was sentenced to six months in prison.[160] Reuben has had 25 of his publications retracted.[161]
  • José Román-Gómez (Spain), a leukemia researcher at the University of Córdoba (Spain) who has been described as "a serial image manipulator/misappropriator," altered and misappropriated gel images from the work of others for his own published papers.[162][163][164][165] Román-Gómez has had six of his publications retracted.[166]
  • Steven S. Rosenfeld (US), a former Harvard undergraduate, forged letters of recommendation for himself in the name of David Dressler, whose laboratory he used. His research on transfer factor, on which two articles were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and one article in Annals of Internal Medicine, could not be successfully replicated by other scientists.[167][168]
  • Robert Ryan (UK), formerly of the University of Dundee, was found by a University committee in 2016 to have committed research misconduct in his work on molecular bacteriology.[169] Four of Ryan's publications have been retracted.[170]
  • Fazlul Sarkar (US), a pathologist formerly at Wayne State University, was in 2015 found by a University committee to have "engaged in and permitted (and tacitly encouraged) intentional and knowing fabrication, falsification, and/or plagiarism of data, and its publication in journals, and its use to support his federal grant applications."[171] Sarkar, who in 2015 lost a lawsuit he brought against the University of Mississippi (and other defendants) after a job offer there was rescinded,[172] and who in 2016 lost a defamation lawsuit he brought against anonymous critics of his work,[173] has had 41 of his publications retracted and 12 other papers corrected.[174][175]
  • Yoshihiro Sato (Japan), a researcher in osteoporosis at Mitate Hospital in Tagawa, published more than 200 papers involving 33 clinical trials, of which 30 trials have been retracted (as of August 2018) either by Sato or by the journals.[176] As of 2019 Sato has had 51 publications retracted.[177]
  • Eric J. Smart (US), a former nutrition researcher, associate professor, vice-chairman of the Department of Pediatrics and the Barnstable-Brown Chair in Diabetes Research at the University of Kentucky, was in 2012 found by the US Office of Research Integrity to have committed scientific misconduct over a period of 10 years by falsifying data in 10 published papers and seven grant applications.[178][179][180] Smart has had eight of his publications retracted.[181]
  • Alfred Steinschneider (US), a medical doctor formerly based at Upstate Medical University, in 1972 developed the theory, published in the journal Pediatrics (journal), that SIDS was caused by prolonged Sleep apnea,[182][183] although none of his research or research conducted subsequently by others supported the theory.[184][185][186] The case-study upon which Steinschneider's theory was based was later revealed to involve Infanticide committed by the mother, with Steinschneider allegedly having ignored evidence and reports that the children were being abused.[187][188] In 1997 the editor of Pediatrics (journal), Jerold Lucey, stated that Steinschneider's original paper on the subject was "seriously flawed" and should not have been published.[189]
  • Marc Straus (US), former Chief of Oncology and Associate Professor of Medicine at Boston University Medical Center, in 1982 admitted to "serious deficiencies," including the use of false data, in research studies he supervised. He also admitted to using ineligible patients in his studies, administering drug dosages different from those in his plan, and not assuring compliance with rules of informed consent.[190][191][192]
  • Jon Sudbø (Norway), an oncologist and former Associate Professor at the University of Oslo, was found in a 2006 investigation to have manipulated and fabricated data in grant applications and 15 of his research papers.[193][194][195] Sudbø has had 12 of his publications retracted.[85]
  • Akio Sugino (Japan), a former molecular biologist and professor at Osaka University, was dismissed from the University following an investigation that revealed he fabricated research data in two of his papers.[196][197][198]
  • William Summerlin (US), a dermatologist formerly at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, in 1974 committed scientific misconduct in his work on transplant immunology.[199][200] It was from this case that the phrase "painting the mice" originated as a synonym for research fraud.[201][202]
  • Kazunari Taira (Japan), formerly of the biochemistry and biotechnology department at the University of Tokyo, was found by a University committee to have faked experiments on RNA interference.[203][204][205][206] Taira has had five research papers retracted.[207]
  • Andrew Wakefield (UK), a former practicing physician and senior lecturer at the Royal Free Hospital in London, was found guilty of dishonesty in his research and banned from medicine by the UK General Medical Council following an investigation by Brian Deer of the London Sunday Times.[208] Wakefield's claims of a link between the MMR vaccine, autism and inflammatory bowel disease have been reported in the British Medical Journal as "based not on bad science but on a deliberate fraud,"[209] and the 1998 paper originally presenting his theory was retracted in 2010 by The Lancet.[210][211] Wakefield was unsuccessful in an attempt to sue detractors/critics for libel and defamation.[212][213] Wakefield has had two papers retracted and one corrected.[214]
  • Robert Weinberg (USA), a professor of Biology at MIT, was found to be responsible in five incidents of scientific misconduct involving falsification or fabrication of data. To this day Weinberg has retracted five research papers where he is listed as a co-author. The retractions include one paper in Cell, one in Cancer Cell, two in Genes & Development and one in Cancer Research.[215][216][217] The reasons given for these retractions remain obscure but appear to involve misconduct in the form of data manipulation that renders the published data invalid or false. For example, in the retracted Cell paper of 2009, the authors inform the readership that "original data were compiled from different replicate experiments in order to assemble the presented figure. The scope of the figure preparation issues includes compiling data from independent experiments to present them as one internally controlled experiment, statistical analyses based on technical replicates that are not reflective of the biological replicates, and comparisons of selectively chosen data points from multiple experiments." [218] The only author that all five retracted papers have in common is Weinberg himself. [219]
  • Weishui Y. Weiser (US), a former Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, falsified data supported by two Public Health Service (PHS) grants.[220][221] Weiser has had at least four publications retracted.[222]
  • Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories fabricated research data to the extent that upon FDA analysis of 867 studies, 618 (71%) were deemed invalid, including many of which were used to gain regulatory approval for widely used household and industrial products.[223][224]
  • Researchers at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital retracted a 2012 paper published in Surgery in 2016 after an internal investigation determined that an image used in the paper was fabricated. The investigation was sparked by other scientists who questioned the paper’s claim to have presented the molecular underpinnings of how a form of curcumin could reduce the growth of neuroblastoma.[225] The official retraction stated, "The irregularities in Figure 3E have been investigated by the co-authors and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, and the investigation concluded that the image was fabricated. We therefore retract the publication."[226]

ChemistryEdit

  • Claudio Airoldi (Brazil), former professor at the University of Campinas, and Denis de Jesus Lima Guerra (Brazil), former professor at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, have had 13 of their papers retracted[227] in what was reported as the biggest case of scientific fraud in Brazil.[228]
  • Henk Buck (Netherlands), former professor of Physical Organic Chemistry and Organic Chemistry at the Eindhoven University of Technology, was directly involved in The Buck-Goudsmit controversy, in which a potential method to inhibit HIV-1 replication was ultimately shown to be based on flawed research.[229][230]
  • Juan Carlos Mejuto (Spain) and Gonzalo Astray Dopazo (Spain) of the University of Vigo had two papers retracted in 2011 because "significant portions" of the papers duplicated previously published work.[231][232][233]
  • Leo Paquette (US), an Ohio State University professor, plagiarized sections from an unfunded NIH grant application for use in his own NIH grant application.[234] He also plagiarized a NSF proposal for use in one of his scientific publications.[235][236]
  • H. Zhong, T. Liu, and their colleagues (China) at Jinggangshan University have retracted at least 70 papers published in Acta Crystallographica[237][238] following analyses that revealed the organic structures claimed in these papers to be impossible or implausible; the supporting data appeared to have been taken from valid structures that had then been altered by substituting atoms.[239][240]
  • Guido Zadel (Germany), published an article with the title "Enantioselective Reactions in a Static Magnetic Field" in 1994.[241] His experiments had been manipulated, which led to the retraction of the respective paper and the final loss of his doctoral degree in 2004.[242] The German version of the article is still accessible at Angew. Chem. in 2018 for $59 without any obvious retraction note.[243]
  • Shigehito Isobe (Japan), professor at Hokkaido University, was found to have significant overlap with several publications by the authors in a 2010 paper that was later retracted.[244]

Computer science and mathematicsEdit

  • Ioan Mang (Romania), a computer scientist at the University of Oradea, plagiarized a paper by cryptographer Eli Biham,[245] Dean of the Computer Science Department of Technion, Haifa, Israel. He was accused of extensive plagiarism in at least eight of his academic papers.[246][247][248][249]
  • Dănuț Marcu (Romania), a mathematician and computer scientist, was banned from publishing in several journals due to plagiarism.[250] He had submitted a manuscript for publication that was a word-for-word copy of a published paper written by another author.[251]

PhysicsEdit

Plant biologyEdit

  • Supachai Lorlowhakarn (Thailand), an official at Thailand’s National Innovation Agency (NIA), plagiarized 80% of his PhD thesis concerning asparagus cultivation.[269] Lorlowhakarn was in 2012 found guilty of criminal forgery, had his PhD degree retracted, was fined, and received a six-month suspended jail sentence, but was not dismissed from NIA.[270] The whistleblower (and plagiarized author) in this case, United Nations official Wyn Ellis, was in 2015 detained by Thai immigration officials for four days, apparently due to an official letter from Lorlowhakarn characterizing Ellis as a "danger to Thai society."[271]
  • Olivier Voinnet (France) was suspended in 2015 for two years from the CNRS (the French National Centre for Scientific Research) due to multiple cases of data manipulation.[272][273] In 2016 EMBO recalled the Gold Medal awarded to Voinnet in 2009.[274][275] Voinnet has had eight research publications retracted, four papers attached to an expression of concern, and 24 other papers corrected.[276][277]

Social sciencesEdit

  • Mart Bax (Netherlands), former professor of political anthropology at the Vrije Universiteit, committed multiple acts of scientific misconduct including data fabrication.[278][279][280] Bax, who has had two of his publications retracted, was found in 2013 to have never published 61 of the papers he listed on his CV.[281][282]
  • Jens Förster (Netherlands, Germany), a social psychologist formerly of the University of Amsterdam and the Ruhr-Universität Bochum, fabricated data reported in a number of published papers. An investigating committee in 2015 identified in Förster's work data that were "practically impossible" and displayed "strong evidence for low veracity."[283][284] Förster has had three of his publications retracted,[285][286] and four others have received an expression of concern.[287]
  • Bruno Frey (Switzerland), an economist formerly at the University of Zurich, in 2010-11 committed multiple acts of self-plagiarism in articles about the Titanic disaster. Frey admitted to the self-plagiarism, terming the acts "grave mistake[s]" and "deplorable."[288][289]
  • Michael LaCour (US), former graduate student in political science at UCLA, was the lead author of the 2014 article When contact changes minds. Published in Science and making international headlines, the paper was later retracted because of numerous irregularities in the methodology and falsified data.[290][291][292][293] Following the retraction Princeton University rescinded an assistant professorship that had been offered to LaCour.[294]
  • Karen M. Ruggiero (US), former Assistant Professor of Psychology at Harvard University, fabricated NIH-sponsored research data on gender and discrimination.[295][296][297] Ruggiero has had two research publications retracted.[298]
  • Diederik Stapel (Netherlands), former professor of social psychology at Tilburg University, fabricated data in dozens of studies on human behaviour,[299] a deception described by the New York Times as "an audacious academic fraud."[300] Stapel has had 58 of his publications retracted.[301]
  • Brian Wansink (US), former John S. Dyson Endowed Chair in the Applied Economics and Management Department at Cornell University, was found in 2018 by a University investigatory committee to have "committed academic misconduct in his research and scholarship, including misreporting of research data, problematic statistical techniques, failure to properly document and preserve research results, and inappropriate authorship."[302][303][304] Wansink has had 18 of his research papers retracted (one twice), seven other papers have received an expression of concern, and 15 others have been corrected.[305][306][307]

OtherEdit

  • In 2016 the scientific publisher Springer Nature retracted 58 papers from seven journals, authored mostly by Iran-based researchers, because the papers showed evidence of authorship manipulation, peer-review manipulation, and/or plagiarism.[308][309]
  • Ohio University in 2006 alleged more than three dozen cases of plagiarism in master's degree theses dating back 20 years in its mechanical engineering department.[310] A former faculty member involved in the plagiarism cases, Jay S. Gunasekera, was removed from his position as department chair, had his title of "distinguished professor" rescinded,[311] and in 2011 settled a lawsuit he had brought against the University.[312] Another former faculty member implicated in the plagiarism cases, Bhavin Mehta, in 2012 lost a defamation suit he had brought against the University.[313]
  • 486 Chinese cancer researchers were found guilty of engaging in a fraudulent peer-review scheme by China’s Ministry of Science and Technology. The investigation was initiated after the retraction of 107 papers published in Tumor Biology between 2012 and 2016.[314][315] This is reported to be the most papers retracted from one journal.[316]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nylenna M, Andersen D, Dahlquist G, Sarvas M, Aakvaag A (July 1999). "Handling of scientific dishonesty in the Nordic countries. National Committees on Scientific Dishonesty in the Nordic Countries". Lancet. 354 (9172): 57–61. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07133-5. PMID 10406378.
  2. ^ "Coping with fraud" (PDF). The COPE Report 1999: 11–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2006-09-02. It is 10 years, to the month, since Stephen Lock ...
  3. ^ Fanelli D (May 2009). "How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data". PLOS ONE. 4 (5): e5738. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5738F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005738. PMC 2685008. PMID 19478950.
  4. ^ "High-profile researcher made up scientific results". ABC News. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  5. ^ Phillips, Nicky (17 September 2015). "Blood pressure research by scientist Anna Ahimastos retracted over faked data". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  6. ^ "Australian scientist fabricated data". BBC News. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  7. ^ "MD Anderson's Bharat Aggarwal threatens to sue Retraction Watch". Retraction Watch. 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  8. ^ "M.D. Anderson professor under fraud probe". Chiron. 2012-02-29.
  9. ^ "Cancer journals retract 10 papers, flag 8 more, and apologize for the delay". Retraction Watch. 2018-09-04. Retrieved 2018-09-04.
  10. ^ Broad WJ (June 1980). "Would-be academician pirates papers". Science. 208 (4451): 1438–40. Bibcode:1980Sci...208.1438B. doi:10.1126/science.208.4451.1438. PMID 17796686.
  11. ^ Woolf P (October 1981). "Fraud in science: how much, how serious?". The Hastings Center Report. 11 (5): 9–14. doi:10.2307/3561291. JSTOR 3561291. PMID 7309502.
  12. ^ Miller D (1992). "Plagiarism: The Case of Elias A.K. Alsbati". Research Fraud in the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. p. 80. ISBN 978-0471520689.
  13. ^ "Partners Healthcare and Brigham and Women's Hospital Agree to Pay $10 Million to Resolve Research Fraud Allegations". United States department of Justice. 2017-04-27. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  14. ^ "Harvard teaching hospital to pay $10 million to settle research misconduct allegations". Retraction Watch. 2017-04-27. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
  15. ^ "Heart failure study paused over concerns about disputed cell therapy papers". STAT. 2018-10-29. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
  16. ^ "Harvard Calls for Retraction of Dozens of Studies by Noted Cardiologist". Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  17. ^ "Anversa cardiac stem cell lab earns 13 retractions". Retraction Watch. 2018-12-13. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
  18. ^ "Judge dismisses cardiac stem cell researchers' lawsuit against Harvard". Retraction Watch. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  19. ^ "Feds find UO grad student falsified research data, voiding results of four studies; The Oregonian". oreganlive.com. 2015-07-30. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  20. ^ "Two more retractions bring total to 9 for neuroscience duo; Retraction Watch". retractionwatch.com. 2016-04-19. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  21. ^ "The Top 10 Retractions of 2015; The Scientist". the-scientist.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  22. ^ Weiss RB, Rifkin RM, Stewart FM, Theriault RL, Williams LA, Herman AA, Beveridge RA (March 2000). "High-dose chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer: an on-site review of the Bezwoda study". Lancet. 355 (9208): 999–1003. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)90024-2. PMID 10768448.
  23. ^ Grady, Denise (2000-02-05). "Breast Cancer Researcher Admits Falsifying Data". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  24. ^ Ii, Thomas H. Maugh; Mestel, Rosie (2001-04-27). "Key Breast Cancer Study Was a Fraud". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  25. ^ "Retraction Watch Database". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  26. ^ "St. Jude postdoc faked images: A former postdoctoral researcher at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital fudged images published in two papers, one of which has since been retracted". The Scientist. 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2018-07-10.
  27. ^ Cossins, Dan (2013-04-19). "Settlement Reached in Misconduct Case". The Scientist. The Scientist. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  28. ^ Heidi Blake, Holly Watt and Robert Winnett. "Millions of surgery patients at risk in drug research fraud scandal". The Telegraph, 03 Mar 2011 (retrieved 2011-03-03)
  29. ^ "When you have 94 retractions, what's two more?". Retraction Watch. 2017-03-01. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  30. ^ "NIH Accuses Biologist of Stealing Ideas From Rival Researcher". The Washington Post. 1989-07-13. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  31. ^ Staff, From; Reports, Wire (1989-07-17). "Journal Admits Fraud Fears". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  32. ^ Broad, William J. (1989-07-12). "Question of scientific fakery is raised in inquiry". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2018-04-18.
  33. ^ Zurer, Pamela S (1989-08-07). "NIH panel strips researcher of funding after plagiarism review". Chemical & Engineering News. 67 (32): 24. doi:10.1021/cen-v067n032.p024.
  34. ^ Schiermeier Q (2010). "German research centre widens misconduct probe". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2010.671.
  35. ^ Marcus A (2011-12-13). "Bulfone-Paus retraction count grows to 13 with one in Transplantation". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  36. ^ "Who is Ranjit Kumar Chandra? A timeline of notoriety". 2016-07-26. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  37. ^ "Disgraced researcher Ranjit Chandra stripped of 1989 Order of Canada". Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  38. ^ "Nutrition researcher Chandra loses libel case against CBC". Retraction Watch. 2015-07-31. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  39. ^ "Ranjit Chandra ordered to pay $1.6M to cover CBC's legal fees in libel lawsuit". CBC/Radio Canada. 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  40. ^ "Nutrition researcher loses two more papers after misconduct findings come to light". Retraction Watch. 2016-06-16. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  41. ^ "OSU Professor Falsified Data on Eight Papers, Resigns". The Scientist.
  42. ^ "Ohio State researcher forced to resign after falsifying data in cancer research projects paid for in part by Pelotonia and Stefanie Spielman cancer fund". The Lantern.
  43. ^ "Retraction Watch Database". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  44. ^ Glanz, James; Armendariz, Agustin (2017-03-08). "Years of Ethics Charges, but Star Cancer Researcher Gets a Pass". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  45. ^ "Why The Ohio State University decided to go public about misconduct". American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  46. ^ "Carlo Croce, facing misconduct allegations, accuses former colleague of misconduct". Retraction Watch. 2017-11-09. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  47. ^ "Cancer Researcher Calls NY Times Profile Defamatory". Courthouse News Service. 2017-05-11. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  48. ^ "Croce v. Sanders". PacerMonitor LLC. 2017-04-20. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  49. ^ "Judge Tosses Researcher's Libel Claims Against NY Times". Courthouse News Service. 2018-11-07. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  50. ^ Marcus, Adam (2019-01-10). "OSU cancer researcher who has faced misconduct allegations sues to regain lost department chairmanship". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  51. ^ "Retraction Watch Database". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  52. ^ Stewart WW, Feder N (1987). "The integrity of the scientific literature" (PDF). Nature. 325 (6101): 207–14. Bibcode:1987Natur.325..207S. doi:10.1038/325207a0. PMID 3808019.
  53. ^ Butterfield, Fox; Times, Special To the New York (1981-12-16). "Harvard Suspends Doctor For Fraud". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  54. ^ Broad, William J. (1983-02-16). "U.S. to Penalize Heart Researcher on Fraudulent Project at Harvard". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  55. ^ "Who has the most retractions? Introducing the Retraction Watch leaderboard". Retraction Watch. 2015-06-16. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  56. ^ UConn Investigation Finds That Health Researcher Fabricated Data (The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 11, 2012)
  57. ^ "Late resveratrol researcher Dipak Das up to 20 retractions". Retraction Watch. 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  58. ^ "Findings of Scientific Misconduct". NIH. 2000-11-29. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  59. ^ "Prof accepts penalty for past misconduct". The Daily Pennsylvanian Inc. 2000-11-28. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  60. ^ "RSNA Journals Use Software to Fight Plagiarism". Radiological Society of North America. 2013-03-01. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  61. ^ Phil Baty, "Academic made ‘untrue’ declaration about ‘full access’ to research material, GMC finds", Times Higher Education, 10 November 2009
  62. ^ Jo Revill (2006-01-15). "Doctor in drug research row quits NHS post". London: Observer. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
  63. ^ Phil Baty (2006-01-06). "Drugs trial row scientist resigns". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2009-09-08. did not indicate that initial inquiries uncovered wrongdoing
  64. ^ "Actonel Case Media Reports – Scientific Misconduct Wiki". Thejabberwock.org. 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
  65. ^ "Entry 9866 information | Deja vu > Browse". Spore.swmed.edu. Retrieved 2008-11-18.[permanent dead link]
  66. ^ Butler D (October 2008). "Iranian paper sparks sense of déjà vu". Nature. 455 (7216): 1019. doi:10.1038/4551019a. PMID 18948918.
  67. ^ Dahlberg J. "Findings of Research Misconduct". Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  68. ^ Al-Ruwaishan A (7 January 2013). "Ohio State pharmacy professor tampered with research data, hit with 'severe' federal sanctions". The Lantern. Archived from the original on 2013-01-11. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  69. ^ "7th retraction for Ohio researcher who manipulated dozens of figures". Retraction Watch. 2016-08-24. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  70. ^ Normile D (April 11, 2012). "A New Record for Retractions?". Science.
  71. ^ S. Shafer (2012). "Statement of Concern" (PDF).
  72. ^ "What took more than five years? Elsevier retracts 20 papers by world's most prolific fraudster". Retraction Watch. 2018-05-17. Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  73. ^ "Italian cancer specialist facing criminal investigation for misconduct". Retraction Watch. 2013-10-18. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
  74. ^ Abbott, Alison (2017-05-02). "Researchers frustrated by Italian misconduct probe". Nature. Macmillan Publishers Limited. 545 (7652): 13–14. Bibcode:2017Natur.545...13A. doi:10.1038/545013a. PMID 28470221.
  75. ^ "Alfredo Fusco, facing misconduct charges in Italy, up to 21 retractions". Retraction Watch. 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2018-12-24.
  76. ^ Tony Leys (February 25, 2015). "Ex-isu scientist pleads guilty of AIDS vaccine fraud". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
  77. ^ "Researcher who spiked rabbit blood to fake HIV vaccine results slapped with rare prison sentence". The Washington Post. 2015-07-01. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  78. ^ "AIDS vaccine fraudster sentenced to nearly 5 years in prison and to pay back $7 million". July 2015.
  79. ^ "Harvard Dean Confirms Misconduct in Hauser Investigation". Science. August 20, 2010.
  80. ^ "Marc Hauser's Fall From Grace". The Harvard Crimson. September 14, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  81. ^ Johnson, C., 2012. Former Harvard professor Marc Hauser fabricated, manipulated data, US says Boston Globe [online] September 5 [Accessed September 12, 2012]
  82. ^ Wade, Nicholas (2010-08-20). "Harvard Finds Scientist Guilty of Misconduct". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  83. ^ Jones J (July 2000). "Hospital doctors face rising threat of suspension". BMJ. 321 (7253): 72. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7253.72. PMC 1173372. PMID 10884253.
  84. ^ Bonetta L (March 2006). "The aftermath of scientific fraud". Cell. 124 (5): 873–75. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.032. PMID 16530031.
  85. ^ a b c "The Retraction Watch Leaderboard". Retraction Watch. 2015-06-16. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  86. ^ "The amazing rise, fall, and rise again of Korea's ′king of cloning′". Business Insider Inc. 2015-09-09. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  87. ^ Cyranoski D (October 2009). "Woo Suk Hwang convicted, but not of fraud". Nature. 461 (7268): 1181. doi:10.1038/4611181a. PMID 19865133.
  88. ^ Normile D (October 2009). "Scientific misconduct. Hwang convicted but dodges jail; stem cell research has moved on". Science. 326 (5953): 650–51. doi:10.1126/science.326_650a. PMID 19900902.
  89. ^ "Women's College researcher 'manipulated' study results: hospital president | The Star". thestar.com. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  90. ^ Eastell R, Hamilton CJ, Cummings SR (January 2016). "Notice of Retraction: JAMAl SA, et al. Effect of Nitroglycerin Ointment on Bone Density and Strength in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2011;305(8):800-807". JAMA. 315 (4): 418–19. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.18431. PMID 26719994.
  91. ^ "Disclosures: July 19, 2016 - Dr. Jamal", (July 19, 2016). Panel on Responsible Conduct of Research, Government of Canada. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  92. ^ "Canada funding agency bans researcher for fraud, and in first, reveals her name". Retraction Watch. 2016-04-11. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  93. ^ "Doctor Details | JAMAl, Abida Sophina (CPSO 63935)". College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. Archived from the original on 2018-04-26. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  94. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Jamal". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
  95. ^ Oransky, Ivan (2018-05-24). "Scientist Who Received Millions From NIH Leaves Alabama Posts". The Scientist. The Scientist. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  96. ^ "Memorandum. VA Findings of Research Misconduct – Birmingham VA Medical Center" (PDF). Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. 2017-03-16. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  97. ^ Edgemon, Erin (2018-05-24). "UAB asks for 20 papers by former professor be retracted from medical journals". AL.com. Advance Local Media LLC. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  98. ^ Oransky, Ivan. "Former UAB natural products researcher up to a dozen retractions". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  99. ^ "South Korean Researcher Suspended Over Charges of Scientific Misconduct". American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  100. ^ "Korean researcher fired for fraud". The Scientist. 2008-03-03. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  101. ^ "Koren Reprimanded by Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons". CAUT. September 2003. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  102. ^ "Former head of Motherisk program under investigation by medical regulator". Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. 2017-03-01. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
  103. ^ Mendelson, Rachel; Henry, Michele; Bailey, Andrew (2018-12-21). "Inside the flawed world of medical publishing that allowed a lie in a paper coauthored by Dr. Gideon Koren to pollute the scientific record". The Star. Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  104. ^ Oransky, Ivan (2019-02-19). "Controversial pediatrics researcher has 20-year-old paper retracted for misconduct". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  105. ^ Check E (June 2005). "Retracted papers damage work on DNA repair". Nature. 435 (7045): 1015. Bibcode:2005Natur.435.1015C. doi:10.1038/4351015a. PMID 15973373.
  106. ^ Wallace, Clementine (12 June 2006). "Biologist charged with more fraud: ORI finds Steven Leadon guilty of falsifying additional data; Leadon maintains his innocence". The Scientist.
  107. ^ "Scientist Quits After Claims He Faked Data". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 14 June 2003.
  108. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Steven Leadon". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  109. ^ "Swedish review board finds misconduct by Macchiarini, calls for six retractions". Retraction Watch. 2017-10-30.
  110. ^ "Swedish Ethics Review Board: Macchiarini Is Guilty". The Scientist. 2017-10-30. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  111. ^ Rasko, John; Power, Carl (2017-09-01). "Dr Con Man: the rise and fall of a celebrity scientist who fooled almost everyone". The Guardian. Guardian News And Media Limited. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  112. ^ "Six papers by disgraced surgeon should be retracted, report concludes". American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2017-10-30. Retrieved 2018-04-25.
  113. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Paolo Macchiarini". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  114. ^ Thalidomide hero found guilty of scientific fraud – Article published in "New Scientist" on 27 February 1991 ]
  115. ^ Dr. William McBride Case – Parliament of New South Wales
  116. ^ Jaffer U, Cameron AE (2006). "Deceit and fraud in medical research". International Journal of Surgery. 4 (2): 122–26. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2006.02.004. PMID 17462327.
  117. ^ Yung A, Sharma Y (11 January 2013). "Academic found guilty of fraud on 'unprecedented' scale". University World News (254).
  118. ^ "Scandals in the scientific community". Singapor Press Holdings Ltd. 2016-07-22.
  119. ^ "Melendez notches retraction 14, Lemus now stands at 12". Retraction Watch. 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
  120. ^ "Findings of Research Misconduct: Notice Number: NOT-OD-12-067". Department of Health and Human Services. 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  121. ^ "Former high-ranking scientist at Upstate Medical faked research, federal investigation shows". Advance Media New York. 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  122. ^ "ORI: Former SUNY Upstate neuroscience dept. chair Miller manipulated data in four grant applications". Retraction Watch. 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  123. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Michael W Miller". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  124. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - M W Miller". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
  125. ^ "Fake Peer Reviews, the Latest Form of Scientific Fraud, Fool Journals". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2012-09-30. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  126. ^ "Retraction count grows to 35 for scientist who faked emails to do his own peer review". Retraction Watch. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2018-03-19.
  127. ^ "Ex-UAB researcher's work may be fake". The Birmingham News. 8 December 2009.
  128. ^ Borrell B (December 2009). "Fraud rocks protein community". Nature. 462 (7276): 970. doi:10.1038/462970a. PMID 20033014.
  129. ^ "Infamous case of fraud by protein crystallographer ends in 10-year funding ban". Retraction Watch. 2018-04-10. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  130. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - H.M. Krishna Murthy". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  131. ^ Obokata H, Wakayama T, Sasai Y, Kojima K, Vacanti MP, Niwa H, Yamato M, Vacanti CA (July 2014). "Retraction: Stimulus-triggered fate conversion of somatic cells into pluripotency". Nature. 511 (7507): 112. Bibcode:2014Natur.511Q.112O. doi:10.1038/nature13598. PMID 24990753.
  132. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Haruko Obokata". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  133. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Yoshiki Sasai". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  134. ^ Samuel Reich E (June 2011). "Biologist spared jail for grant fraud". Nature. 474 (7353): 552. doi:10.1038/474552a. PMID 21720338.
  135. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Luk Van Parijs". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  136. ^ Lock S (June 1995). "Lessons from the Pearce affair: handling scientific fraud". BMJ. 310 (6994): 1547–48. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6994.1547. PMC 2549935. PMID 7787632. (registration required)
  137. ^ Dobson R (1998-08-08). "Science: Doctoring the Evidence". Independent. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  138. ^ Dyer O (17 June 1995). "Consultant struck off for fraudulent claims". BMJ. 310 (6994): 1554–1555. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6994.1554a. PMID 7787636.
  139. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Pearce JM". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  140. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Pearce, J Malcolm". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  141. ^ "UniversityPost | Independent university journalism". Universitypost.dk. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
  142. ^ Callaway E (2011). "Fraud investigation rocks Danish university". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.703.
  143. ^ "Controversial neuroscientist faces fresh fraud allegations". Online Post. 2012-08-07. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  144. ^ "Copenhagen revokes degree of controversial neuroscientist Milena Penkowa". Retraction Watch. 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  145. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Penkowa". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  146. ^ Jeneen Interlandi (2006-10-22). "An Unwelcome Discovery". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
  147. ^ "Case Summary - Eric T. Poehlman". US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  148. ^ "12 years after researcher found guilty of misconduct, journal retracts paper". Retraction Watch. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  149. ^ "Findings of Research Misconduct". US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Research Integrity. 2015-11-09. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  150. ^ "Tenth Potti retraction appears, in Clinical Cancer Research | Retraction Watch". Retractionwatch.wordpress.com. 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
  151. ^ Kaiser J (2015-11-09). "Potti found guilty of research misconduct". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  152. ^ "The Anil Potti retraction record so far". Retraction Watch. 2012-02-14. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  153. ^ https://businessnc.com/deceit-at-duke-how-fraud-at-a-university-research-lab-prompted-a-112m-fine/
  154. ^ https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/11/duke-university-settle-case-alleging-researchers-used-fraudulent-data-win-millions
  155. ^ "Case Summary: El-Remessy, Azza". US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  156. ^ "Findings of Research Misconduct, Notice Number: NOT-OD-18-006". National Institutes of Health. 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  157. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Azza B El-Remessy". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  158. ^ "Top Pain Scientist Fabricated Data in Studies, Hospital Says". Wall Street Journal. 11 March 2009.
  159. ^ "A Medical Madoff: Anesthesiologist Faked Data in 21 Studies". Scientific American. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  160. ^ Edwards J (2010-06-25). "Doc Who Faked Pfizer Studies Gets 6 Months in Prison, Showing Why Gift Bans Are a Good Idea". CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  161. ^ "Scott Reuben notches 25th retraction, for a letter to the editor". Retraction Watch. 2015-11-23. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  162. ^ "RETRACTION: Román-Gómez J, Cordeu L, Agirre X, Jiménez-Velasco A, San José-Eneriz E, Garate L, Calasanz MJ, Heiniger A, Torres A, Prosper F. Epigenetic regulation of Wnt-signaling pathway in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2007;109(8):3462-3469". Blood. 120 (17): 3625. 2012-08-16. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-08-450304. PMID 22898606. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
  163. ^ "Roman-Gomez J, Jiminez-Velasco A, Castillejo JA, Agirre X, Barrios M, Navarro G, Molina FJ, Calasanz MJ, Prosper F, Heiniger A, Torres A. Promoter hypermethylation of cancer-related genes: a strong independent prognostic factor in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2004;104:2492-2498". Blood. 113 (10): 2370. 2009-03-05. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-12-196352. PMID 19264925.
  164. ^ "Lifted figure prompts retraction of Oncogene paper by Roman-Gomez". Retraction Watch. 2013-02-08. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  165. ^ "JCO expresses concern over images from Spanish group that had aroused earlier concern". Retraction Watch. 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  166. ^ Wiecek AS (2013-03-05). "Sixth Retraction for Leukemia Researcher". BioTechniques. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  167. ^ Dressler, D; Potter, H (January 1975). "Authors' statement: the existence and nature of "transfer factor/be/". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 72 (1): 409. Bibcode:1975PNAS...72..409D. doi:10.1073/pnas.72.1.409-b. PMC 432317. PMID 1088829.
  168. ^ Dressler, D; Potter, H (February 1975). "Transfer factor: warning on uncertainty of results". Annals of Internal Medicine. 82 (2): 279. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-82-2-279_1. PMID 1115452.
  169. ^ "University of Dundee scientist resigns after research misconduct". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing Ltd. 2017-01-08. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  170. ^ "Caught Our Notice: Former rising star loses fourth paper". Retraction Watch. 2018-03-21. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  171. ^ "Investigation Finds Pathologist Guilty of Systemic Misconduct". The Scientist. 2016-10-09. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  172. ^ McCook, Alison (2016-01-20). "Lawsuit against Ole Miss for rescinded Sarkar job offer dismissed; briefs filed in PubPeer case". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-21.
  173. ^ "PubPeer wins appeal of court ruling to unmask commenters". Retraction Watch. 2016-12-07. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  174. ^ "Researcher who once tried to sue critics has another dozen papers retracted". Retraction Watch. 2018-09-17. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  175. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Sarkar". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-03-21.
  176. ^ Kupferschmidt, Kai (2018). "Tide of lies". Science. 361 (6403): 636–641. Bibcode:2018Sci...361..636K. doi:10.1126/science.361.6403.636. PMID 30115791.
  177. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Yoshihiro Sato". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-02-25.
  178. ^ Linda B. Blackford (2012-11-26). "University of Kentucky researcher accused of falsifying data for a decade". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
  179. ^ "Findings of Research Misconduct". Federal Register. 77 (224). 2012-11-20. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
  180. ^ "ORI sanctions former University of Kentucky nutrition researcher for faking dozens of images in 10 papers". Retraction Watch. 2012-11-20. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  181. ^ "Two more Eric Smart retractions appear". Retraction Watch. 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  182. ^ Steinschneider A (October 1972). "Prolonged apnea and the sudden infant death syndrome: clinical and laboratory observations". Pediatrics. 50 (4): 646–54. PMID 4342142.
  183. ^ Steinschneider A (June 1994). "Erratum? Prolonged apnea and the sudden infant death syndrome: clinical and laboratory observations". Pediatrics. 93 (6): 944.
  184. ^ Hick JF (July 1973). "Sudden infant death syndrome and child abuse". Pediatrics. 52 (1): 147–48. PMID 4724436.
  185. ^ Talan, Jamie; Firstman, Richard (1997). The death of innocents. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0553100136.
  186. ^ Altman L (May 2, 2006). "For Science's Gatekeepers, a Credibility Gap". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-26. Recent disclosures of fraudulent or flawed studies in medical and scientific journals have called into question as never before the merits of their peer-review system. The system is based on journals inviting independent experts to critique submitted manuscripts. The stated aim is to weed out sloppy and bad research, ensuring the integrity of what it has published.
  187. ^ Lucey JF (June 1994). "Woman Confesses in Deaths of Children". Pediatrics. 93 (6): 944.
  188. ^ "How Two Baby Deaths Led to a Misguided SIDS Theory". Los Angeles Times. 1997-10-20. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  189. ^ "Setting The Medical Record Straight". Chicago Tribune. 1997-09-27. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  190. ^ "Dr. Marc J. Straus, a cancer researcher barred from..." UPI. May 21, 1982. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  191. ^ "The Commission's Report". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 1982-05-20. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  192. ^ "Doctor Denies Role in Fraud". New York Times. May 21, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  193. ^ Altman LK (2006-05-02). "For Science's Gatekeepers, a Credibility Gap". The New York Times.
  194. ^ "The Commission's Report" (PDF). Rikshospitalet. 2006-06-30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-20. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  195. ^ "Case Summary: Sudbo, Jon". US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Research Integrity. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  196. ^ Normile D (January 2007). "Scientific misconduct. Japan's universities take action". Science. 315 (5808): 26. doi:10.1126/science.315.5808.26. PMID 17204614.
  197. ^ "Misconduct? It's all academic". Macmillan Publishers Limited. 2007-01-17. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  198. ^ Rovner SL (2007-02-12). "Research Ethics: Experts ponder how best to prevent and respond to scientific misconduct as three Japanese cases conclude". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  199. ^ Lafollette MC (September 2000). "The evolution of the "scientific misconduct" issue: An historical overview". Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 224 (4): 211–15. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1373.2000.22423.x. PMID 10964254.
  200. ^ Brody JE (1974-05-25). "Inquiry at Cancer Center Finds Fraud in Research". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  201. ^ Skin Deep, review of The Patchwork Mouse, Time magazine, March 8, 1976
  202. ^ Weissmann, Gerald (2006-04-01). "Science fraud: From patchwork mouse to patchwork data". The FASEB Journal. 20 (6): 587–590. doi:10.1096/fj.06-0401ufm. PMID 16581962.
  203. ^ Fuyuno I (April 2006). "Further accusations rock Japanese RNA laboratory". Nature. 440 (7085): 720–21. Bibcode:2006Natur.440..720F. doi:10.1038/440720a. PMID 16598217.
  204. ^ Fuyuno I, Cyranoski D (February 2006). "Doubts over biochemist's data expose holes in Japanese fraud laws". Nature. 439 (7076): 514. Bibcode:2006Natur.439..514F. doi:10.1038/439514a. PMID 16452938.
  205. ^ Fuyuno I (2006-01-27). "Scientist faces irreproducible results". News@nature. doi:10.1038/news060123-14. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  206. ^ "Professor faked enzyme test todai panel". The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times Ltd. 2006-01-28. Retrieved 2018-03-29.
  207. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Kazunari Taira". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  208. ^ "Dr. Andrew Jeremy Wakefield: Determination on Serious Professional Misconduct (SPM) and Sanction" (PDF). General Medical Council. 24 May 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  209. ^ Godlee, F. (2011-01-06). "The fraud behind the MMR scare". BMJ. 342: d22. doi:10.1136/bmj.d22. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  210. ^ Wakefield, AJ; Murch, SH; Anthony, A.; Linnell, J.; Casson, DM; Malik, M.; Berelowitz, M.; Dhillon, AP; Thomson, MA; Harvey, P.; Valentine, A.; Davies, SE; Walker-Smith, JA (2010-02-02). "RETRACTED: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children". The Lancet. 351 (9103): 637–641. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)11096-0. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  211. ^ Dyer, C. (2010-02-02). "Lancet retracts Wakefield's MMR paper". BMJ. 340: c696. doi:10.1136/bmj.c696. PMID 20124366. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  212. ^ "Wakefield Libel Suit Rejected". MedPage Today LLC. 2012-08-06. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  213. ^ Dyer, C. (2012-08-06). "Texas judge throws out Wakefield's libel action against BMJ". BMJ. 345: e5328. doi:10.1136/bmj.e5328. PMID 22867918. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  214. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Andrew Wakefield". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  215. ^ "Papers from MIT Cancer Biologist's Laboratory Retracted". Archived from the original on July 29, 2015.
  216. ^ "Three Retractions for Highly Cited Author". Archived from the original on May 23, 2015.
  217. ^ "Cancer Research retraction is fifth for Robert Weinberg, fourth for his former student". Archived from the original on September 10, 2015.
  218. ^ "Retraction of Cell paper by Robert Weinberg". Archived from the original on April 24, 2015.
  219. ^ "Papers from MIT Cancer Biologist's Laboratory Retracted". Archived from the original on July 29, 2015.
  220. ^ "Nih Guide: Findings Of Scientific Misconduct". Grants.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
  221. ^ Pravda DM. "NIH Cites Two Researchers For Misconduct | The Harvard Crimson". Thecrimson.com. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
  222. ^ "ORI findings lead to two retractions — nearly 17 years later". Retraction Watch. 2012-09-10. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  223. ^ Cook, Janine Denis. "Good Laboratory Practice versus CLIA". University of Maryland, Baltimore. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
  224. ^ Schneider K (1983-05-11). "IBT Labs' trial reveals faked data". In These Times. pp. 3, 6. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
  225. ^ "St. Jude investigation finds faked data in brain tumor paper". Retraction Watch. 2015-11-09. Retrieved 2018-07-10.
  226. ^ Orr, Wayne S.; Denbo, Jason W.; Saab, Karim R.; Myers, Adrianne L.; Ng, Catherine Y.; Zhou, Junfang; Morton, Christopher L.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Davidoff, Andrew M. (February 2016). "Retraction notice to "Liposome-encapsulated curcumin suppresses neuroblastoma growth through nuclear factor-κB inhibition"". Surgery. 159 (2): 674. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2015.10.026. PMC 4880022. PMID 27144251.
  227. ^ "Researcher in Brazil earns 12th retraction for recycling text and figures". Retraction Watch. 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  228. ^ "Autor da maior fraude científica do Brasil é exonerado da UFMT".
  229. ^ Moody HM, Quaedflieg PJ, Koole LH, van Genderen MH, Buck HM, Smit L, Jurriaans S, Geelen JL, Goudsmit J (October 1990). "Inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by phosphate-methylated DNA: retraction". Science. 250 (4977): 125–26. Bibcode:1990Sci...250..125M. doi:10.1126/science.2218505. PMID 2218505.
  230. ^ Moody HM, Quaedflieg PJ, Koole LH, van Genderen MH, Buck HM, Smit L, Jurriaans S, Geelen JL, Goudsmit J (October 1990). "Inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by phosphate-methylated DNA: retraction" (PDF). Science. 250 (4977): 125–6. Bibcode:1990Sci...250..125M. doi:10.1126/science.2218505. PMID 2218505.
  231. ^ Rivera, Alicia (May 20, 2011). "Ciencia china 'duplicada' en Galicia". El País.Ingendaay, Paul (June 15, 2011). "War die Guttenberg-Affäre denn zu gar nichts gut?". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.
  232. ^ Astray, G; Cid, A; Moldes, O; Ferreiro-Lage, J. A; GáLvez, J. F; Mejuto, J. C (2010-02-09). "Addition/Correction: Prediction of Refractive Index of Polymers Using Artificial Neural Networks". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 56 (3): 688. doi:10.1021/je200071p.Astray, G; Cid, A; Ferreiro-Lage, J. A; GáLvez, J. F; Mejuto, J. C; Nieto-Faza, O (2010-02-09). "Addition/Correction: Prediction of Prop-2-enoate Polymer and Styrene Polymer Glass Transition Using Artificial Neural Networks". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 56 (3): 689. doi:10.1021/je200072e.
  233. ^ "Something rotten in the state of Spain, say whistleblowers". Times Higher Education. 2018-08-09. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  234. ^ Office of Research Integrity (June 25, 1993), "Final Findings of Scientific Misconduct", Nih Guide, DHHS, 22 (23), retrieved October 3, 2016
  235. ^ Zurer P (March 9, 1998). "NSF, Paquette Settle Misconduct Case". Chemical & Engineering News. 76 (10): 25–26. doi:10.1021/cen-v076n010.p025.
  236. ^ Gerstner, Ruth (August 9, 1993), Scientific Misconduct Charge Ruled Valid, Ohio State University, retrieved October 3, 2016
  237. ^ Zhong H, Duan SH, Hong YP, Li ML, Liu YQ, Luo CJ, Luo QY, Xiao SZ, Xie HL, Xu YP, Yang XM, Zeng XR, Zhong QY (December 2009). "Retraction of articles by H. Zhong et al". Acta Crystallographica Section E. 66 (Pt 1): e11–2. doi:10.1107/S1600536809049964. PMC 2980006. PMID 21579903.
  238. ^ Liu, T.; Wang, Y.-X.; Wang, Z.-W.; Xie, Z.-P.; Zhu, J. Y. (2010-01-01). "Retraction of articles by T. Liu et al". Acta Crystallographica Section E. 66 (Pt 1): e13–e14. doi:10.1107/S1600536809049976. PMC 2980240. PMID 21579904. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  239. ^ Harrison WT, Simpson J, Weil M (December 2009). "Editorial". Acta Crystallographica Section E. 66 (Pt 1): e1–2. doi:10.1107/S1600536809051757. PMC 2980207. PMID 21579902.
  240. ^ Doreen Walton (8 January 2010). "Lancet urges China to tackle scientific fraud". BBC.
  241. ^ Zadel, Guido; Eisenbraun, Catia; Wolff, Gerd-Joachim; Breitmaier, Eberhard (3 March 1994). "Enantioselective Reactions in a Static Magnetic Field". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 33 (4): 454–456. doi:10.1002/anie.199404541.
  242. ^ "Bonner Chemiker verliert Doktortitel". idw-online.de (in German).
  243. ^ Zadel, Guido; Eisenbraun, Catja; Wolff, Gerd-Joachim; Breitmaier, Eberhard (18 February 1994). "Enantioselektive Reaktionen im statischen Magnetfeld". Angewandte Chemie. 106 (4): 460–463. doi:10.1002/ange.19941060417.
  244. ^ Isobe, Shigehito; Ono, Akifumi; Yao, Hao; Wang, Yongming; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei (2017-06-27). "Retraction: "Study on reaction mechanism of dehydrogenation of magnesium hydride by in situ transmission electron microscopy" [Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 223109 (2010)]". Applied Physics Letters. 110 (26): 269901. Bibcode:2017ApPhL.110z9901I. doi:10.1063/1.4990395.
  245. ^ "Plagiarism". Cs.technion.ac.il. 2012-05-10. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
  246. ^ Abbott A (August 2012). "Romanian scientists fight plagiarism". Nature. 488 (7411): 264–65. Bibcode:2012Natur.488..264A. doi:10.1038/488264a. PMID 22895311.
  247. ^ Attitudes towards plagiarism Archived 2013-07-28 at the Wayback Machine ScienceIn
  248. ^ Romanian Prime Minister Accused of Plagiarism Live Science
  249. ^ Romanian Education and Research Minister Accused of Plagiarism Archived 2012-06-25 at the Wayback Machine iThenticate
  250. ^ Shahabuddin, Syed (2009), "Plagiarism in Academia" (PDF), International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 21 (3): 353–59. This paper quotes Boussou, Martello & Plastria (2006) concerning Marcu, including the quote from an unnamed "well-known mathematician" that "Marcu is a notorious plagiarist".
  251. ^ Karl Strambach and Ferdinand D. Veldkamp, "Editorial statement", Geometriae Dedicata 32 (1989), p. 253; see also Zbl 0701.51004 and MR1038400.
  252. ^ University of Tsukuba (2007-11-27). "Investigation Report on the Suspected Scientific Misconduct" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-05.Hiroshi Mizubayashi (2009). "University of Tsukuba defends professor's dismissal". Physics Today. 62 (2): 12–14. Bibcode:2009PhT....62b..12M. doi:10.1063/1.3086082.
  253. ^ Cyranoski D (March 2012). "Japan fails to settle University dispute". Nature. 483 (7389): 259. Bibcode:2012Natur.483..259C. doi:10.1038/483259a. PMID 22422240.
  254. ^ Cyranoski D (February 2011). "Faculty members in conflict with president of Japanese university". Nature. 470 (7335): 446–47. Bibcode:2011Natur.470..446C. doi:10.1038/470446a. PMID 21350457.
  255. ^ "A record made to be broken". Nature. 496 (7443): 5. 2013. doi:10.1038/496005a.
  256. ^ Oransky, Ivan (2019-04-05). "Former university president up to ten retractions". Retraction Watch. Center for Scientific Integrity. Retrieved 2019-04-19.
  257. ^ At Lawrence Berkeley, Physicists Say a Colleague Took Them for a Ride George Johnson, The New York Times, 15 October 2002
  258. ^ "Elements 116 and 118 Were a Sham". American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2002-07-15. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  259. ^ "Scandal Rocks Scientific Community". Deutsche Welle. 30 September 2002.
  260. ^ "Report of the Investigation Committee on the Possibility of Scientific Misconduct in the Work of Hendrik Schön And coauthors" (PDF). Lucent Technologies. September 2002. Retrieved 2018-04-12.
  261. ^ Nadler, B; Naeh, T; Schuss, Z (2001). "The Stationary Arrival Process of Independent Diffusers from a Continuum to an Absorbing Boundary is Poissonian". SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics. 62 (2): 433. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.60.9538. doi:10.1137/S0036139900372363.
  262. ^ A. Spivak (2008). "The Steady State Absorption Stream at an Absorbing Boundary". International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 44: 327–33.
  263. ^ A. Spivak (2008). "The Probabilistic Characterization of the Arrival Process of Particles into an Absorbing Boundary". International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. 48: 73–79.
  264. ^ Tali Heruti-Sover (2014-09-03). "Lies of Educators". Haaretz.
  265. ^ Ferguson, Cat (2014-10-07). "Blatant plagiarism sinks paper (and earns a sabbatical!) for mathematician". Retraction Watch.
  266. ^ A. Spivak (2014). "Successive approximations for optimal control in some nonlinear systems with small parameter (RETRACTED Article)". Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Analysis. pp. 256–59. ISBN 978-9608475229.
  267. ^ Katsnelson, Alla (2015-06-23). "Duplication of "a major part of text and results" adds up to third retraction for mathematician". Retraction Watch.
  268. ^ Purdue physicist found guilty of misconduct, Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2008, Thomas H. Maugh II
  269. ^ "Plagiarism controversy raises questions over academic integrity". www.universityworldnews.com. Retrieved 2017-12-03.
  270. ^ "Plagiarism scandal continues after forgery verdict". www.universityworldnews.com. Retrieved 2017-12-03.
  271. ^ "Whistleblower released after being held for 4 days in Bangkok airport". Retraction Watch. 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  272. ^ Press release. "Completion of the procedure against Olivier Voinnet". cnrs.fr.
  273. ^ "PubMed search; Voinnet and retractions".
  274. ^ "EMBO takes back Voinnet's award, investigates other awardee who just lost a Nature Genetics paper". retractionwatch.com. 2016-01-28. Archived from the original on 2016-03-15.
  275. ^ "Funding Ban for Plant Biologist". the-scientist.com.
  276. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Olivier Voinnet". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  277. ^ "Caught Our Notice: Voinnet co-author issues another correction". Retraction Watch. 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
  278. ^ "Commissie-Baud onderzoekt beschuldiging wetenschapsfraude"[permanent dead link]. VU nieuws, April 29, 2013.
  279. ^ Michiel Baud, Susan Legêne, and Peter Pels (September 9, 2013). "Draaien om de werkelijkheid: Rapport over het antropologisch werk van prof. em. M.M.G. Bax" Archived 2013-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  280. ^ "College van Bestuur VU onderschrijft conclusies onderzoekscommissie Baud". VU nieuws, September 23, 2013.
  281. ^ "Second retraction appears for Mart Bax". Retraction Watch. 2014-12-29. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  282. ^ "Dutch anthropologist Mart Bax faked 61 papers, says university". Retraction Watch. 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  283. ^ Van Kolfschooten, Frank (2015). "Social psychologist relinquishes chair after data manipulation charges". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aab2519.
  284. ^ Van Kolfschooten, Frank (2015). "Report further incriminates social psychologist Jens Förster". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aac6776.
  285. ^ "Journal adds concern notice to paper by psychologist Jens Förster". Retraction Watch. 2017-09-29. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  286. ^ "University requests 4th retraction for psychologist under fire". Retraction Watch. 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  287. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Jens Forster". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  288. ^ Shea, Christopher (13 July 2011). "Economist Slammed for 'Concurrent Publications'". The Wall Street Journal.
  289. ^ "Correspondence". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 25 (3): 239. 2011. doi:10.1257/jep.25.3.239.
  290. ^ Broockman, David, Kalla, Joshua, and Aronow, Peter (19 May 2015). "Irregularities in LaCour (2014)" (PDF). Retrieved 30 May 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  291. ^ ""If you think it's rude to ask to look at your co-authors' data, you're not doing science": Guest post". 2015-06-18.
  292. ^ Carey, Benedict (28 May 2015). "Journal Retracts Study on Changing Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage". New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  293. ^ Bohannon, John (2015). "Science retracts gay marriage paper without agreement of lead author La Cour". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aac4659.
  294. ^ "U. revokes hire offer after allegations of publishing falsified data". The Daily Princetonian. 2015-07-29. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  295. ^ "Nih Guide: Findings Of Scientific Misconduct". United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2001-12-13. Retrieved 2009-09-08. Notice: NOT-OD-02-020
  296. ^ Bridget Murray (February 2002). "Research fraud needn't happen at all". Monitor on Psychology. 33 (2). Retrieved 2009-09-08.
  297. ^ "\Jacobson, Jennifer. "A Psychology Professor Resigns Amid Accusations of Research Fraud at". Albany.edu. 2001-08-10. Retrieved 2013-03-01.
  298. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Karen Ruggiero". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  299. ^ Gretchen Vogel (31 October 2011). "Dutch 'Lord of the Data' Forged Dozens of Studies". Science. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  300. ^ The Mind of a Con Man: Diederik Stapel, a Dutch social psychologist, perpetrated an audacious academic fraud by making up studies that told the world what it wanted to hear about human nature., NY Times, published April 26, 2013.
  301. ^ "Diederik Stapel now has 58 retractions". Retraction Watch. 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  302. ^ "Cornell finds that food marketing researcher Brian Wansink committed misconduct, as he announces retirement". Retraction Watch. 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  303. ^ "A Prominent Researcher on Eating Habits Resigned After a Scandal Over His Studies". Time Inc. 2018-09-21. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  304. ^ "This Ivy League food scientist was a media darling. He just submitted his resignation, the school says". The Washington Post. 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  305. ^ "JAMA journals retract six papers by food marketing researcher Brian Wansink". Retraction Watch. 2018-09-19. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  306. ^ Oransky, Author Ivan (2018-12-05). "The Joy of Cooking, vindicated: Journal retracts two more Brian Wansink papers". Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  307. ^ "Retraction Watch Database - Brian Wansink". Retraction Watch. Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
  308. ^ Callaway, Ewen (2016). "Publisher pulls 58 articles by Iranian scientists over authorship manipulation". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.20916.
  309. ^ "Springer, BMC retracting nearly 60 papers for fake reviews and other issues". Retraction Watch. 2016-11-01. Retrieved 2018-04-13.
  310. ^ Leingang, Matt (2006-08-21). "Ohio College Stung by Plagiarism Charges". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  311. ^ "'Distinguished' No Longer". Inside Higher Ed. 2008-02-22. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  312. ^ "Ohio University professor Jay Gunasekera settles lawsuit over his role in plagiarism scandal". Academic Jobs. 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  313. ^ "Mehta v. Ohio Univ., 2012 Ohio 3677". CourtListener. 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  314. ^ "Peer-Review Fraud Scheme Uncovered in China". The Scientist.
  315. ^ "Nearly 500 researchers guilty of misconduct, says Chinese gov't investigation". Retraction Watch. 31 July 2017.
  316. ^ "A new record: Major publisher retracting more than 100 studies from cancer journal over fake peer reviews". Retraction Watch. 20 April 2017.