List of princes of Wallachia

(Redirected from List of rulers of Wallachia)

This is a list of princes of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1859, which led to the creation of Romania.

Notes edit

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family. On principle, princes were chosen from any family branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons, being defined as os de domn, "of Voivode marrow", or as having heregie, "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence. The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans; between 1821 and 1878 (the date of Romania's independence), various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Wallachian rulers, like the Moldavian rulers, bore the titles of Voivode ("duke") or/and Hospodar ("lord, master"); when writing in Romanian, the term Domn (from the Latin dominus) was used.

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

List edit

Early rulers edit

House of Basarab edit

From the early 15th-century the family was divided in two main branches:

  Dănești branch
  Drăculești branch
Ruler Portrait Years Marriage Notes
Radu Negru   c. 1290 – 1310 Unknown Radu Negru is legendary voivode of Wallachia; some historians consider it to be just a nickname of Thocomerius or Basarab I.
Basarab I the Founder
(Basarab I Întemeietorul)
  c. 1310 – 1352 Margareta
two children
Son of Thocomerius; first non-legendary ruler of Wallachia.
Nicolae Alexandru   1352 – 16 November 1364 Maria Lackfy
five children

Clara Dobokai
two children

Margareta Dabkai
no children
Son of Basarab I; he was already co-ruling with his father since 1344.
Vladislav I
Vlaicu-Vodă
  16 November 1364 – 1377 unknown son of Nicolae Alexandru
Radu I   1377 – 1383 Anna
one child

Kalinikia
c.1354 or 1355
two children
Son of Nicolae Alexandru.
Dan I 1383 – 1386 Maria of Serbia
one child
Son of Radu I. After his death, his descendants formed the Danesti family.
Mircea I the Elder
(Mircea I cel Bătrân)
  23 September 1386 – November 1394

January 1397 – 31 January 1418
Maria Tolmay
six children

Anca
no children
Son of Radu I. Wallachia reached one of its peaks. He was deposed by a usurper, Vlad, in 1394, but was restored in 1397.
Vlad I the Usurper
(Vlad I Uzurpatorul)
November 1394 – January 1397 Unknown Second son of Dan I, usurped the throne.
Mihail I   31 January 1418 – August 1420 unknown
two children
Son of Mircea I, co-ruled with his father since 1415.
Radu II the Bald
(Radu II Praznaglava)
  August 1420 – October 1422[1]

December 1426 – March/June 1427
unknown War of succession in Wallachia, which opposed Radu II, brother of Mihail I, to the Danesti pretender Dan II (son of Dan I and member of the Order of the Dragon), where both had brief periods of power in succession.
Dan II the Brave
(Dan II cel Viteaz)
  October 1422 - December 1426

March/June 1427 - 1 June 1431
unknown
five children
Alexandru I Aldea 1 June 1431 – December 1436 unknown Son of Mircea I, ousted Dan II of the throne.
Vlad II the Dragon
(Vlad II Dracul)
  December 1436 – 1442

1443 – 7 December 1447
Unknown
one child

Cneajna of Moldavia
three children
Illegitimate son of Mircea cel Bătrân; member of the Order of the Dragon (thus Dracul); While in negotiations outside Wallachia with the Ottoman Empire, his son Mircea was named prince. He returned to the throne in 1443, winning against John Hunyadi, and deposing also Basarab II. He was assassinated in 1447. His descendants, from his sobriquet, founded the Draculesti family.
Mircea II the Younger
(Mircea al II-lea cel Tânăr)
September – December 1442
Unmarried Son of Vlad II Dracul, sometimes not counted; he ruled while his father was absent, on his way to pay the tribute to the Ottoman Empire; Deposed by John Hunyadi. Returned in 1446, co-ruling with his father. He was blinded and buried alive by Hunyadi in 1447.
Basarab II 1442–1443 Maria (Dobra)
two children
Son of Dan II; Placed in the throne by John Hunyadi, in war with Vlad II.
Vladislav II   7 December 1447 – 20 August 1456 Neacşa
one child
Son of Dan II; supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; The way he came to the throne is debatable, but the most accepted is that he killed Vlad II, and was then replaced in the throne by Hunyadi. Returned in 1448, after deposing Vlad the Impaler, and ruled again until his death in a combat hand-to-hand against Vlad III, who retook the throne
Vlad III the Impaler
(Vlad Țepeș)
  20 August 1456 – July 1462

June 1475 - January 1477
Unknown
one child

Justina Szilágyi
Between 1475 and 1476
no children
Son of Vlad II Dracul, invaded briefly Wallachia in 1448 (October–November) while Vladislav II was away. His real rulership would begin after killing Vladislav II in battle. Vlad III was at war against the Ottomans.
Radu III the Fair
(Radu cel Frumos)
  August 1462 – November 1473

23 December 1473 – March 1474

March - bet. June/September 1474

October 1474 – January 1475
Maria
one child
Son of Vlad II Dracul; from 1473 in war with Basarab III.
Basarab III Laiotă the Old
(Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân)
  November - 23 December 1473

March 1474

bet.June/September - October 1474

January -June 1475

January–December 1477
Unmarried Son of Dan II; In war against Radu III.
Basarab IV The Young Impaler
(Basarab IV Țepeluș cel Tânăr)
December 1477 – September 1481

November 1481 – 23 March 1482
Maria
one child
Son of Basarab II. His first reign was briefly contested by:
  • Mircea (II), an illegitimate son of Vlad II Dracul, supported by Stephen III of Moldavia from July to November 1480.
Vlad IV the Monk
(Vlad Călugărul)
  September - November 1481

23 March 1482 – November 1495
Rada Smaranda
Before 1460
four children

Maria Palaiologina
1487
one child
Son of Vlad II.
Radu IV the Great
(Radu cel Mare)
  November 1495 – 23 April 1508 Catherine of Zeta
1494
four children
Son of Vlad IV.
Mihnea I the Bad
(Mihnea cel Rău)
  23 April 1508 – 29 October 1509 Smaranda
no children

Voica
three children
Son of Vlad III. Abdicated to his son. Died 1510.
Mircea III the Dragon
(Mircea III Dracul)
  29 October 1509 – 26 January 1510 Maria of Serbia
1519
two children
Son of Mihnea I.
Vlad V the Younger
(Vlad cel Tânăr)
8 April 1510 – 23 January 1512 Anca of Zeta
Before 1508
one child
Son of Vlad IV; also known as Vlăduț
Neagoe Basarab   23 January 1512 – 15 September 1521 Milica of Serbia
1505
six children
Possibly son of Pârvu Craiovescu (Craiovești family) or Basarab IV; The most accepted theory is that he claimed the throne as a son of Basarab IV, being in fact son of Pârvu. It's possible that the matter arose from the fact that Neagoe's mother was a mistress of Basarab IV. Cultural zenith in Wallachia.
Regency of Milica of Serbia (15 September - December 1521) Under regency of his mother. His rule was briefly challenged by:
  • (Vlad) Dragomir the Monk, possible son of Vlad the Younger who contested the throne in September-October of 1521.

Teodosie was defeated in 1521, fled with his mother, and died in exile the following year.

Teodosie   15 September - December 1521 Unmarried
Radu V of Afumati
(Radu de la Afumati)
  December 1521 – April 1523

19 January - June 1524

September 1524 – April 1525

August 1525 – 2 April 1529
Voica of Bucsani
three children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
After 1525
no children
Son of Radu IV; allied with the Craiovești.
Vladislav III April - 8 November 1523

June - September 1524

19 April - August 1525
Unknown Nephew of Vladislav II.
Radu VI Bădica November 1523 – 19 January 1524 Unknown Illegitimate son of Radu IV.
Basarab VI 6 January - 5 February 1529 Unknown Non-dynastic; Son of Mehmed-bey.
Moise   January 1529 – June 1530 Unknown Son of Vladislav III. Last of the Dănești. Deposed, died 29 August of that same year.
Vlad VI the Drowned
(Vlad Înecatul)
  June 1530 – September 1532 Anna of Moldavia
1531
no children
Son of Vlad V.
Vlad VII Vintilă de la Slatina   September 1532 – 10 June 1535 Zamfira
one child

Rada
one child
Illegitimate son of Radu IV.
Radu VII Paisie   10 June 1535 – 1545 Stana
three children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
c.1541
three children
Son of Radu IV. Had to face some very brief boyar usurpations or mere attacks to his sovereignty:
Mircea IV the Shepherd
(Mircea Ciobanul)
  January 1545 – 16 November 1552

11 May 1553 – 28 February 1554

24 December 1557 – 25 September 1559
Chiajna of Moldavia
June 1546
seven children
Son of Radu IV.
Radu VIII Ilie the Cowherd
(Radu Ilie Haidăul)
16 November 1552 – 11 May 1553 Unknown Son of Radu V. Deposed; died 1558.
Pătrașcu the Good
(Pătrașcu cel Bun)
  28 February 1554 – 24 December 1557 Voica of Slatioare
four children
Son of Radu VII.
Regency of Chiajna of Moldavia (25 September 1559 - 1564) Son of Mircea IV. Deposed and died in exile in the following year.
Petru I the Younger
(Petru cel Tânăr)
  25 September 1559 – 8 June 1568 Jelena Crepovic of Transylvania
22 August 1563
one child
Alexandru II Mircea   8 June 1568 – 11 September 1577 Catherine Salvaresso
1558
Pera
one child
Son of Mircea III Dracul; popularly called Oaie Seacă (Barren Sheep). His rule was briefly challenged by:
  • Vintilă, a son of Pătrașcu, usurped/contested the throne between March and June of 1574.
Regency of Catherine Salvaresso (11 September 1577 - July 1583) Initially under regency of his mother, both were deposed by the usurper Petru Cercel. Mihnea paid for the assassination of his usurper, returned and ruled alone. In 1591, he was deposed and died in exile in Constantinople, in 1601.
Mihnea II the Turk
(Mihnea Turcitul; Mehmet Bey)
  11 September 1577 - July 1583

6 April 1585 – 19 May 1591
Neaga de Cislau
June 1582
three children
Petru II of the Earring
(Petru Cercel)
  July 1583 – 6 April 1585 Unmarried Son of Pătrașcu; deposed Mihnea II, but ended up assassinated by his order.

House of Basarab, with interventions of Bogdan-Muşat and Movilești dynasties edit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Ștefan I Surdul
(Stephen the Deaf)
1591–1592 Bogdan-Muşat
Alexandru III cel Rău
(Alexander III the Bad)
1592–1593 Bogdan-Muşat also ruled Moldavia (1592)
Mihail II Viteazul
(Michael II the Brave)
  1593–1600 Drăculești according to some, the illegitimate son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun; also ruled Transylvania (1599–1600) and Moldavia (1600), briefly bringing the three principalities under a personal union.
Nicolae Pătrașcu   1599–1600 Drăculești Son of Michael II, co-ruled with his father since 1599.
Simion Movilă   1600–1601

1602
Movilești
Radu IX Mihnea   1601–1602

1611

1611–1616

1620–1623
Drăculești son of Minhea II Turcitul
Radu X Șerban   1602–1610

1611
Nephew of Neagoe Basarab. 1st rule
Transylvanian occupation: direct rule of Gabriel Báthory (1611)
Gabriel Movilă 1616

1618-1620
Movilești son of Simion Movilă
Alexandru IV Iliaș 1616–1618

1627-1629
Alexandru V Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
  1623–1627 Drăculești son of Radu Mihnea
Leon Tomșa   1629–1632
Radu XI Iliaș 1632
Matei Basarab   1632–1654 Brâncovenești
Constantin I Șerban   1654–1658 illegitimate son of Radu Șerban
Mihnea III   1658–1659

Pre-Phanariote period edit

The Ottoman influence in the Wallachian rulers' election grows from the mid-17th century onward. From 1659, the rulers elected are mostly scions of Greek families, and increasingly less linked to the original Wallachian ruling family. The process reached its peak with the called Phanariote period (1715-1859), where, between the rulers, there was already no connection (or a very distant one) with the dynasty of Basarab.

Various dynasties edit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Gheorghe Ghica   1659–1660 Ghica
Grigore Ghica I   1660–1664

1672–1673
Ghica
Radu Leon   1664–1669
Antonie Vodă din Popeşti 1669–1672
Gheorghe Ducas   1673–1678
Șerban Cantacuzino   1678–1688 Cantacuzene
Constantin Brâncoveanu   1688–1714 Brâncovenești
Ștefan Cantacuzino 1714–1715 Cantacuzene

Phanariotes (1715–1821) edit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Nicolae Mavrocordat   1715–1716

1719-1730
Mavrocordato
Habsburg occupation (1716)
Ioan Mavrocordat   1716–1719 Mavrocordato
Constantin Mavrocordat   1730

1731–1733

1735–1741

1744–1748

1756–1758

1761–1763
Mavrocordato
Mihai Racoviță   1730–1731

1741–1744
Racoviță 1st rule
Grigore II Ghica   1733–1735

1748–1752
Ghica
Matei Ghica   1752–1753 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 1753–1756

1763–1764
Scarlat Ghica   1758–1761

1765–1766
Ghica
Ștefan Racoviță 1764–1765 Racoviță
Alexandru I Ghica 1766–1768 Ghica
Russian occupation (1768)
Grigore III Ghica   1768–1769 Ghica
Russian occupation (1769-1770)
Emanuel Giani Ruset   1770–1771 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Alexander Ypsilantis   1774–1782 Ypsilanti 1st rule
Nicolae Caragea 1782–1783 Caradja
Mihai Suțu   1783–1786

1790–1793

1801-1802
Soutzos
Nicolae Mavrogheni   1786–1789
Habsburg occupation (1789-1790)
Military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Alexandru Moruzi   1793–1796

1799–1801
Mourousi
Alexander Ypsilantis   1796–1797 Ypsilanti 2nd rule
Constantin Hangerli   1797–1799
Alexandru Suțu   1802 Soutzos
Constantin Ypsilanti   1802–1806 Ypsilanti
Russian occupation (1806-1812)
Ioan Gheorghe Caragea   1812–1818 Caradja
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncovenu
1818 assisted by Vornic Barbu Văcărescu, Vistier Grigore Ghica and Logofăt Samurcaș
Alexandru Suțu   1818–1821 Soutzos
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncoveanu
1821
Tudor Vladimirescu   1821 leader of the anti-Phanariote uprising
Scarlat Callimachi   1821 Callimachi

Post-Phanariote period edit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Grigore IV Ghica   1822–1828 Ghica
Russian occupation (1828-1834)
Military commanders:
Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Alexandru II Ghica   1834–1842 Ghica
Gheorghe Bibescu   1842–1848 Craiovești / Brâncovenești / Știrbei / Bibescu
Provisional Government 1848 Metropolitan Neofit II, assisted by Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Ștefan Golescu, Gheorghe Magheru, Gheorghe Scurti
Locotenența domnească
(Regency of three)
1848 Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Nicolae Golescu
Joint Russian and Ottoman occupation (1848-1851)
Military commanders: Omar Pasha and Alexander von Lüders
Caimacam
Constantin Cantacuzino
  1848
Barbu Știrbei   1848–1853

1854–1856
Știrbei
Russian (1853-1854), Ottoman (1854) and Austrian occupations (1854-1856)
military commander: Johann Coronini-Cronberg (1854–56)
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Caimacam
Alexandru II Ghica
  1856–1858
Caimacam of three 1858–1859 Ioan Manu, Emanoil Băleanu, Ioan A. Filipescu
Alexander John Cuza   1859–1862 also ruled Moldavia in personal union as the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Formal union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1862 as the Romanian United Principalities.
A new constitution came into effect in 1866 giving the country the official name Romania.

For later rulers, see Domnitor and King of Romania.

See also edit

Bibliography edit

  • Constantin Rezachevici (2001). Cronologia critică a domnilor din Țara Românească și Moldova: a. 1324-1881. Editura Enciclopedică. ISBN 9734503863.
  • Treptow, Kurt W. (2000). Vlad III Dracula: The Life and Times of the Historical Dracula. The Center of Romanian Studies. ISBN 973-98392-2-3.

References edit

  1. ^ Constantin Rezachevici - "Critical chronology of the lords of Wallachia and Moldova a. 1324 - 1881", Volume I, Enciclopedic Publishing House, 2001, p. 86

External links edit