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List of rulers of Wallachia

This is a list of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.

NotesEdit

Dynastic rule is hard to ascribe, given the loose traditional definition of the ruling family (on principle, princes were chosen from any family branch, including a previous ruler's bastard sons, being defined as os de domn, "of Voivode marrow", or as having heregie, "heredity" (from the Latin hereditas); the institutions charged with the election, dominated by the boyars, had fluctuating degrees of influence). The system itself was challenged by usurpers, and became obsolete with the Phanariote epoch, when rulers were appointed by the Ottoman Sultans; between 1821 and 1878 (the date of Romania's independence), various systems combining election and appointment were put in practice. Wallachian rulers, like the Moldavian rulers, bore the titles of Voivode ("duke") or/and Hospodar ("lord, master"); when writing in Romanian, the term Domn (from the Latin dominus) was used.

Most rulers did not use the form of the name they are cited with, and several used more than one form of their own name; in some cases, the ruler was only mentioned in foreign sources. The full names are either modern versions or ones based on mentions in various chronicles.

ListEdit

House of BasarabEdit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Marriage Notes
Radu Negru   c. 1290 – 1310 Unknown Radu Negru is legendary voivode of Wallachia; some historians consider it to be just a nickname of Thocomerius or Basarab I.
Basarab I the Founder
(Basarab Întemeietorul)
  c. 1310 – 1352 Basarab Margareta
two children
son of Thocomerius; first non-legendary ruler of Wallachia.
Nicolae Alexandru   1352–1364 Basarab Maria Lackfy
five children

Clara Dobokai
two children

Margareta Dabkai
no children
son of Basarab I
Vladislav I
Vlaicu-Vodă
  c. 1364 – 1377 Basarab unknown son of Nicolae Alexandru
Radu I   c. 1377 – 1383 Basarab Anna
one child

Kalinikia
c.1354 or 1355
two children
son of Nicolae Alexandru
Dan I c. 1383 – 1386 Dănești Maria of Serbia
one child
son of Radu I
Mircea I the Elder
(Mircea I cel Bătrân)
  1386–1394

1397–1418
Basarab Maria Tolmay
six children

Anca
no children
Son of Radu I. Wallachia reached one of its peaks. Was deposed by a usurper, Vlad.
Vlad I the Usurper
(Vlad I Uzurpatorul)
1394–1397 Dănești Unknown son of Dan I (or simply a wallachian boyar), usurped the throne
Mircea I the Elder (again)
Mihail I   1418–1420 Basarab unknown
two children
Son of Mircea cel Bătrân, co-ruled with his father since 1415.
Radu II the Bald
(Radu II Praznaglava)
  1420–1422[1]

1426–1427[2]
Basarab unknown Son of Mircea cel Bătrân
Dan II   1422–1426

1427–1431
Dănești unknown
five children
Son of Dan I, member of the Order of the Dragon
Alexandru I Aldea 1431–1436 Basarab unknown son of Mircea cel Bătrân
Vlad II the Dragon
(Vlad II Dracul)
  1436–1442

1443–1447
Drăculești unknown
one child

Cneajna of Moldavia
three children
illegitimate son of Mircea cel Bătrân; member of the Order of the Dragon (thus Dracul); While in negotiations outside Wallachia with the Ottoman Empire, his son Mircea was named prince. He returned to the throne in 1443, winning against John Hunyadi, and deposing also Basarab II. He was assassinated in 1447.
Mircea II the Younger
(Mircea al II-lea cel Tânăr)
1442

1446–1447
Drăculești Unmarried son of Vlad II Dracul, sometimes not counted; he ruled while his father was absent, on his way to pay the tribute to the Ottoman Empire; Deposed by John Hunyadi. Returned in 1446, co-ruling with his father. He was blinded and buried alive by Hunyadi in 1447.
Basarab II 1442–1443 Dănești Maria (Dobra)
two children
son of Dan II; Placed in the throne by John Hunyadi, in war with Vlad II.
Vladislav II   1447–1448

1448–1456
Dănești Neacşa
one child
son of Dan II; supported by John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary; The way he came to the throne is debatable, but the most accepted is that he killed Vlad II, and was then replaced in the throne by Hunyadi. Returned in 1448, after deposing Vlad the Impaler, and ruled again until his death in a combat hand-to-hand against Vlad III, who retook the throne
Vlad III the Impaler
(Vlad al III-lea Țepeș)
  1448

1456–1462

1476
Drăculești Justina Szilágyi
Between 1475 and 1476
son of Vlad II Dracul, invaded Wallachia while Vladislav was away, in battle against the Ottomans; Deposed in the next year by Hunyadi. Returned in 1456, after killing Vladislav II in battle. Deposed again in 1462.
Radu III the Fair
(Radu cel Frumos)
  1462–1473

1473–1474

1474

1474–1475
Drăculești Maria
one child
son of Vlad II Dracul; From 1473 in war with Basarab III.
Basarab III Laiotă the Old
(Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân)
  1473

1474

1474

1475–1476

1476–1477
Dănești Unmarried son of Dan II; In war against Radu III;1st rule
Basarab IV The Younger, The Little Impaler
(Basarab IV Țepeluș cel Tânăr)
1477–1481

1481–1482
Dănești Maria
one child
son of Basarab II
Mircea (III) 1481 Drăculești Unmarried illegitimate son of Vlad II Dracul
Vlad IV the Monk
(Vlad Călugărul)
  1481

1482–1495
Drăculești Rada Smaranda
Before 1460
four children

Maria Palaiologina
1487
one child
son of Vlad II Dracul
Radu IV the Great
(Radu cel Mare)
  1495–1508 Drăculești Catherine of Zeta
six children
son of Vlad Călugărul
Mihnea I the Bad
(Mihnea cel Rău)
  1508–1509 Drăculești Smaranda
no children

Voica
three children
son of Vlad III Țepeș
Mircea III (IV) Miloș 1509–1510 Drăculești Maria of Serbia
1519
two children
son of Mihnea cel Rău
Vlad V the Younger
(Vlad cel Tânăr)
1510–1512 Drăculești Anca of Zeta
Before 1508
one child
son of Vlad Călugărul; also known as Vlăduț
Neagoe Basarab V   1512–1521 Craiovești Milica of Serbia
1505
six children
possibly son of Pârvu Craiovescu or Basarab IV; The most accepted theory is that he claimed the throne as a son of Basarab IV, being in fact son of Pârvu. Cultural zenith in Wallachia.
Milica of Serbia (Regent)   1521–1522 Branković/ Craiovești Neagoe Basarab V
1505
six children
Regent in behalf of her son
Teodosie   Craiovești unmarried under regency of his mother Milica Despina
Radu V   1522–1523

1524

1524–1525

1525–1529
Drăculești Voica of Bucsani
three children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
After 1525
no children
illegitimate son of Radu cel Mare; allied with Craiovești
Vladislav III 1523

1524

1525
Dănești Unknown nephew of Vladislav II
Radu VI Bădica 1523–1524 Drăculești Unknown son of Radu IV the Great.
Basarab VI 1529 Unknown Non-dynastic; Son of Mehmed-bey
Moise   1529–1530 Dănești Unknown son of Vladislav III. Last of the Dănești.
Vlad VI the Drowned
(Vlad Înecatul)
1530–1532 Drăculești Anna of Moldavia
1531
no children
son of Vlad cel Tânăr
Vlad VII Vintilă de la Slatina   1532–1535 Drăculești Zamfira
one child

Rada
one child
son of Radu cel Mare
Radu VII Paisie   1535–1545 Drăculești Stana
three children

Ruxandra of Wallachia
c.1541
three children
son of Vlad Vintilă de la Slatina
Mircea IV (V) the Shepherd
(Mircea Ciobanul)
  1545–1552

1553–1554

1558–1559
Drăculești Chiajna of Moldavia
June 1546
seven children
son of Radu IV.
Radu VIII Ilie the Cowherd
(Radu Ilie Haidăul)
1552–1553 Drăculești Unknown son of Radu de la Afumați
Pătrașcu the Good
(Pătrașcu cel Bun)
  1554–1558 Drăculești Voica of Slatioare
four children
son of Radu Paisie
Chiajna of Moldavia (regent) 1559–1564 Drăculești Mircea IV (V)
June 1546
seven children
Regent on behalf of her son.
Petru I the Younger
(Petru cel Tânăr)
  1564–1568 Drăculești Jelena Crepovic of Transylvania
22 August 1563
one child
son of Mircea Ciobanul
Alexandru II Mircea   1568–1574

1574–1577
Drăculești Catherine Salvaresso
1558
Pera
one child
Son of Mircea III Dracul; popularly called Oaie Seacă (Barren Sheep); in 1574 was expelled by Vintilă, but returned in that same year to the throne.
Vintilă 1574 Drăculești Unknown son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun
Catherine Salvaresso (regent)   1577–1583 Salvaresso/Drăculești Alexandru II Mircea
1558
Pera
one child
Regent on behalf of her son, Mihnea II. Deposed by Peter II.
Petru II of the Earring
(Petru Cercel)
  1583–1585 Drăculești Unmarried son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun
Mihnea II the Turk (Mihnea Turcitul)   1585–1591 Drăculești Neaga de Cislau
June 1582
three children
Paid for the assassination of his usurper. Returned and ruled alone.

House of Bogdan-MuşatEdit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Ștefan I Surdul
(Stephen the Deaf)
1591–1592
Alexandru III cel Rău
(Alexander III the Mean)
1592–1593 also ruled Moldavia (1592)

Houses of Basarab and MovilăEdit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Mihail II Viteazul
(Michael II the Brave)
  1593–1600 Drăculești illegitimate son of Petru Pătrașcu cel Bun; also ruled Transylvania (1599–1600) and Moldavia (1600), briefly uniting the three principalities.
Nicolae Pătrașcu   1599–1600 Drăculești Son of Michael II, co-ruled with his father since 1599.
Simion Movilă   1600–1601

1602
Movilești
Radu IX Mihnea   1601–1602

1611

1611–1616
Drăculești son of Minhea II Turcitul; 1st rule
Radu X Șerban   1602–1610

1611
Nephew of Neagoe Basarab V. 1st rule
Transylvanian occupation: direct rule of Gabriel Báthory (1611)
Gabriel Movilă 1616 Movilești son of Simion Movilă; 1st rule

Various dynastiesEdit

Ruler Portrait Years Family Notes
Alexandru IV Iliaș 1616–1618 1st rule
Gabriel II Movilă 1618–1620 Movilești 2nd rule
Radu IX Mihnea   1620–1623 Drăculești 4th rule
Alexandru V Coconul
(Alexander the Child-Prince)
  1623–1627 Drăculești son of Radu Mihnea
Alexandru IV Iliaș 1627–1629 2nd rule
Leon Tomșa   1629–1632
Radu XI Iliaș 1632
Matei Basarab   1632–1654 Brâncovenești
Constantin I Șerban   1654–1658 illegitimate son of Radu Șerban
Mihnea III   1658–1659
Gheorghe I Ghica   1659–1660 Ghica
Grigore I Ghica   1660–1664 Ghica 1st rule
Radu XII Leon   1664–1669
Antonie Vodă din Popeşti 1669–1672
Grigore I Ghica   1672–1673 Ghica 2nd rule
Gheorghe II Ducas   1673–1678
Șerban Cantacuzino   1678–1688 Cantacuzene
Constantin II Brâncoveanu   1688–1714 Brâncovenești
Ștefan II Cantacuzino   1714–1715 Cantacuzene
Phanariote rule (1715–1821)
Nicolae Mavrocordat   1715–1716 Mavrocordato 1st rule
- Habsburg occupation 1716
Ioan Mavrocordat   1716–1719 Mavrocordato
Nicolae Mavrocordat   1719–1730 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat   1730 Mavrocordato 1st rule
Mihai Racoviță   1730–1731 Racoviță 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat   1731–1733 Mavrocordato 2nd rule
Grigore II Ghica   1733–1735 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat   1735–1741 Mavrocordato 3rd rule
Mihai Racoviță   1741–1744 Racoviță 2nd rule
Constantin Mavrocordat   1744–1748 Mavrocordato 4th rule
Grigore II Ghica   1748–1752 Ghica 2nd rule
Matei Ghica   1752–1753 Ghica
Constantin Racoviță 1753–1756 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat   1756–1758 5th rule
Scarlat Ghica   1758–1761 Ghica 1st rule
Constantin Mavrocordat   1761–1763 6th rule
Constantin Racoviță 1763–1764 Racoviță 2nd rule
Ștefan Racoviță 1764–1765 Racoviță
Scarlat Ghica   1765–1766 Ghica 2nd rule
Alexandru I Ghica 1766–1768 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1768
Grigore III Ghica   1768–1769 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1769–1770
Emanuel Giani Ruset   1770–1771 Rosetti also called Manole or Manolache
Alexander Ypsilantis   1774–1782 Ypsilanti 1st rule
Nicolae Caragea 1782–1783 Caradja
Mihai Suțu   1783–1786 Soutzos 1st rule
Nicolae Mavrogheni   1786–1789
- Habsburg occupation 1789–1790 military commander: Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg
Mihai Suțu   1791–1793 Soutzos 2nd rule
Alexandru Moruzi   1793–1796 Mourousi 1st rule
Alexander Ypsilantis   1796–1797 Ypsilanti 2nd rule
Constantin Hangerli   1797–1799
Alexandru Moruzi   1799–1801 Mourousi 2nd rule
Mihai Suțu   1801–1802 Soutzos 3rd rule
Alexandru Suțu   1802 Soutzos
Constantin Ypsilanti   1802–1806 Ypsilanti
- Russian occupation 1806–1812
Ioan Gheorghe Caragea   1812–1818 Caradja
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncovenu
1818 assisted by Vornic Barbu Văcărescu, Vistier Grigore Ghica and Logofăt Samurcaș
Alexandru Suțu   1818–1821 Soutzos
Caimacam
Grigore Brâncoveanu
1821
Tudor Vladimirescu   1821 leader of the anti-Phanariote uprising
Scarlat Callimachi   1821 Callimachi
Grigore IV Ghica   1822–1828 Ghica
- Russian occupation 1828–1834 military commanders: Fyodor Pahlen, Pyotr Zheltukhin, and Pavel Kiseleff
Organic Statute government (1832–1856)
Alexandru II Ghica   1834–1842 Ghica
Gheorghe Bibescu   1842–1848 Craiovești / Brâncovenești / Știrbei / Bibescu
Provisional Government 1848 Metropolitan Neofit II, assisted by Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Ștefan Golescu, Gheorghe Magheru, Gheorghe Scurti
Locotenența domnească
(Regency of three)
1848 Christian Tell, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Nicolae Golescu
Joint Ottoman and Russian occupation 1848–1851 military commanders: Omar Pasha and Alexander von Lüders
Caimacam
Constantin Cantacuzino
  1848
Barbu Știrbei   1848–1853 Știrbei 1st rule
Russian occupation 1853–1854
Ottoman occupation 1854
Austrian occupation 1854–1856 military commander: Johann Coronini-Cronberg
Barbu Știrbei   1854–1856 Știrbei 2nd rule
Protectorate established by the Treaty of Paris (1856–1859)
Caimacam
Alexandru II Ghica
  1856–1858
Caimacam of three 1858–1859 Ioan Manu, Emanoil Băleanu, Ioan A. Filipescu
Alexander John Cuza   1859–1862 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia since 1862.
Alexander John Cuza   1862–1866 also ruled Moldavia in personal union
Carol I   1866–1881 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen A new constitution came into effect in 1866 giving the country the official name Romania, and on 14 March (O.S.) (26 March) 1881, it became the Kingdom of Romania.

For later rulers, see Kings of Romania.

ReferencesEdit