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List of rulers of Milan

The following is a list of rulers of Milan from the 13th century to 1814, after which it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia by the Congress of Vienna.

Dukedom of Milan
Heraldik Herzog Krone (Deutsches Kaiserreich und HRR).svg
Arms of the House of Sforza.svg
Arms of Francesco I Sforza.
Quarly: 1st and 4th, Or a eagle stand Sable, wearing a crown; 2nd and 3rd, Argent a serpent ripple Azure, wearing a crown, eating a moor Gules.
Creation date5 September 1395
MonarchWenceslaus IV, King of the Romans
PeerageImperial nobility
First holderGian Galeazzo Visconti
Last holderFrancis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Present holderNone
Extinction date9 June 1815
Seat(s)Sforza Castle

Contents

Before dukedomEdit

Until 1259, Milan was a free commune that elected its own podestà. The Torriani family gained sustained power in 1240, when Pagano Della Torre was elected podestà.[1] After Pagano's death, Baldo Ghiringhelli was elected podestà in 1259, but at the end of his tenure Martino della Torre, Pagano's nephew, perpetrated a coup d'état, seizing of power of his family over the commune, establishing the first Signoria (Italian for "Lordship") of Milan.[2]

Signore Rule Affiliation Podestà(s)
Martino della Torre 8 September 1259 20 November 1263 Guelph Captain general:

Filippo della Torre 20 November 1263 24 December 1265 Guelph
Napoleone della Torre 24 December 1265 21 January 1277 Guelph

During their tenure, the Torriani family, aligned with French Charles of Anjou, started a strong rivality with Visconti family, loyal to the German Hohenstaufen.[3] In 1262, Pope Urban IV appointed Ottone Visconti as Archbishop of Milan, for Martino della Torre's disappointment.[4] In 1273, a civil war started between the two families, ended with Torriani's defeat in the Battle of Desio of 1277.[5]

Signore Rule Affiliation Podestà(s)
Ottone Visconti 21 January 1277 8 August 1295 Ghibelline Captain general:
Matteo I Visconti 8 August 1295 June 1302 Ghibelline

On June 1302, Guido della Torre forged a coalition with anti-Visconti cities and marched on Milan, deposing Visconti.[6] However, in 1308 Guido started a quarrel with his cousin, the Archbishop Cassone della Torre. After an assoult to Milan Cathedral, Cassone fled to Bologna and solicited and imperial intervention.[7] Taking advandage of chaotic situation in Northern Italy, Henry VII, King of the Romans descended into Italy with an army, and on fall 1310 he marched on Milan to restore both Cassone and the Visconti. After the fall of Milan, he was crowned King of Italy in city Cathedral.[8]

Signore Rule Affiliation Podestà(s)
Guido della Torre June 1302 6 January 1311 Guelph
Matteo I Visconti 6 January 1311 24 June 1322 Ghibelline
Galeazzo I Visconti 24 June 1322 6 August 1328 Ghibelline
Azzone Visconti 6 August 1328 16 August 1339 Ghibelline
Luchino Visconti 16 August 1339 24 January 1349 Ghibelline
Giovanni Visconti 5 October 1354
Matteo II Visconti 5 October 1354 29 September 1355 Ghibelline
Galeazzo II Visconti 4 August 1378
Bernabò Visconti 6 May 1385
Gian Galeazzo Visconti 6 May 1385 5 September 1395 Ghibelline

Since dukedomEdit

House of ViscontiEdit

In 1395, Gian Galeazzo Visconti was titled Duke of Milan by Wenceslaus IV, King of the Romans,[9] who sold the title under the payment of circa 100,000 florins.[10] Since that moment, all the following rulers of Milan were styled as dukes.

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Gian Galeazzo
1347–1402
(aged 50)
    5 September 1395

3 September 1402
(1) Isabella of France
(m. 1360; d. 1372)
4 children
(2 survived to adulthood)

(2) Caterina Visconti
(m. 1380; w. 1402)
2 children
2 illegitimate children
Giovanni Maria
1388–1412
(aged 23)
    3 September 1402

16 May 1412
Antonia Malatesta of Cesena
(m. 1408; w. 1412)
Childless
Son of Gian Galeazzo Visconti
(legal blood proximacy)
Filippo Maria
1392–1447
(aged 54)
    16 May 1412

13 August 1447
(1) Beatrice of Tenda
(m. 1412; ex. 1418)
Childless

(2) Mary of Savoy
(m. 1428; w. 1447)
Childless
1 illegitimate children
Son of Gian Galeazzo Visconti
(legal blood proximacy)

House of Sforza (1st rule)Edit

After the death of Filippo Maria in 1447, the main line of Visconti go exctincted. Benefit by political chaos, a cabal of wealthy citizens, academics and clerics declared the Duchy dissolved and proclaimed the oligarchical Golden Ambrosian Republic.[11] The republic was never recognized and the neighbor states of Venice and Savoy tried to expanded their fiefdoms in Lombardy, as well France. Taking advantage by state weakness and Guelph-Ghibelline resurgent conflinct, the commander-in-chief of Milan forces, Francesco I Sforza, defected Milan for Venice in 1448,[12] and 2 years later, after several side switchs and cunning strategies, Sforza entered in city during Annunciation. He was then declared the new Duke of Milan,[13] using as claim his marriage with Bianca Maria Visconti, illegitimate daughter of Filippo Maria.

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Francesco I
1401–1466
(aged 64)
    25 March 1450

8 March 1466
(1) Polissena Ruffo
(m. 1418; d. 1420)
Childless

(2) A Jacopo Caldora's daughter
(m. 1424; ann. 142?)
Childess

(3) Bianca Maria Visconti
(m. 1441; w. 1466)
8 children
Giovanna d'Acquapendente
7 illegitimate children
(5 survived to adulthood)
Galeazzo Maria
1444–1476
(aged 32)
    8 March 1466

26 December 1476
Bona of Savoy
(m. 1468; w. 1503)
4 children
Lucrezia Landriani
4 illegitimate children

Lucia Marliani
2 illegitimate children
Son of Francesco I Sforza
(primogeniture)
Gian Galeazzo
1469–1494
(aged 25)
    26 December 1476

21 October 1494
Isabella of Aragon
(m. 1489; w. 1494)
3 children
Son of Galeazzo Maria
(primogeniture)
Ludovico
1450–1508
(aged 55)
    21 October 1494

17 September 1499
Beatrice d'Este
(m. 1491; d. 1499)
2 children
Bernardina de Corradis
2 legitimized children

Cecilia Gallerani
1 legitimized children

Lucrezia Crivelli
2 legitimized children
Son of Francesco I Sforza
(blood proximacy)

House of Valois (1st rule)Edit

In 1494, Ludovico Sforza usurped the throne of Milan, after probably poisoning his nephew Gian Galeazzo. After Venetian's threats, Ludovico solicited French king Charles VIII to descended into Italy,[14] starting the First Italian War. After Ludovico's betryal and alliance with League of Venice in 1495, French were defeated in the Battle of Fornovo and unabled to expand in Italy. Charles VIII's top general and cousin, Louis II, Duke of Orléans (future Louis XII), was humiliated and due to his personal hate toward Ludovico Sforza,[15] started to claim the Duchy of Milan for himself, quoting his paternal discendance from Valentina Visconti and Gian Galeazzo's last will. After Louis XII's accension to the French Throne in 1499, he started the Second Italian War to conquer Milan and Naples. With French armies near Pavia, Ludovico and his loyalists left Milan on 17 September 1499 to flee toward Germany.[16] This left Louis XII as only Duke of Milan, entering in city on 6 October 1499.[17]

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Louis I
(Luigi I)

1462–1515
(aged 52)
    6 October 1499

20 June 1512
(1) Joan of France
(m. 1476; ann. 1498)
Childless

(2) Anne of Brittany
(m. 1499; d. 1414)
Childess

(3) Mary of England
(m. 1414; w. 1415)
Childless

House of Sforza (2nd rule)Edit

Ludovico Sforza was captured on February 1500,[18] dying in hard prison in 1508. His son Massimiliano became the Sforza claimant to the Milanese Throne, finally re-gained on January 1513, six months after the Swiss army entrance in Milan.

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Massimiliano
1493–1530
(aged 37)
    9 January 1513

5 October 1515
Does not appear Never married Son of Ludovico Sforza
(primogeniture)

House of Valois (2nd rule)Edit

After the their defeat in the Battle of Marignano in 1515, Swiss retired from Milan and Massimiliano was imprisoned by the returning French troops. He waived his rights to Milan for the sum of 30,000 ducats and continued to live in France.[19]

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Francis II
(Francesco II)

1494–1547
(aged 52)
    11 October 1515

20 November 1521
(1) Claude of France
(m. 1514; d. 1524)
7 children

(2) Eleanor of Austria
(m. 1530; w. 1547)
Childless
  • Son-in-law of king Louis XII
    (jure uxoris claim)

House of Sforza (3rd rule)Edit

By November 1521, the French situation had deteriorated considerably. Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII of England, and the Pope Leo X signed an alliance against Francis on 28 November.[20] Odet de Foix, Viscount of Lautrec, the French governor of Milan, was tasked with resisting the Imperial and Papal forces; he was outmatched by Prospero Colonna, however, and by late November had been forced out of Milan and had retreated to a ring of towns around the Adda River.[21] For the third time and last time, Sforza were restored to power.

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Francesco II
1495–1535
(aged 40)
    4 April 1522

24 October 1535
Christina of Denmark
(m. 1534; w. 1535)
Childless
Son of Ludovico Sforza
(blood proximacy)

House of Habsburg-SpainEdit

In 1535, after the death of Francesco II Sforza, Emperor Charles V annexed the Duchy to his fiefdoms, to avoid other claims by French or collateral branches of Sforza. In 1540, the Duchy was restored as gift to Charles V's son Philip, Prince of Asturias (later Philip II of Spain), making Milan a personal union with Spanish Crown.

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Philip I
(Filippo I)

1527–1598
(aged 71)
    11 October 1540

13 September 1598
(1) Maria Manuela of Portugal
(m. 1543; d. 1545)
1 children

(2) Queen Mary I of England
(m. 1554; d. 1558)
Childess

(3) Elisabeth of Valois
(m. 1559; d. 1568)
2 children

(4) Anna of Austria
(m. 1570; d. 1580)
5 children
(3 survived to adulthood)
Title given by Emperor Charles V
Philip II
(Filippo II)

1578–1621
(aged 42)
    13 September 1598

31 March 1621
Margaret of Austria
(m. 1599; d. 1611)
8 children
(5 survived to adulthood)
Son of Philip I
(blood proximacy)
Philip III
(Filippo III)

1605–1665
(aged 60)
    31 March 1621

17 September 1665
(1) Elisabeth of France
(m. 1615; d. 1644)
8 children
(2 survived to adulthood)

(2) Mariana of Austria
(m. 1649; w. 1665)
5 children
(2 survived to adulthood)
María Calderón
1 legitimized children
Son of Philip II
(primogeniture)
Charles I
(Carlo I)

1661–1700
(aged 38)
    17 September 1665

1 November 1700
(1) Marie Louise d’Orléans
(m. 1679; d. 1689)
Childless

(2) Maria Anna of Neuburg
(m. 1690; w. 1700)
Childless
Son of Philip III
(blood proximacy)

House of Bourbon-AnjouEdit

In September 1700, Charles became ill; by 28 September he was no longer able to eat and Portocarrero persuaded him to alter his Will in favour of Louis XIV's grandson, Philip of Anjou.[22] When Charles died on 1 November 1700, the throne was offered to Philip, who was proclaimed King of Spain on 16 November 1700. This was accepted by Britain and the Dutch Republic among others but disputes over division of territories and commercial rights led to the War of the Spanish Succession in 1701.[23]

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Philip IV
(Filippo IV)

1683–1746
(aged 62)
    1 November 1700

7 March 1714
(1) Maria Luisa of Savoy
(m. 1701; d. 1714)
4 children
(2 survived to adulthood)

(2) Elisabeth Farnese
(m. 1714; w. 1746)
6 children
Heir-general of Charles I
(See Charles I's last will)

House of Habsburg-Austria (then Habsburg-Lorraine)Edit

After the Treaty of Rastatt of 1714, Emperor Charles VI officially gained the Duchy of Milan, a possession considered vital to the security of Austria's southern border.[24] Since that moment, Milan was a permanent possession of Austrian branch of Habsburg Monarchy.

Duke Arms Tenure Marriage(s)
Issue
Succession right(s)
Charles II
(Carlo II)

1685–1740
(aged 55)
    7 March 1714

20 October 1740
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick
(m. 1708; w. 1740)
4 children
(3 survived to adulthood)
Maria Theresa
(Maria Teresa)

1717–1780
(aged 63)
    20 October 1740

29 November 1780
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
(m. 1736; d. 1765)
15 children
(10 survived to adulthood)
Joseph I
(Giuseppe I)

1741–1790
(aged 48)
    29 November 1780

20 February 1790
(1) Isabella of Parma
(m. 1760; d. 1763)
2 children
(Not survived to adulthood)

(2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria
(m. 1765; d. 1767)
Chidless
Leopold I
(Leopoldo I)

1747–1792
(aged 44)
    20 February 1790

1 March 1792
Maria Luisa of Spain
(m. 1765; w. 1792)
16 children
(14 survived to adulthood)
Francis III
(Francesco III)

1768–1835
(aged 67)
    1 March 1792

15 May 1796
(1) Elisabeth of Württemberg
(m. 1788; d. 1790)
1 children
(Not survived to adulthood)

(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
(m. 1790; d. 1807)
11 children
(7 survived to adulthood)

(3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
(m. 1808; d. 1816)
Chidless

(4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
(m. 1816; w. 1835)
Chidless
Does not appear Interregnum (1796–1814):
Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
11 April 1814

7 April 1815
Since the Congress of Vienna   See Kings of Lombardy-Venetia

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Motta, Antonio (1931). Treccani, ed. DELLA TORRE. Enciclopedia Italiana (in Italian).
  2. ^ Fantoni, Giuliana L. (1989). Treccani, ed. DELLA TORRE, Martino. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (in Italian). 37.
  3. ^ Gallavresi, Giuseppe (1906). La riscossa dei guelfi in Lombardia dopo il 1260 e la politica di Filippo della Torre (in Italian). 6. Arch. stor. lombardo, 4th section.
  4. ^ Richard, Charles-Louis; Giraud, Jean-Joseph (1822). Méquignon Fils Ainé, ed. Bibliothèque sacrée, ou, Dictionnaire universel [...] des sciences ecclésiastiques (in French). 13. p. 301.
  5. ^ Pugliese, Michela (2017). Youcanprint, ed. All'ombra del castello (in Italian). p. 76.
  6. ^ Treccani (ed.). "Della Tórre, Guido" (in Italian).
  7. ^ Fantoni, Giuliana L. (1989). Treccani, ed. DELLA TORRE, Cassone. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (in Italian). 37.
  8. ^ Jones, Michael (2000). Cambridge University Press, ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History. 6. p. 533.
  9. ^ Bartoš, František M. (1937). Treccani, ed. VENCESLAO IV re di Boemia e di Germania. Enciclopedia Italiana (in Italian).
  10. ^ Symonds, John A. (1888). Henry Holt and Co., ed. Renaissance in Italy: the Age of the Despots (in Italian).
  11. ^ Lucas, Henry S. (1960). Harper Bros, ed. The Renaissance and the Reformation. p. 268.
  12. ^ Ady & Armstrong 1907, p. 47
  13. ^ Ady & Armstrong 1907, p. 60
  14. ^ Baumgartner 1996, p. 40
  15. ^ Baumgartner 1996, p. 105
  16. ^ Baumgartner 1996, p. 114
  17. ^ Baumgartner 1996, p. 117
  18. ^ Durant, Will (1953). Simon and Schuster, ed. The Renaissance. The Story of Civilization. 5. p. 191.
  19. ^ Frieda, Leonie (2012). Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ed. The Deadly Sisterhood: A Story of Women, Power and Intrigue in the Italian Renaissance. p. 333.
  20. ^ Konstam, Angus (1996). Osprey Publishing, ed. Pavia 1525: The Climax of the Italian Wars. p. 88.
  21. ^ Blocksman, Wim (2002). Oxford University Press, ed. Emperor Charles V, 1500–1558. p. 52.
  22. ^ Hargreaves- Mawdsley, HN (1979). Eighteenth-Century Spain 1700-1788: A Political, Diplomatic and Institutional History. Macmillan. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0333146123.
  23. ^ Falkner, James (2015). The War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714 (Kindle ed.). 96: Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473872905.
  24. ^ Ward, William,, Leathes, Stanley (1912). The Cambridge Modern History (2010 ed.). Nabu. p. 384. ISBN 1174382058.

BibliographyEdit