List of rulers of Belarus

History of Belarusian states can be traced far to Principality of Polotsk. From 13th century lands of modern Belarus were a major part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania which later became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 19th century Belarus together with Lithuania formed the Northwestern Krai of Russian Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century there was the short-lived Belarusian People's Republic, and in 1922 Belarus became part of the USSR as Belarusian SSR except West Belarus, which was under Polish rule, which was briefly interrupted due to Soviet occupation during the Polish-Soviet War. In 1991, Belarus regained its independence.

Pre-Rurikid rulersEdit

Non-dynasticEdit

Rurikid BelarusEdit

In 978, with the marriage of Rogneda, daughter of Ragvalod, with Vladimir I of Kiev, the Principality of Polotsk became property of the Rurik Dynasty. It was ruled by Rurikid members until the second half of the 14th century, when it was taken by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Between 978 and 1101, the Principality of Polotsk's domain was uncontested in the majority of the Belarusian territory. Polotsk possibly reached the peak of its influence with the access of Vseslav the Seer to the Kievan throne, but at the death of the latter Polotsk was split in three smaller principalities: a smaller Polotsk, the Principality of Minsk and the Principality of Vitebsk.

Rurik DynastyEdit

The Rurikids were descendants of Rurik (Hrørekr), a Varangian pagan konung or chieftain, who supposedly was of haplogroup N1c1, which is common among Finno-Ugric peoples and not so rare in Baltic region.[1]

Portrait Name Born Reign Marriage (s) Death Notes
Vladimir I the Great
Vladimir Basil Sviatoslavich
(Володимир Великий/Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь)
Old Norse: Valdamarr Sveinaldsson
  c.958
Budyatychi
Son of Sviatoslav I the Brave and Malusha/Malfrida
978-987 Olava/Allogia
c.977
at least one son

A Greek nun
(widow of his brother)
c.980
at least one son

Rogneda of Polotsk
c.978
(possibly in bigamy)
eight children

Adela (of Bulgaria?)
at least two children (maximum four)

Malfrida (of Bohemia?)
Before 1000
two children

Anna Porphyrogenita of Byzantium
988
Cherson
three children

Regelindis (?) of Saxony (granddaughter of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor)
After 1011
one or two daughters

Unknown
two children
15 July 1015
Berestove, Kiev
aged 57–58
His early rule is characterized by a staunch pagan reaction but in 988 he was baptized into Orthodoxy and successfully converted Kievan Rus' to Christianity. In 987 gave Polotsk to his son Iziaslav.
Rogneda
Рогнѣдь[2][3]
Old Norse:[4][5][6] Ragnheiðr[7][8] Ragnvaldsdotter
  c.966
Daughter of Ragvalod I
987-1000 Vladimir I the Great
c.978
eight children
1000
aged 33–34
Co-ruling with her son, Iziaslav I.[9]
Iziaslav I
Изѧславъ
  c.978
Kiev
Son of Vladimir I of Kiev and Rogneda of Polotsk
987-1001 Unknown
two children
1001
Polotsk
aged 22–23
Co-ruling with his mother, Rogneda.[9]
Izgoi Vseslav I
Всеславъ сн҃ъ Изѧславль
c.990
First son of Iziaslav I
1001-1003 Unmarried 1003
Polotsk
aged c.12-13
An izgoi (orphan protected by the church), inherited the Principality, but died still as a minor.
Izgoi Bryachislav I
Брѧчиславъ сн҃ъ Изѧславль
  c.997
Second son of Iziaslav I
1003-1044 Unknown
at least one son
1044
Polotsk
aged 46–47
An izgoi until his majority (c.1011), inherited the Principality from his minor brother. Challenged the authority of his uncle, Yaroslav the Wise.
Izgoi Vseslav II the Seer
Vseslav Basil Bryacheslavich
(Всеслав Брячиславич)
  c.1039
Polotsk
Son of Bryachislav of Polotsk
1044-1069
1071-1102
Unknown
six sons
24 April 1101
Polotsk
aged 61–62
An izgoi until his majority (c.1055), followed the politic of his father, and reached, in 1068, the status of Prince of the Kievan Rus', being deposed in the following year. Was also deposed from Polotsk, which was ruled by the sons of Iziaslav I of Kiev until 1071. After his death, Polotsk was divided between his sons.
Mstislav I
Mstislav Iziaslavich
(Мстислав Изяславич)
After 1043
First son of Iziaslav I of Kiev and Gertrude of Poland
1069 Unknown
at least one son
1069
less than 25-26
Dethroned Vseslav the Seer, but died in the same year.
Sviatopolk I
Sviatopolk Michael Iziaslavich
(Всеволод Ярославич)
Old Norse: Sveinpolk Izjasleifsson (?)
  8 November 1050
Second son of Iziaslav I of Kiev and Gertrude of Poland
1069-1071 Unknown name
(daughter of Spytihněv II of Bohemia)[10]
c.1085
three children

Olenna of the Kipchaks
c.1094
four children
26 April 1113
Vyshhorod
aged 62
His descendants lost their rights to the Kievan throne. Kept the Polotsk throne until 1071, when Vseslav took it back.

Decline of the Principality of PolotskEdit

On the death of Vseslav the Seer, the Principality was divided between his sons and descendants, in three major principalities:

  Principality of Polotsk   Principality of Minsk   Principality of Vitebsk

Rurik DynastyEdit

(Note:The list follows one single numbering for all principalities, and continues the previous table.)

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Gleb I   1060 1101-1119 13 September 1119 Minsk Anastasia of Turov-Pinsk
1090
four children
Son of Vseslav II. After his death his Principality was ruled by the Princes of Kiev, until 1146.
Rogvolod II Boris I   Before 1101 1101-1128 1128 Polotsk Unknown
three children
Son of Vseslav II.
Sviatoslav I Before 1101 1101-1129 1129 Vitebsk Sophia (Komnene?)
five children
Son of Vseslav II. Between 1129 and 1132 Vitebsk was ruled by Kiev.
Vladimir II Monomakh   1053 1119-1125 19 May 1125 Minsk Gytha of Wessex
c.1074
five or six children

Euphemia of Byzantium
c.1100
six or seven children

Unknown name
(daughter of Aepa Ocenevich, Khan in Cumania)
After 1107
no known children
Son of Vsevolod I of Kiev. Also Prince of the Kievan Rus'.
Mstislav II the Great   1 June 1076 1125-1129 14 April 1132 Minsk Christina of Sweden
1095
ten children

Liubava Dmitrievna of Novgorod
1122
two children
Also Prince of the Kievan Rus'.
1129-1132 Minsk and Vitebsk
David I   Before 1101 1128-1129 1129 Polotsk Unknown
three children
Son of Vseslav II.
Iziaslav II   1096[11] 1129-1132 13 November 1154[11] Polotsk Agnes of Germany
before 1151
five children

Rusudan of Georgia[11]
1154
no children
Son of Mstislav I of Kiev. Also Prince of Kiev. Occupied Polotsk.
Yaropolk I   1082 1132–1139 18 February 1139 Minsk Helena of Ossetia
1116
one child
Brother of Mstislav II. Also Prince of Kiev.
Sviatopolk II After 1096 1132 20 February 1154 Polotsk Euphemia of Olomouc[12]
1143 or 1144
no children
Brother of his predecessor. Also Prince of Novgorod and Pskov.
Vasilko I Sviatoslavich ? 1132-1144 1144 Polotsk and Vitebsk Unknown
seven children
Son of Sviatoslav of Vitebsk, who was son of Vseslav II.
Viacheslav I   1083 1139 2 February 1154 Minsk Unmarried
before 1139
one child
Brother of his predecessor. Also Prince of Kiev.
Vsevolod I   1104 1139-1146 1 August 1146 Minsk Maria of Rus'
1116
one child
Grandson of Sviatoslav II of Rus', married Maria, sister of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I. Also Prince of Kiev.
Rogvolod III Vassili ? 1144-1151

1159-1162
After 1171 Polotsk Unknown
five children
Son of Rogvolod II.
Rostislav I Glebovich ? 1146-1151 1165 Minsk Sophia of Volhynia
before 1158
seven children
Son of Gleb I.
1151-1159 Polotsk
1159-1165 Minsk
Volodar I Glebovich c.1090 1151-1159

1165-1167
c.1180 Minsk Richeza of Poland
1135 or 1136
three children
Brother of his predecessor. The inheritance of his heir (Vladimir Volodarovich) to Polotsk made a possible reunion of the two principalities.
1167 Polotsk and Minsk
1167-c.1180 Minsk
Vseslav III Vasilkovich ? 1144-1162 1186 Vitebsk Unknown
three children
Son of Vasilko I.
1162-1167

1167-c.1180
Polotsk
1175-1178

1181-1186
Vitebsk
Roman I Bryachislavich ? 1162-1165 1186 Vitebsk Unknown
three children
Kinsman of his predecessor.
David II 1140 1165-1167 23 April 1197 Vitebsk Unknown
three children
Son of Vseslav II.
Bryachislav II Vasilkovich ? 1167-1175

1178-1181
After 1186 Vitebsk Unknown
two children
Brother of Vseslav III.
Boris II Davidovich ? c.1180-c.1185 c.1185 Polotsk Unknown
five children

Sviatocna (Elisabeth?) of Pomerania
one child
Son of David Sviatoslavich of Vitebsk, who was grandson of Vseslav II.
Vladimir III Volodarovich Between 1135 and 1150 c.1180-1216 1216 Minsk Unknown Son of Volodar I Glebovich. Possibly co-ruling in Minsk with his brother, who after his death and subsequent annexation of Minsk, succeeded in Polotsk.
c.1185-1216 Polotsk and Minsk
Vasilko II Volodarovich Between 1135 and 1150 c.1180-1216 1222 Minsk Unknown
1216-1222 Polotsk
Vasilko III Bryachislavich ? 1186-1221 c.1221 Vitebsk
Sviatoslav II Mstislavich ? 1222-1232 1239 Polotsk Unknown Son of Mstislav III of Kiev.
Bryachislav III Vasilkovich ? 1221-1232 c.1255 Vitebsk Unknown
five children
Son of Vasilko Bryachislavich. In 1232 lost Vitebsk to Lithuania, and after his death also Polotsk.
1232-c.1255 Polotsk

Lithuanian Princes of PolotskEdit

Palemonid dynasty
Gediminid dynasty

Grand Duchy of LithuaniaEdit

Title: Grand Duke ("Вялікі князь" in Belarusian, "Wielki książę" in Polish, "Kunigaikštis" or "Didysis Kunigaikštis" in Lithuanian)

Early rulers (1248–1316)Edit

Name Reign Portrait Notes
Mendog
Mindoŭh
(Міндоўг)
1248–1263   First Grand Duke of Lithuania, also King of Lithuania in 1253—1260.
Treniota
Traniata
(Транята)
1263–1264   Possibly Mendog's nephew. Ruler of Samogitia.
Voyshalk
Vojšałk
(Войшалк)
1264–1267   Son of Mendog. Prince of Navahrudak.
Shvarn
Švarn Daniłavič
(Шварн Данілавіч)
1267–1269 Son of King Daniel of Galicia. Prince of Kholm.
Troyden
Trajdzień
(Трайдзень)
1269–1282   Origin unknown.
Dovmont
Daŭmont
(Даўмонт)
1280s Possibly a relative of Troyden.
Budikid
Budzikid
(Будзікід)
1285?–1290? Possibly a relative of Troyden.
Budivid
Budzivid
(Будзівід)
1290?–1295? Brother of Budikid.
Viten
Vicień
(Віцень)
1295–1316   Son of Budivid.

Gediminid dynasty (1316–1440)Edit

Name Reign Portrait Notes
Gedymin
Hiedzimin
(Гедзімін)
1316

1341
  Possibly a son of Budivid. Consolidated most of modern day Belarusian territory under his rule.
Jewnut
Jaŭnut Hiedziminavič
(Яўнут Гедзімінавіч)
1341

1345
  Son of Gedymin. Prince of Izyaslavl.
Olgierd
Alhierd Hiedziminavič
(Альгерд Гедзімінавіч)
1345

May 1377
  Son of Gedymin. Duke of Kreva and Prince of Vitebsk.
Jogaila
Jahajła Alhierdavič
(Ягайла Альгердавіч)
May 1377

August 1381
  Son of Olgierd. Prince of Vitebsk.
Keistut
Kiejstut Hiedziminavič
(Кейстут Гедзімінавіч)
August 1381

August 1382
  Son of Gedymin. Duke of Troki, junior co-ruler of Olgierd.
Jogaila
Jahajła Alhierdavič
(Ягайла Альгердавіч)
August 1382

August 1392
  Son of Olgierd. Prince of Vitebsk, King of Poland in 1386–1434.
Skirgaila
Skirhajła Alhierdavič
(Скіргайла Альгердавіч)
March 1386

August 1392
  Son of Olgierd. Regent of the Grand Duchy, Duke of Troki and Prince of Polotsk.
Vitovt
Vitaŭt Vialiki
(Вітаўт Вялікі)
August 1392

October 1430
  Son of Keistut. Duke of Troki and Prince of Hrodna.
Svidrigailo
Svidryhajła Alhierdavič
(Свідрыгайла Альгердавіч)
October 1430

August 1432
  Son of Olgierd. Grand Duke of Ruthenia in 1432–1440, Prince of Volhynia 1434–1452.
Sigismund
Žyhimont Kiejstutavič
(Жыгімонт Кейстутавіч)
August 1432

June 1440
  Son of Keistut. Prince of Starodub.

Jagiellonian dynasty (1440–1569)Edit

Name Reign Portrait Notes
Casimir Jagiellon
Kazimir Andrej Jahiełončyk
(Казімір Андрэй Ягелончык)
29 June 1440

7 June 1492
  Son of Jogaila. King of Poland in 1447–1492.
Alexander Jagiellon
Alaksandr Jahiełončyk
(Аляксандр Ягелончык)
30 July 1492

19 August 1506
  Son of Casimir. King of Poland in 1501–1506.
Sigismund the Old
Žyhimont Stary
(Жыгімонт Стары)
20 October 1506

1 April 1548
  Son of Casimir. King of Poland in 1506–1548.
Sigismund Augustus
Žyhimont Aŭhust
(Жыгімонт Аўгуст)
1544

1 July 1569
  Son of Sigismund the Old and his co-ruler in the Grand Duchy. King of Poland in 1548–1572.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)Edit

Name Election Reign Portrait Notes
Sigismund Augustus
Žyhimont Aŭhust (Жыгімонт Аўгуст)
Zygmunt August
1 July 1569

7 July 1572
  The last Grand Duke of the Jagiellonian dynasty.
Henry of Valois
Hienryk Valezy (Генрык Валезы)
Henryk Walezy
11 May 1573 24 January 1574

18 June 1574
  Younger brother of king Charles IX of France. Abandoned the throne soon after the coronation and fled back to his home country, where he became the next king as Henry III.
Stephen Báthory
Stefan Batoryj (Стэфан Баторый)
Stefan Batory
15 December 1575 14 December 1575

12 December 1586
  Voivode and Prince of Transylvania in 1571–1586. Married Anna Jagiellon, daughter of Sigismund the Old, after becoming the new ruler of the Commonwealth.
Sigismund Vasa
Žyhimont Vaza (Жыгімонт Ваза)
Zygmunt Waza
19 August 1587 18 September 1587

19 April 1632
  Grandson of Sigismund the Old and son of king John III of Sweden. King of Sweden in 1592–1599. Continued to claim the throne of Sweden afterwards, which lead to the wars with Sweden in 1600–1611, 1617–1618 and 1621–1625
Ladislaus Vasa
Uładzisłaŭ Vaza (Уладзіслаў Ваза)
Władysław Waza
8 November 1632 8 November 1632

20 May 1648
  Son of Sigismund Vasa. Previously elected as the Tsar of Russia in 1610–1613. Claimed the thrones of Russia (until 1634) and Sweden.
John Casimir Vasa
Jan Kazimir Vaza (Ян Казімір Ваза)
Jan Kazimierz Waza
20 November 1648 20 November 1648

16 September 1668
  Son of Sigismund Vasa. The last monarch of the Vasa dynasty in Poland-Lithuania.
Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki
Michał Višniaviecki (Міхал Вішнявецкі)
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
19 June 1669 19 June 1669

10 November 1673
  Lithuanian nobleman. First monarch elected from the ranks of the Commonwealth szlachta.
John Sobieski
Jan Sabieski (Ян Сабескі)
Jan Sobieski
21 May 1674 21 May 1674

17 June 1696
  Polish nobleman
Augustus the Strong
Aŭhust Mocny (Аўгуст Моцны)
August Mocny
27 June 1697 15 September 1697

24 September 1706
  Elector of Saxony in 1694–1733
Stanisław Leszczyński
Stanisłaŭ Laščynski (Станіслаў Ляшчынскі)
Stanisław Leszczyński
12 July 1704 16 February 1704

8 August 1709
  Polish nobleman. Installed by Charles XII of Sweden.
Augustus the Strong
Aŭhust Mocny (Аўгуст Моцны)
August Mocny
8 August 1709

1 February 1733
  Second reign, reinstated in the course of the events of the Great Northern War
Stanisław Leszczyński
Stanisłaŭ Laščynski (Станіслаў Ляшчынскі)
Stanisław Leszczyński
12 September 1733 12 September 1733

27 January 1736
  Second reign, reinstated with the French support causing the War of the Polish Succession
Augustus of Saxony
Aŭhust Saksonski (Аўгуст Саксонскі)
August Sas
5 October 1733 30 June 1734

5 October 1763
  Son of Augustus the Strong, elector of Saxony in 1733–1763. Contested the Polish-Lithuanian throne with the help of the Russo-Austrian coalition during the War of the Polish Succession
Stanisław August Poniatowski
Stanisłaŭ Aŭhust Paniatoŭski (Станіслаў Аўгуст Панятоўскі)
Stanisław August Poniatowski
12 September 1764 25 November 1764

25 November 1795
  Polish-Lithuanian nobleman. The last Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Belarusian People's Republic (1918–1920)Edit

Presidents of the Rada of the RepublicEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Notes
  Jan Sierada
(1879–1943)
9 March 1918 14 May 1918 First President of the Rada
Chairman of the First All-Belarusian Congress in December 1917
  Jazep Losik
(1883–1940)
14 May 1918 20 October 1920 President of the pro-Polish Supreme Rada since 14 December 1919
  Piotra Krečeŭski
(1879–1928)
13 December 1919 20 October 1920 President of the rival pro-idependence People's Rada, in exile since February 1920

Presidents of the Rada in Exile (1920–present)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Notes
  Piotra Krečeŭski
(1879–1928)
20 October 1920 8 March 1928 In exile in Lithuania (before November 1923), later in Czechoslovakia
  Vasil Zacharka
(1877–1943)
8 March 1928 6 March 1943 In exile in Prague, Czechoslovakia
Mikola Abramchyk
(1903–1970)
6 March 1943 29 May 1970 First president of the League for the Liberation of the Peoples of the USSR
Vincent Žuk-Hryškievič
(1903–1989)
29 May 1970 27 November 1982
Jazep Sažyč
(1917–2007)
27 November 1982 31 August 1997
  Ivonka Survilla
(born 1936)
31 August 1997 Incubment

Republic of Central Lithuania (1920–1922)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office
  Lucjan Żeligowski
(1865–1947)
12 October 1920 24 March 1922

Soviet Belarus (1919–1991)Edit

Heads of stateEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Position/Notes
  Zmicier Žyłunovič
(1887–1937)
1 January 1919 4 February 1919 Chairman of the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of the SSR of Byelorussia
  Aleksander Myasnikov
(1886–1925)
4 February 1919 27 February 1919 Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the SSR of Byelorussia
  Kazimierz Cichowski
(1887–1937)
27 February 1919 31 July 1920 Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Lithuanian–Byelorussian SSR
In exile in the Russian SFSR since July 1919
  Alaksandr Čarviakoŭ
(1892–1937)
18 December 1920 16 June 1937
(died in office)
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
Also the chairman of the government (1920–1924)
Committed suicide while in office
Michaił Stakun
(1893–1943)
17 June 1937 14 November 1937 Chairman of the Central Executive Committee
Concurrently with being the chairman of the government
  Ničypar Natalevič
(1900–1964)
14 November 1937 17 March 1948 Chairman of the Central Executive Committee (before July 1938)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (after July 1938)
In exile in the Russian SFSR during 1941–1944
Vasil Kazłoŭ
(1903–1967)
17 March 1948 2 December 1967
(died in office)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Siarhiej Prytycki
(1913–1971)
22 January 1968 13 June 1971
(died in office)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Fiodar Surhanaŭ
(1911–1976)
16 July 1971 26 December 1976
(died in office)
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Ivan Palakoŭ
(1914–2014)
28 February 1977 29 November 1985 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Hieorhij Tarazievič
(1937–2003)
29 November 1985 28 July 1989 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Mikałaj Dziemianciej
(1930–2018)
28 July 1989 25 August 1991 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (before May 1990)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (after May 1990)

Leaders of the Byelorussian Communist PartyEdit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Entered office Left office Position/Notes
  Aleksander Myasnikov
(1886–1925)
31 December 1918 27 February 1919 Chairman of the Presidium of the Communist Party of the SSRB
  Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas
(1880–1935)
27 February 1919 25 August 1919 Chairman of the Presidium of the Communist Party of the LBSSR
Jafim Hienkin
(1896–1938)
11 November 1920 25 November 1920 Responsible Secretary
  Vilhelm Knorin
(1890–1939)
25 November 1920 May 1922 Responsible Secretary
Waclaw Bogucki
(1884–1937)
May 1922 February 1924 Responsible Secretary
  Alexander Asatkin
(1885–1937)
February 1924 September 1924 Responsible Secretary
  Alexander Krinitsky
(1894–1937)
September 1924 7 May 1927 First Secretary
  Vilhelm Knorin
(1890–1939)
7 May 1927 4 December 1928 First Secretary
  Yan Gamarnik
(1894-1937)
4 December 1928 8 January 1930 First Secretary
  Konstantin Gey
(1896-1939)
8 January 1930 18 January 1932 First Secretary
  Mykola Hykalo
(1897-1938)
18 January 1932 18 March 1937 First Secretary
  Vasil Šaranhovič
(1897-1938)
18 March 1937 27 July 1937 First Secretary
  Yakov Yakovlev (acting)
(1896-1938)
27 July 1937 11 August 1937 First Secretary
  Aleksei Volkov (acting)
(1890-1942)
11 August 1937 19 June 1938 First Secretary
  Panteleimon Ponomarenko
(1902-1984)
19 June 1938 17 March 1947 First Secretary, in exile in the Russian SFSR during 1941–1944
Nikolai Gusarov
(1905-1985)
17 March 1947 5 July 1950 First Secretary
  Nikolai Patolichev
(1908-1989)
5 July 1950 28 July 1956 First Secretary, candidate member of the CPSU Presidium
Kirył Mazuraŭ
(1914-1989)
28 July 1956 30 March 1965 First Secretary, candidate member of the CPSU Presidium
  Piotr Mašeraŭ
(1918-1980)
30 March 1965 4 October 1980
(died in office)
First Secretary, candidate member of the CPSU Politburo
Uładzimir Brovikaŭ (acting)
(1931-1992)
4 October 1980 21 October 1980 Second Secretary
Cichan Kisialoŭ
(1917-1983)
21 October 1980 11 January 1983
(died in office)
First Secretary, candidate member of the CPSU Politburo
Uładzimir Brovikaŭ (acting)
(1931-1992)
11 January 1983 13 January 1983 Second Secretary
Mikałaj Sluńkoŭ
(born 1929)
13 January 1983 6 February 1987 First Secretary, candidate member of the CPSU Politburo
Jafrém Sakałóŭ
(born 1926)
6 February 1987 28 November 1990 First Secretary, member of the CPSU Politburo
Anatol Małafiejeŭ
(born 1933)
28 November 1990 25 August 1991 First Secretary, member of the CPSU Politburo

Republic of Belarus (1991–Present)Edit

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Notes
Stanisłaŭ Šuškievič (acting)
(born 1934)
25 August 1991 18 September 1991 Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
Stanisłaŭ Šuškievič
(born 1934)
18 September 1991 26 January 1994
Viačasłaŭ Kuźniacoŭ (acting)
(born 1947)
26 January 1994 28 January 1994 Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
Miečysłaŭ Hryb
(born 1938)
28 January 1994 20 July 1994 Chairman of the Supreme Soviet
Alaksandar Łukašenka
(born 1954)
20 July 1994 Incubment First President of Belarus.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ DNA Testing of the Rurikid and Gediminid Princes
  2. ^ Лаўр., 56;
  3. ^ Іпац., 53;
  4. ^ Рыдзевская Е. А. Древняя Русь и Скандинавия IX—XIV вв. / Отв. ред. И. П. Шаскольский // Древнейшие государства на территории СССР. Материалы и исследования. 1978 г. — М.: Наука, 1978. — 240 с.
  5. ^ Джаксон Т. Н. Глава 8. «Palteskja ok þat ríki allt, er þar liggr til» // Austr í Görðum: древнерусские топонимы в древнескандинавских источниках. — М.: Языки русской культуры, 2001.
  6. ^ Duczko W. Ruś Wikingów. Historia obecności Skandynawów we wczesnośredniowiecznej Europie Wschodniej. — Warszawa, 2007. — S. 108.
  7. ^ Рогнедь // Этимологический словарь русского языка / М. Р. Фасмер. — М.: Прогресс, 1964—1973.
  8. ^ Михеев С. М. Легенда о Владимире и Рогнеде и скандинавская традиция (к параллели с легендой о сыновьях Хейдрека) // Именослов. История языка. История культуры. — СПб., 2010. (Труды Центра славяно-германских исследований. I.) — С. 169—179.
  9. ^ a b As was the Norse royal custom, she was sent with her elder son to govern the land of her parents, i.e. Polotsk.
  10. ^ According to A. Nazarenko. It was thought not long ago that the first wife of Sviatopolk was Barbara Komnene, a supposed daughter of Alexios I Komnenos. However, the lack of tradition of such a name in the Byzantine Empire led to doubt. Today she may be considered fictional.
  11. ^ a b c "Monomakh branch (Mstyslavychi) at Izbornik". izbornyk.org.ua (in Ukrainian).
  12. ^ Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ СХІДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ

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