List of reptiles of Alabama

The U.S. state of Alabama is home to 93 indigenous reptile species, not including subspecies. Indigenous species include one species of crocodilian, 12 lizard species, 49 snake species, and 31 turtle species. Three native species have possibly been extirpated from the state. These include the eastern indigo snake, southern hognose snake and the mimic glass lizard.[1][2]

There are four known introduced reptile species, all lizards.[3] They include the Indo-Pacific gecko, brown anole, Texas horned lizard, and Mediterranean house gecko.[4]

Human predation and habitat destruction has placed several reptile species and subspecies at risk of extirpation or extinction. The Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources lists the conservation status of each species within the state with a rank of lowest, low, moderate, high, and highest concern.[3][5][6][7]

AlligatorEdit

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
  Alligator mississippiensis American alligator Alligatoridae No longer listed as endangered, U.S. Fish and Wildlife now lists as threatened

LizardsEdit

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
  Ophisaurus attenuatus longicaudus eastern slender glass lizard Anguidae Moderate
  Ophisaurus mimicus mimic glass lizard Anguidae Possibly extirpated
  Ophisaurus ventralis eastern glass lizard Anguidae Moderate
  Hemidactylus garnotii Indo-Pacific gecko Gekkonidae Exotic
  Hemidactylus turcicus Mediterranean house gecko Gekkonidae Exotic
  Anolis carolinensis carolinensis green anole Dactyloidae Lowest
  Anolis sagrei carolinensis brown anole Dactyloidae Exotic
  Phrynosoma cornutum Texas horned lizard Phrynosomatidae Exotic
  Sceloporus undulatus eastern fence lizard Phrynosomatidae Low
  Plestiodon anthracinus coal skink Scincidae High
  Plestiodon egregius mole skink Scincidae Low/
Possibly declining
  Plestiodon fasciatus five-lined skink Scincidae Lowest
  Plestiodon inexpectatus southeastern five-lined skink Scincidae High
  Plestiodon laticeps broad-headed skink Scincidae Low
  Scincella lateralis ground skink
little brown skink
Scincidae Low
  Cnemidophorus sexlineatus sexlineatus eastern six-lined racerunner Teiidae Moderate

SnakesEdit

Alabama is home to sixty-six known snake species and subspecies. There are nine snake species and subspecies that are venomous to humans in the state. The remaining fifty-five species and subspecies pose no threat to humans.[5][8][9]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Venomous to humans Conservation
concern
  Agkistrodon contortrix eastern copperhead Viperidae Yes Lowest
  Agkistrodon conanti Florida cottonmouth
green-tailed moccasin
Viperidae Yes Lowest
  Agkistrodon piscivorus northern cottonmouth
water moccasin
Viperidae Yes Lowest
  Carphophis amoenus amoenus eastern worm snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Carphophis amoenus helenae midwestern worm snake Colubridae No Lowest
Cemophora coccinea copei northern scarlet snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Coluber constrictor constrictor northern black racer Colubridae No Low
  Coluber constrictor priapus southern black racer Colubridae No Low
  Crotalus adamanteus eastern diamondback rattlesnake Viperidae Yes High
  Crotalus horridus timber rattlesnake
canebrake rattlesnake
Viperidae Yes Low
  Diadophis punctatus edwardsii northern ringneck snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Diadophis punctatus punctatus southern ringneck snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Diadophis punctatus stictogenys Mississippi ringneck snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Drymarchon couperi eastern indigo snake Colubridae No Highest,
Possibly extirpated
  Elaphe obsoleta spiloides gray rat snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Farancia abacura abacura eastern mud snake Colubridae No Low
  Farancia abacura reinwardtii western mud snake Colubridae No Low
  Farancia erytrogramma erytrogramma rainbow snake Colubridae No Highest
  Heterodon platirhinos eastern hognose snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Heterodon simus southern hognose snake Colubridae No Highest,
Possibly extirpated
  Lampropeltis calligaster calligaster prairie kingsnake Colubridae No High
  Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata mole kingsnake Colubridae No Moderate
  Lampropeltis elapsoides scarlet kingsnake Colubridae No Low
  Lampropeltis getula getula eastern kingsnake Colubridae No High
  Lampropeltis getula holbrooki speckled kingsnake Colubridae No High
  Lampropeltis nigra black kingsnake Colubridae No Low
  Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum eastern milk snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Lampropeltis triangulum syspila red milk snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Masticophis flagellum flagellum eastern coachwhip Colubridae No Moderate
  Micrurus fulvius eastern coral snake Elapidae Yes High
Nerodia clarkii clarkii Gulf salt marsh snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Nerodia cyclopion Mississippi green water snake Colubridae No Moderate
Nerodia erythrogaster erythrogaster redbelly water snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Nerodia erythrogaster flavigaster yellowbelly water snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Nerodia fasciata confluens broad-banded water snake Colubridae No Lowest
Nerodia fasciata fasciata southern banded water snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Nerodia fasciata pictiventris Florida banded water snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Nerodia floridana Florida green water snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Nerodia rhombifer diamondback water snake Colubridae No Low
  Nerodia sipedon pleuralis midland water snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Nerodia taxispilota brown water snake Colubridae No Low
  Opheodrys aestivus rough green snake Colubridae No Low
  Pantherophis guttatus guttatus corn snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Pantherophis obsoletus black rat snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi black pine snake Colubridae No Highest
  Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus northern pine snake Colubridae No High
  Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus Florida pine snake Colubridae No High
  Regina rigida sinicola Gulf crayfish snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Regina septemvittata queen snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Rhadinaea flavilata pine woods snake Colubridae No Moderate
  Seminatrix pygaea pygaea North Florida swamp snake Colubridae No High
  Sistrurus miliarius barbouri dusky pigmy rattlesnake
Florida ground rattlesnake
Viperidae Yes Moderate
  Sistrurus miliarius miliarius Carolina pigmy rattlesnake
ground rattlesnake
Viperidae Yes Moderate
  Sistrurus miliarius streckeri western pigmy rattlesnake
ground rattlesnake
Viperidae Yes Moderate
  Storeria dekayi dekayi northern brown snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Storeria dekayi limnetes marsh brown snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Storeria dekayi wrightorum midland brown snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata northern redbelly snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Tantilla coronata southeastern crown snake Colubridae No Low
  Thamnophis sauritus sauritus eastern ribbon snake Colubridae No Low
  Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis common garter snake Colubridae No Low
  Virginia striatula smooth earth snake Colubridae No Lowest
  Virginia valeriae elegans western earth snake Colubridae No Lowest
Virginia valeriae valeriae eastern earth snake Colubridae No Lowest

TurtlesEdit

Alabama law makes it illegal to take, sell or possess turtles, turtle parts, or turtle eggs from the wild for commercial purposes.[6]

Image Scientific name Common name Family Conservation
concern
  Caretta caretta loggerhead sea turtle Cheloniidae Highest
  Chelonia mydas green sea turtle Cheloniidae Highest
  Lepidochelys kempii Atlantic ridley sea turtle Cheloniidae Highest/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered
  Chelydra serpentina common snapping turtle Chelydridae Lowest
  Macrochelys temminckii alligator snapping turtle Chelydridae Wheeler Wildlife Refuge lists as endangered
  Dermochelys coriacea leatherback sea turtle Dermochelyidae Highest/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered
  Chrysemys picta picta eastern painted turtle Emydidae Lowest
  Chrysemys picta dorsalis southern painted turtle Emydidae Lowest
  Chrysemys picta marginata midland painted turtle Emydidae Lowest
  Deirochelys reticularia reticularia eastern chicken turtle Emydidae Low
  Graptemys barbouri Barbour's map turtle Emydidae High
  Graptemys ernsti Escambia map turtle Emydidae Moderate
  Graptemys geographica northern map turtle Emydidae Low
  Graptemys nigrinoda delticola delta map turtle
southern black-knobbed sawback
Emydidae Moderate
  Graptemys nigrinoda nigrinoda black-knobbed map turtle
northern black-knobbed sawback
Emydidae Moderate
  Graptemys ouachitensis Ouachita map turtle Emydidae Lowest
  Graptemys pulchra Alabama map turtle Emydidae Moderate
  Malaclemys terrapin pileata Mississippi diamondback terrapin Emydidae Highest
  Pseudemys alabamensis Alabama red-bellied cooter
(Designated as official state reptile)
Emydidae Highest/
U.S. Fish and Wildlife lists as endangered
  Pseudemys concinna concinna eastern river cooter Emydidae Lowest
  Pseudemys concinna floridana coastal plain cooter Emydidae Lowest
  Trachemys scripta elegans red-eared slider Emydidae Lowest
  Trachemys scripta scripta yellow-bellied slider Emydidae Lowest
  Terrapene carolina carolina eastern box turtle Emydidae Low
  Terrapene carolina major Gulf Coast box turtle Emydidae Low
  Terrapene carolina triunguis three-toed box turtle Emydidae Low
  Kinosternon subrubrum eastern mud turtle Kinosternidae Lowest
  Sternotherus minor minor loggerhead musk turtle Kinosternidae Low
  Sternotherus minor peltifer stripe-necked musk turtle Kinosternidae Low
  Sternotherus depressus flattened musk turtle Kinosternidae High
  Sternotherus odoratus common musk turtle
stinkpot turtle
Kinosternidae Lowest
  Gopherus polyphemus gopher tortoise Testudinidae High
  Apalone ferox Florida softshell turtle Trionychidae Moderate
Apalone mutica smooth softshell turtle Trionychidae Low
  Apalone spinifera spiny softshell turtle Trionychidae Low

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Mount, Robert H. (1975). The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn, Alabama: Auburn Printing Company. pp. 150–315. OCLC 1958638.
  2. ^ "Reptiles in Alabama". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  3. ^ a b "Lizards". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  4. ^ "Exotic Animals Established in Alabama". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Snakes". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  6. ^ a b "Turtles". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  7. ^ "Alligators". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on September 7, 2005. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  8. ^ Mount, Robert H. (1975). The Reptiles and Amphibians of Alabama. Auburn, Alabama: Auburn Printing Company. pp. 172–259. OCLC 1958638.
  9. ^ "Identification and Control of Snakes in Alabama" (PDF). Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Alabama A&M University and Auburn University. Retrieved June 6, 2012.