List of recently extinct mammals

Chart showing the biodiversity of large mammal species per continent before and after humans arrived there

Recently extinct mammals are defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as any mammals that have become extinct since the year 1500 CE.[1] Since then, roughly 80 mammal species have become extinct.[2]

2 extinct in the wild mammalian species (0.03%)203 critically endangered mammalian species (3.5%)505 endangered mammalian species (8.7%)536 vulnerable mammalian species (9.3%)345 near threatened mammalian species (6.0%)3306 least concern mammalian species (57%)872 data deficient mammalian species (15%)Circle frame.svg
Mammalian species (IUCN, 2020-1)
  • 5850 extant species have been evaluated
  • 4978 of those are fully assessed[a]
  • 3651 are not threatened at present[b]
  • 1244 to 2116 are threatened[c]
  • 81 to 83 are extinct or extinct in the wild:
    • 81 extinct (EX) species[d]
    • 2 extinct in the wild (EW)
    • 0 possibly extinct [CR(PE)]
    • 0 possibly extinct in the wild [CR(PEW)]

  1. ^ excludes data deficient evaluations.
  2. ^ NT and LC.
  3. ^ Threatened comprises CR, EN and VU. Upper estimate additionally includes DD.
  4. ^ Chart omits extinct (EX) species

Extinction of taxa is difficult to confirm, as a long gap without a sighting is not definitive, but before 1995 a threshold of 50 years without a sighting was used to declare extinction.[1]

One study found that extinction from habitat loss is the hardest to detect, as this might only fragment populations to the point of concealment from humans. Some mammals declared as extinct may very well reappear.[1] For example, a study found that 36% of purported mammalian extinction had been resolved, while the rest either had validity issues (insufficient evidence) or had been rediscovered.[3]

As of December 2015, the IUCN listed 30 mammalian species as "critically endangered (possibly extinct)".[4]


All species listed as "Extinct" are classified as being extinct (no known remaining individuals left) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). All species listed as Extinct in the wild are classified as being extinct in the wild, meaning that all remaining individuals of the species reside in captivity. All species listed as "Possibly extinct" are classified as being critically endangered, as it is unknown whether or not these species are extinct.[5] Extinct subspecies such as the Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica)[6] are not listed here as the species, in this case Panthera tigris, is still extant. The IUCN Redlist classification for each species serves as a citation, and the superscripted "IUCN" by the date is a link to that species' page. A range map is provided wherever available, and a description of their former or current range is given if a range map is not available.

Causes of extinctionEdit

Habitat degradation is currently the main anthropogenic cause of species extinctions. The main cause of habitat degradation worldwide is agriculture, with urban sprawl, logging, mining and some fishing practices close behind. The physical destruction of a habitat, both directly (deforestation for land development or lumber) and indirectly (burning fossil fuels), is an example of this.[7][8]

Also, increasing toxicity, through media such as pesticides, can kill off a species very rapidly, by killing all living members through contamination or sterilizing them. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), for example, can bioaccumulate to hazardous levels, getting increasingly more dangerous further up the food chain.[9]

Disease can also be a factor: white nose syndrome in bats, for example, is causing a substantial decline in their populations and may even lead to the extinction of a species.[10]

Overhunting also has an impact. Terrestrial mammals, such as the tiger and deer, are mainly hunted for their pelts and in some cases meat, and marine mammals can be hunted for their oil and leather. Specific targeting of one species can be problematic to the ecosystem because the sudden demise of one species can inadvertently lead to the demise of another (coextinction) especially if the targeted species is a keystone species. Sea otters, for example, were hunted in the maritime fur trade, and their drop in population led to the rise in sea urchins—their main food source—which decreased the population of kelp—the sea urchin's and Steller's sea cow's main food source—leading to the extinction of the Steller's sea cow.[11] The hunting of an already limited species can easily lead to its extinction, as with the bluebuck whose range was confined to 1,700 square miles (4,400 km2) and which was hunted into extinction soon after discovery by European settlers.[12]


Island creatures are usually endemic to only that island, and that limited range and small population can leave them vulnerable to sudden changes.[13] Australia and its unique fauna have suffered an extreme decline in mammal species, 10% of its 273 terrestrial mammals, since European settlement (a loss of one to two species per decade); in contrast, only one species in North America has become extinct since European settlement. Furthermore, 21% of Australia's mammals are threatened, and unlike in most other continents, the main cause is predation by feral species, such as cats.[14]

Extinct speciesEdit

A species is declared extinct after exhaustive surveys of all potential habitats eliminate all reasonable doubt that the last individual of a species, whether in the wild or in captivity, has died.[15] Recently extinct species are defined by the IUCN as becoming extinct after 1500 CE.[1]

Common name Binomial name Order Date of extinction Former range Picture
Broad-faced potoroo Potorous platyops
Gould, 1844
Diprotodontia 1875 IUCN Australia  
Eastern hare wallaby Lagorchestes leporides
Gould, 1841
Diprotodontia 1889 IUCN  
Lake Mackay hare-wallaby Lagorchestes asomatus
Finlayson, 1943
Diprotodontia 1932 IUCN Australia
Desert rat-kangaroo Caloprymnus campestris
Gould, 1843
Diprotodontia 1935 IUCN  
Tasmanian tiger,
or Tasmanian wolf
Thylacinus cynocephalus
Harris, 1808
Dasyuromorphia 1936 IUCN  
Australia, Tasmania
Toolache wallaby Macropus greyi
Waterhouse, 1846
Diprotodontia 1939 IUCN Australia  
Desert bandicoot Perameles eremiana
Spencer, 1837
Peramelemorphia 1943 IUCN Australia
Lesser bilby,
or yallara
Macrotis leucura
Thomas, 1887
Peramelemorphia 1960s IUCN  
Pig-footed bandicoot Chaeropus ecaudatus
Ogilby, 1838
Peramelemorphia 1950s IUCN  
Crescent nailtail wallaby Onychogalea lunata
Gould, 1841
Diprotodontia 1956 IUCN Australia (western and central)  
Red-bellied gracile opossum,
or Red-bellied gracile mouse opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus
Díaz, Flores and Barquez, 2002
Didelphimorphia 1962 IUCN Argentina
Nullarbor dwarf bettong Bettongia pusilla
McNamara, 1997
Diprotodontia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Australia, Nullarbor Plain
Steller's sea cow Hydrodamalis gigas
von Zimmermann, 1780
Sirenia 1768 IUCN Commander Islands  
Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola
Thomas, 1924
2016 IUCN
Australia, Bramble Cay  
Oriente cave rat Boromys offella
Miller, 1916
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Torre's cave rat Boromys torrei
Allen, 1917
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Imposter hutia Hexolobodon phenax
Miller, 1929
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Montane hutia Isolobodon montanus
Miller, 1922
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Lagostomus crassus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia 1900
early 1900s IUCN
Galápagos giant rat Megaoryzomys curioi
Niethammer, 1964
Rodentia 1500s IUCN Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos  
Cuban coney Geocapromys columbianus
Chapman, 1892
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Hispaniolan edible rat Brotomys voratus
Miller, 1916
Rodentia 1536–1546 IUCN Hispaniola
Puerto Rican hutia Isolobodon portoricensis
Allen, 1916
Rodentia 1900
early 1900s IUCN
Hispaniola and introduced to Puerto Rico, Saint Thomas Island, Saint Croix Island and Mona Island
Big-eared hopping mouse Notomys macrotis
Thomas, 1921
Rodentia 1843 IUCN Australia (central Western Australia)
Darling Downs hopping mouse Notomys mordax
Thomas, 1921
Rodentia 1846 IUCN Australia (Darling Downs, Queensland)
White-footed rabbit-rat Conilurus albipes
Lichtenstein, 1829
Rodentia 1860
early 1860s IUCN
Australia, eastern coast  
Capricorn rabbit rat Conilurus capricornensis
Cramb and Hocknull, 2010
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Australia, Queensland
St Lucy giant rice rat,
or Santa Lucian pilorie
Megalomys luciae
Major, 1901
Rodentia 1881 IUCN Saint Lucia  
Short-tailed hopping mouse Notomys amplus
Brazenor, 1936
Rodentia 1896 IUCN Australia, Great Sandy Desert
Nelson's rice rat Oryzomys nelsoni
Merriam, 1889
Rodentia 1897 IUCN Islas Marías  
Long-tailed hopping mouse Notomys longicaudatus
Gould, 1844
Rodentia 1901 IUCN Australia
Great hopping mouse Notomys robustus
Mahoney, Smith and Medlin, 2008
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Australia, Flinders and Davenport Ranges
Desmarest's pilorie,
or Antillean giant rice rat
Megalomys desmarestii
Fischer, 1829
Rodentia 1902 IUCN Martinique  
Bulldog rat Rattus nativitatis
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia 1903 IUCN Christmas Island  
Maclear's rat Rattus macleari
Thomas, 1887
Rodentia 1903 IUCN Christmas Island  
Darwin's Galapagos mouse Nesoryzomys darwini
Osgood, 1929
Rodentia 1930 IUCN Galapagos Islands
Gould's mouse Pseudomys gouldii
Waterhouse, 1839
Rodentia 1930 IUCN Australia, southern half  
Long-eared mouse Pseudomys auritus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia 1800
early 1800s IUCN
Australia, Kangaroo Island and the Younghusband Peninsula
Pemberton's deer mouse Peromyscus pembertoni
Burt, 1932
Rodentia 1931 IUCN San Pedro Nolasco Island
Samana hutia Plagiodontia ipnaeum
Johnson, 1948
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s [a] IUCN
Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis
MacPhee, Horovitz, Arredondo, & Jimenez Vasquez, 1995
Primates 16th century Dominican Republic
Lesser stick-nest rat,
or white-tipped stick-nest rat
Leporillus apicalis
John Gould, 1854
Rodentia 1933 IUCN Australia, west-central  
Indefatigable Galapagos mouse Nesoryzomys indefessus
Thomas, 1899
Rodentia 1934 IUCN Galapagos Islands
Little Swan Island hutia Geocapromys thoracatus
True, 1888
Rodentia 1955 IUCN Swan Islands  
Blue-gray mouse Pseudomys glaucus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia 1956 IUCN Australia, Queensland and New South Wales
Buhler's coryphomys,
or Buhler's rat
Coryphomys buehleri
Schaub, 1937
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Insular cave rat Heteropsomys insulans
Anthony, 1916
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Puerto Rico and the Vieques Island
Candango mouse Juscelinomys candango
Moojen, 1965
Rodentia 1960 IUCN Central Brazil
Anthony's woodrat Neotoma anthonyi
Allen, 1898
Rodentia 1926 IUCN Isla Todos Santos
Bunker's woodrat Neotoma bunkeri
Burt, 1932
Rodentia 1931 IUCN Coronado Islands
San Martín Island woodrat Neotoma martinensis
Goldman, 1905
Rodentia 1950s San Martín Island, Baja California
Vespucci's rodent Noronhomys vespuccii
Carleton and Olson, 1999
Rodentia 1500 IUCN Fernando de Noronha
St. Vincent colilargo,
or St. Vincent pygmy rice rat
Oligoryzomys victus
Thomas, 1898
Rodentia 1892 IUCN Saint Vincent
Jamaican rice rat Oryzomys antillarum
Thomas, 1898
Rodentia 1877 IUCN Jamaica  
Nevis Rice Rat,
or St. Eustatius rice rat, St. Kitts rice rat
Pennatomys nivalis
Turvey, Weksler, Morris, and Nokkert, 2010
Rodentia 1500
early 1500s [b] IUCN
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi
Andrews, 1900
Chiroptera 2009 IUCN Christmas Island
Sardinian pika Prolagus sardus
Wagner, 1832
Lagomorpha 1774 IUCN Corsica, Sardinia and nearby islands  
Marcano's solenodon Solenodon marcanoi
Patterson, 1962
Eulipotyphla 1500s IUCN Dominican Republic
Puerto Rican nesophontes Nesophontes edithae
Anthony, 1916
Eulipotyphla 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Puerto Rico, Vieques Island, St. John, and St. Thomas  
Atalaye nesophontes Nesophontes hypomicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Greater Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes major
Arredondo, 1970
Eulipotyphla 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Western Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes micrus
Allen, 1917
Eulipotyphla 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud
St. Michel nesophontes Nesophontes paramicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Haitian nesophontes Nesophontes zamicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Lesser Mascarene flying fox,
or dark flying fox
Pteropus subniger
kerr, 1792
Chiroptera 1864 IUCN Réunion and Mauritius  
Guam flying fox,
or Guam fruit bat
Pteropus tokudae
Tate, 1934
Chiroptera 1968 IUCN Guam
Dusky flying fox,
or Percy Island flying fox
Pteropus brunneus
Dobson, 1878
Chiroptera 1870 IUCN Percy Island
Large Palau flying fox Pteropus pilosus
Andersen, 1908
Chiroptera 1874 IUCN Palau
Large sloth lemur Palaeopropithecus ingens
Grandidier, 1899
Primate 1620 IUCN  
In green
Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori
Williams and Koopman, 1952
Primate 1700
early 1700s IUCN
Jamaica, Long Mile Cave
Aurochs Bos primigenius
Bojanus, 1827
Artiodactyla 1627 IUCN    
Bluebuck Hippotragus leucophaeus
Pallas, 1766
Artiodactyla 1800 IUCN    
Red gazelle Eudorcas rufina
Thomas, 1894
Artiodactyla 1800
late 1800s IUCN
Schomburgk's deer Rucervus schomburgki
Blyth, 1863
Artiodactyla 1932 IUCN Thailand  
Queen of Sheba's gazelle,
or Yemen gazelle
Gazella bilkis
Grover and Lay, 1985
Artiodactyla 1951 IUCN Yemen
Saudi gazelle Gazella saudiya
Carruthers and Schwarz, 1935
Artiodactyla 2008 IUCN [c] Arabian Peninsula
Madagascan dwarf hippopotamus,
or Malagasy hippo
Hippopotamus lemerlei
Milne-Edwards, 1868
Artiodactyla 1500
early 1500s [d] IUCN
Madagascan dwarf hippopotamus,
or Madagascan pygmy Hippo, Malagasy hippo
Hippopotamus madagascariensis
Guldberg, 1883
Artiodactyla 1500
early 1500s [e] IUCN
Falkland Islands wolf,
or warrah
Dusicyon australis
Kerr, 1792
Carnivora 1876 IUCN Falkland Islands  
Dusicyon avus
Burmeister, 1866
Carnivora 1500
early 1500s IUCN
Sea mink Neovison macrodon
Prentiss, 1903
Carnivora 1894 IUCN Northeastern North America
Japanese sea lion Zalophus japonicus
Peters, 1866
Carnivora 1970s IUCN Japan  
Caribbean monk seal Neomonachus tropicalis
Gray, 1850
Carnivora 1952 IUCN Caribbean Sea  
Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelea
Grandidier, 1902
Carnivora 1500
early 1500s IUCN

Extinct in the wildEdit

A species that is extinct in the wild is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss. A species is declared extinct in the wild after thorough surveys have inspected its historic range and failed to find evidence of a surviving individual.[15]

Common name Binomial name Order Date of extinction Former range Picture
Père David's deer Elaphurus davidianus
Milne-Edwards, 1866
Artiodactyla 1939 IUCN China  
Scimitar oryx Oryx dammah
Cretzschmar, 1827
Artiodactyla 2000 IUCN Sahara desert  

Possibly extinctEdit

Extinction of taxa is difficult to detect, as a long gap without a sighting is not definitive. Some mammals declared as extinct may very well reappear.[1] For example, a study found that 36% of purported mammalian extinction had been resolved, while the rest either had validity issues (insufficient evidence) or had been rediscovered.[3] As of December 2015, the IUCN listed 30 mammalian species as "critically endangered (possibly extinct)".[4]

Common name Binomial name Order Last confirmed sighting Range Picture
Kouprey, or gray ox, forest ox Bos sauveli
Urbain, 1937
Artiodactyla 1988 IUCN  
Garrido's hutia Capromys garridoi
Varona, 1970
Rodentia 1989 IUCN[dead link] Cayo Maja
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura
Dobson, 1889
Rodentia 1985 IUCN  
Wimmer's shrew Crocidura wimmeri
de Balsac and Aellen, 1958
Rodentia 1976 IUCN  
De Winton's golden mole Cryptochloris wintoni
Broom, 1907
Rodentia 1937 IUCN  
Baiji, or Yangtze river dolphin, whitefin dolphin,
white flag dolphin, Chinese lake dolphin, Changjiang dolphin
Lipotes vexillifer
Miller, 1918
Cetacea 2002 [f] IUCN    
Zuniga's dark rice rat Melanomys zunigae
Rodentia 1949 IUCN Peru, Lomas de Atocongo (hills near Lima)
Dwarf hutia Mesocapromys nanus
Allen, 1917
Rodentia 1937 IUCN Ciénaga de Zapata
San Felipe hutia, or little Earth hutia Mesocapromys sanfelipensis
Varona & Garrido, 1970
Rodentia 1978 IUCN Cuba
One-striped opossum Monodelphis unistriata
Wagner, 1842
Didelphimorphia 1899 IUCN  
Gloomy tube-nosed bat Murina tenebrosa
Yoshiyuki, 1970
Chiroptera 1962 IUCN Tsushima Island and possibly Yaku Island
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta
Dwyer, 1962
Chiroptera 1967 IUCN Big South Cape Island  
Ethiopian amphibious rat, or Ethiopian water mouse Nilopegamys plumbeus
Osgood, 1928
Rodentia 1920s IUCN Mouth of the Lesser Abay River
Lord Howe long-eared bat Nyctophilus howensis
McKean, 1975
Chiroptera 1972 IUCN Lord Howe Island
Angel Island mouse Peromyscus guardia
Townsend, 1912
Rodentia 1991 IUCN Isla Ángel de la Guarda
Puebla deer mouse Peromyscus mekisturus
Merriam, 1898
Rodentia 1950s IUCN Ciudad Serdan and Tehuacán
Telefomin cuscus Phalanger matanim
Flannery, 1987
Diprotodontia 1997 IUCN  
Montane monkey-faced bat Pteralopex pulchra
Flannery, 1991
Chiroptera 1990s IUCN  
Aru flying fox Pteropus aruensis
Peter, 1867
Chiroptera 1992 IUCN  
Emma's giant rat Uromys emmae
Groves and Flannery, 1994
Rodentia 1990s IUCN Owi Island of the Paidaido Islands, Papua Province
Emperor rat Uromys imperator
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia 1888 IUCN Guadalcanal
Guadalcanal rat Uromys porculus
Thomas, 1904
Rodentia 1888 IUCN Guadalcanal
Central rock rat Zyzomys pedunculatus
Waite, 1896
Rodentia 2001 [g] IUCN    
Malabar large-spotted civet, or Malabar civet Viverra civettina
Blyth, 1862
Carnivora 1980
late 1900s [h] IUCN

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ A 1985 study suggested they may have survived into the 1900s based on local legends of the "comadreja"
  2. ^ There were reports of unusual rats on Nevis being eaten by islanders in the 1930s.[16]
  3. ^ They have not been observed since decades before they were declared extinct
  4. ^ Although, 14C dating points their extinction at 1000 C. E., a 1991 study found they coexisted with humans and survived into the 1500s.[17]
  5. ^ Although 14C dating points to their extinction at 1000 C. E., a 1991 study, based on oral tradition of the Malagasy, concluded that they survived until at least 1500.[17]
  6. ^ The species may be functionally extinct.[18]
  7. ^ The species was presumed extinct until it was rediscovered in 1996. There was a possible discovery in 2015.[19]
  8. ^ The last confirmed sighting is unknown and their range in the wild is unconfirmed. Camera traps in Karnataka, their presumed habitat, found no individuals after 1,084 nights in 2006.[20]


  1. ^ a b c d e Fisher, Diana O.; Blomberg, Simon P. (2011). "Correlates of rediscovery and the detectability of extinction in mammals". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1708): 1090–1097. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1579. PMC 3049027. PMID 20880890.
  2. ^ Ceballos, G.; Ehrlich, A. H.; Ehrlich, P. R. (2015). The Annihilation of Nature: Human Extinction of Birds and Mammals. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 1421417189. "69"
  3. ^ a b Macphee, Ross D. E.; Flemming, Clare (1999). "Requiem Æternam: the last five hundred years of mammalian species extinctions". In MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Sues, Hans-Dieter (eds.). Extinctions in Near Time. Advances in Vertebrate Paleobiology. 2. ISBN 978-1-4419-3315-7.
  4. ^ a b "IUCN Red List version 2015.4". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Possibly Extinct and Possibly Extinct in the Wild Species" (PDF). IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  6. ^ Jackson, P.; Nowell, K. (2008). "Panthera tigris ssp. sondaica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  7. ^ Primack, R. B. (2006). "Habitat destruction". Essentials of Conservation Biology (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA.: Sinauer Associates. pp. 177–188. ISBN 978-0-87893-720-2.
  8. ^ Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken (2015). "Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet". Science Advances. 1 (8): e1500589. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E0589W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500589. PMC 4643791. PMID 26601273.
  9. ^ Kelly, B. C.; Ikonomou, M. G.; Blair, J. D.; Morin, A. E.; Gobas, F. A. P. C. (2007). "Food Web-Specific Biomagnification of Persistent Organic Pollutants". Science. 317 (5835): 236–239. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..236K. doi:10.1126/science.1138275. PMID 17626882.
  10. ^ Langwig, K.E.; W.F. Frick; J.T. Bried; A.C. Hicks; T.H. Kunz; A.M. Kilpatrick (2012). "Sociality, density-dependence and microclimates determine the persistence of populations suffering from a novel fungal disease, white-nose syndrome". Ecology Letters. 15 (1): 1050–1057. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01829.x. PMID 22747672.
  11. ^ Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F. (2016). "Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (4): 880–885. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113..880E. doi:10.1073/pnas.1502552112. PMC 4743786. PMID 26504217.
  12. ^ Husson, A. M.; Holthuis, L. B. (1969). "On the type of Antilope leucophaea preserved in the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie Leiden". Zoologische Mededelingen. 44: 147–157.
  13. ^ van der Geer, Alexandra; Lyras, George; de Vos, John; Dermitzakis, Michael (2010). Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 225–227. ISBN 978-1-4051-9009-1.
  14. ^ Woinarskia, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L. (2015). "Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (5): 4531–4540. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.4531W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1417301112. PMC 4403217. PMID 25675493.
  15. ^ a b IUCN Redlist Categories and Criteria (PDF) (2nd ed.). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Species Survival Commission. 2012. ISBN 978-2-8317-1435-6.
  16. ^ Turvey, Samuel T.; Weksler, Marcelo; Morris, Elaine L.; Nokkert, Mark (2010). "Taxonomy, phylogeny, and diversity of the extinct Lesser Antillean rice rats (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with description of a new genus and species". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 160 (4): 748–772. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00628.x.
  17. ^ a b MacPhee, R. D. E.; Burney, David A. (1991). "Dating of modified femora of extinct dwarf Hippopotamus from Southern Madagascar: Implications for constraining human colonization and vertebrate extinction events". Journal of Archaeological Science. 18 (6): 695–706. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(91)90030-S.
  18. ^ Turvey, Samuel T.; Pitman, Robert L.; Taylor, Barbara L.; Barlow, Jay; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Barrett, Leigh A.; Zhao, Xiujiang; Reeves, Randall R.; Stewart, Brent S.; Kexiong, Wang; Zhuo, Wei; Zhang, Xianfeng; Pusser, L. T.; Richlen, Michael; Brandon, John R.; Wang, Ding (2007). "First human-caused extinction of a cetacean species?". Biology Letters. 3 (5): 537–540. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0292. PMC 2391192. PMID 17686754.
  19. ^ McDonald, Peters J.; Brittingham, Richie; Nano, C. E. M.; Paltridge, Rachel M. (2015). "A new population of the critically endangered central rock-rat (Zyzomys pedunculatus) discovered in the Northern Territory". Australian Mammalogy. 37: 97–100. doi:10.1071/AM14012.
  20. ^ Rao, S.; Ashraf, N. V. K.; Nixon, A. M. A. (2007). "Search for the Malabar Civet Viverra civettina in Karnataka and Kerala, India, 2006–2007". Small Carnivore Conservation. 37: 6–10.