List of recently extinct mammals

Chart showing the biodiversity of large mammal species per continent before and after humans arrived there

Recently extinct mammals are defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as any mammals that have become extinct since the year 1500 CE.[1] Since then, roughly 80 mammal species have become extinct.[2]

2 extinct in the wild mammalian species (0.03%)203 critically endangered mammalian species (3.5%)505 endangered mammalian species (8.7%)536 vulnerable mammalian species (9.3%)345 near threatened mammalian species (6.0%)3306 least concern mammalian species (57%)872 data deficient mammalian species (15%)Circle frame.svg
Mammalian species (IUCN, 2020-1)
  • 5850 extant species have been evaluated
  • 4978 of those are fully assessed[a]
  • 3651 are not threatened at present[b]
  • 1244 to 2116 are threatened[c]
  • 81 to 83 are extinct or extinct in the wild:
    • 81 extinct (EX) species[d]
    • 2 extinct in the wild (EW)
    • 0 possibly extinct [CR(PE)]
    • 0 possibly extinct in the wild [CR(PEW)]

  1. ^ excludes data deficient evaluations.
  2. ^ NT and LC.
  3. ^ Threatened comprises CR, EN and VU. Upper estimate additionally includes DD.
  4. ^ Chart omits extinct (EX) species

Extinction of taxa is difficult to confirm, as a long gap without a sighting is not definitive, but before 1995 a threshold of 50 years without a sighting was used to declare extinction.[1]

One study found that extinction from habitat loss is the hardest to detect, as this might only fragment populations to the point of concealment from humans. Some mammals declared as extinct may very well reappear.[1] For example, a study found that 36% of purported mammalian extinction had been resolved, while the rest either had validity issues (insufficient evidence) or had been rediscovered.[3]

As of December 2015, the IUCN listed 30 mammalian species as "critically endangered (possibly extinct)".[4]


All species listed as "Extinct" are classified as being extinct (no known remaining individuals left) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). All species listed as Extinct in the wild are classified as being extinct in the wild, meaning that all remaining individuals of the species reside in captivity. All species listed as "Possibly extinct" are classified as being critically endangered, as it is unknown whether or not these species are extinct.[5] Extinct subspecies such as the Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica)[6] are not listed here as the species, in this case Panthera tigris, is still extant. The IUCN Redlist classification for each species serves as a citation, and the superscripted "IUCN" by the date is a link to that species' page. A range map is provided wherever available, and a description of their former or current range is given if a range map is not available.

Causes of extinctionEdit

Habitat degradation is currently the main anthropogenic cause of species extinctions. The main cause of habitat degradation worldwide is agriculture, with urban sprawl, logging, mining and some fishing practices close behind. The physical destruction of a habitat, both directly (deforestation for land development or lumber) and indirectly (burning fossil fuels), is an example of this.[7][8]

Also, increasing toxicity, through media such as pesticides, can kill off a species very rapidly, by killing all living members through contamination or sterilizing them. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), for example, can bioaccumulate to hazardous levels, getting increasingly more dangerous further up the food chain.[9]

Disease can also be a factor: white nose syndrome in bats, for example, is causing a substantial decline in their populations and may even lead to the extinction of a species.[10]

Overhunting also has an impact. Terrestrial mammals, such as the tiger and deer, are mainly hunted for their pelts and in some cases meat, and marine mammals can be hunted for their oil and leather. Specific targeting of one species can be problematic to the ecosystem because the sudden demise of one species can inadvertently lead to the demise of another (coextinction) especially if the targeted species is a keystone species. Sea otters, for example, were hunted in the maritime fur trade, and their drop in population led to the rise in sea urchins—their main food source—which decreased the population of kelp—the sea urchin's and Steller's sea cow's main food source—leading to the extinction of the Steller's sea cow.[11] The hunting of an already limited species can easily lead to its extinction, as with the bluebuck whose range was confined to 1,700 square miles (4,400 km2) and which was hunted into extinction soon after discovery by European settlers.[12]


Island creatures are usually endemic to only that island, and that limited range and small population can leave them vulnerable to sudden changes.[13] While Australia is a continent and not an island, due to its geographical isolation, its unique fauna has suffered an extreme decline in mammal species, 10% of its 273 terrestrial mammals, since European settlement (a loss of one to two species per decade); in contrast, only one species in North America has become extinct since European settlement. Furthermore, 21% of Australia's mammals are threatened, and unlike in most other continents, the main cause is predation by feral species, such as cats.[14]

Extinct speciesEdit

A species is declared extinct after exhaustive surveys of all potential habitats eliminate all reasonable doubt that the last individual of a species, whether in the wild or in captivity, has died.[15] Recently extinct species are defined by the IUCN as becoming extinct after 1500 CE.[1]

Common name Binomial name Order Date of extinction Former range Picture
Broad-faced potoroo Potorous platyops
Gould, 1844
Diprotodontia 1875 IUCN Australia  
Eastern hare wallaby Lagorchestes leporides
Gould, 1841
Diprotodontia 1889 IUCN  
Lake Mackay hare-wallaby Lagorchestes asomatus
Finlayson, 1943
Diprotodontia 1932 IUCN Australia
Desert rat-kangaroo Caloprymnus campestris
Gould, 1843
Diprotodontia 1935 IUCN  
or Tasmanian wolf/tiger
Thylacinus cynocephalus
Harris, 1808
Dasyuromorphia 1936 IUCN  
Australia, Tasmania
Toolache wallaby Macropus greyi
Waterhouse, 1846
Diprotodontia 1939 IUCN Australia  
Desert bandicoot Perameles eremiana
Spencer, 1837
Peramelemorphia 1943 IUCN Australia  
Lesser bilby,
or Yallara
Macrotis leucura
Thomas, 1887
Peramelemorphia 1960s IUCN  
Pig-footed bandicoot Chaeropus ecaudatus
Ogilby, 1838
Peramelemorphia 1950s IUCN  
Crescent nail-tail wallaby Onychogalea lunata
Gould, 1841
Diprotodontia 1956 IUCN Australia (western and central)  
Red-bellied gracile opossum,
or red-bellied gracile mouse opossum
Cryptonanus ignitus
Díaz, Flores and Barquez, 2002
Didelphimorphia 1962 IUCN Argentina
Nullarbor dwarf bettong Bettongia pusilla
McNamara, 1997
Diprotodontia 1500 early 1500s IUCN Australia (Nullarbor Plain)
Steller's sea cow Hydrodamalis gigas
von Zimmermann, 1780
Sirenia 1768 IUCN Commander Islands (Russia, United States)  
Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola
Thomas, 1924
Rodentia 2016 IUCN Australia (Bramble Cay)  
Oriente cave rat Boromys offella
Miller, 1916
Rodentia early 1500s IUCN Cuba  
Torre's cave rat Boromys torrei
Allen, 1917
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s IUCN Cuba  
Imposter hutia Hexolobodon phenax
Miller, 1929
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s IUCN Hispaniola (currently Haiti and the Dominican Republic)
Montane hutia Isolobodon montanus
Miller, 1922
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s IUCN Hispaniola
Dwarf viscacha Lagostomus crassus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia 1900 early 1900s IUCN Peru
Galápagos giant rat Megaoryzomys curioi
Niethammer, 1964
Rodentia 1500s IUCN Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos)  
Cuban coney Geocapromys columbianus
Chapman, 1892
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s IUCN Cuba
Hispaniolan edible rat Brotomys voratus
Miller, 1916
Rodentia 1536–1546 IUCN Hispaniola
Puerto Rican hutia Isolobodon portoricensis
Allen, 1916
Rodentia 1900 early 1900s IUCN Hispaniola; introduced to Puerto Rico, Saint Thomas Island, Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands and Mona Island
Big-eared hopping mouse Notomys macrotis
Thomas, 1921
Rodentia 1843 IUCN Australia (central Western Australia)
Darling Downs hopping mouse Notomys mordax
Thomas, 1921
Rodentia 1846 IUCN Australia (Darling Downs, Queensland)
White-footed rabbit-rat Conilurus albipes
Lichtenstein, 1829
Rodentia 1860 early 1860s IUCN Australia (eastern coast)  
Capricorn rabbit rat Conilurus capricornensis
Cramb and Hocknull, 2010
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s IUCN Australia (Queensland)
Short-tailed hopping mouse Notomys amplus
Brazenor, 1936
Rodentia 1896 IUCN Australia (Great Sandy Desert)
Long-tailed hopping mouse Notomys longicaudatus
Gould, 1844
Rodentia 1901 IUCN Australia
Great hopping mouse Notomys robustus
Mahoney, Smith and Medlin, 2008
Rodentia 1500 mid 1800s IUCN Australia (Flinders and Davenport Ranges)
Desmarest's pilorie,
or Martinique giant rice rat
Megalomys desmarestii
Fischer, 1829
Rodentia 1902 IUCN Martinique  
Saint Lucia pilorie,
or Saint Lucia giant rice rat
Megalomys luciae
Major, 1901
Rodentia 1881 1 Saint Lucia  
Bulldog rat Rattus nativitatis
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia 1903 IUCN Christmas Island  
Maclear's rat Rattus macleari
Thomas, 1887
Rodentia 1903 IUCN Christmas Island  
Darwin's Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys darwini
Osgood, 1929
Rodentia 1930 IUCN Galápagos Islands
Gould's mouse Pseudomys gouldii
Waterhouse, 1839
Rodentia 1930 IUCN Australia (southern half)  
Plains rat,
or Palyoora
Pseudomys auritus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia 1800 early 1800s IUCN Australia (Kangaroo Island and the Younghusband Peninsula)
Pemberton's deer mouse Peromyscus pembertoni
Burt, 1932
Rodentia 1931 IUCN San Pedro Nolasco Island, Mexico
Samaná hutia Plagiodontia ipnaeum
Johnson, 1948
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s [a] IUCN Hispaniola
Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis
MacPhee, Horovitz, Arredondo, & Jimenez Vasquez, 1995
Primates early 16th century Hispaniola (currently Dominican Republic)
Lesser stick-nest rat,
or white-tipped stick-nest rat
Leporillus apicalis
John Gould, 1854
Rodentia 1933 IUCN Australia (west-central)  
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys indefessus
Thomas, 1899
Rodentia 1934 IUCN Galápagos Islands
Little Swan Island hutia Geocapromys thoracatus
True, 1888
Rodentia 1955 IUCN Swan Islands, Honduras  
Blue-gray mouse Pseudomys glaucus
Thomas, 1910
Rodentia 1956 IUCN Australia (Queensland, New South Wales)
Buhler's coryphomys
or Buhler's rat
Coryphomys buehleri
Schaub, 1937
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s IUCN West Timor, Indonesia
Insular cave rat Heteropsomys insulans
Anthony, 1916
Rodentia 1500 early 1500s IUCN Vieques Island, Puerto Rico
Candango mouse Juscelinomys candango
Moojen, 1965
Rodentia 1960 IUCN Central Brazil
Anthony's woodrat Neotoma anthonyi
Allen, 1898
Rodentia 1926 IUCN Isla Todos Santos, Mexico
Bunker's woodrat Neotoma bunkeri
Burt, 1932
Rodentia 1931 IUCN Coronado Islands, Mexico
Vespucci's rodent Noronhomys vespuccii
Carleton and Olson, 1999
Rodentia 1500 IUCN Fernando de Noronha, Brazil
St. Vincent colilargo,
or St. Vincent pygmy rice rat
Oligoryzomys victus
Thomas, 1898
Rodentia 1892 IUCN Saint Vincent
Jamaican rice rat Oryzomys antillarum
Thomas, 1898
Rodentia 1877 IUCN Jamaica  
Nelson's rice rat Oryzomys nelsoni
Merriam, 1889
Rodentia 1897 IUCN Islas Marías, Mexico  
Nevis rice rat,
or St. Eustatius rice rat, St. Kitts rice rat
Pennatomys nivalis
Turvey, Weksler, Morris, and Nokkert, 2010
Rodentia early 1500s [b] IUCN Sint Eustatius and Saint Kitts and Nevis  
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi
Andrews, 1900
Chiroptera 2009 IUCN Christmas Island
Sardinian pika Prolagus sardus
Wagner, 1832
Lagomorpha 1774 IUCN Corsica and Sardinia  
Marcano's solenodon Solenodon marcanoi
Patterson, 1962
Eulipotyphla 1500s IUCN Dominican Republic
Puerto Rican nesophontes Nesophontes edithae
Anthony, 1916
Eulipotyphla 1500 early 1500s IUCN Puerto Rico, Vieques Island, Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands  
Atalaye nesophontes Nesophontes hypomicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla 1500 early 1500s IUCN Hispaniola
Greater Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes major
Arredondo, 1970
Eulipotyphla 1500 early 1500s IUCN Cuba
Western Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes micrus
Allen, 1917
Eulipotyphla 1500 early 1500s IUCN Cuba (including Isla de la Juventud)
St. Michel nesophontes Nesophontes paramicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla 1500 early 1500s IUCN Hispaniola
Haitian nesophontes Nesophontes zamicrus
Miller, 1929
Eulipotyphla 1500 early 1500s IUCN Haiti
Lesser Mascarene flying fox,
or dark flying fox
Pteropus subniger
kerr, 1792
Chiroptera 1864 IUCN Réunion, Mauritius  
Guam flying fox,
or Guam fruit bat
Pteropus tokudae
Tate, 1934
Chiroptera 1968 IUCN Guam
Dusky flying fox,
or Percy Island flying fox
Pteropus brunneus
Dobson, 1878
Chiroptera 1870 IUCN Percy Islands (Australia)
Large Palau flying fox Pteropus pilosus
Andersen, 1908
Chiroptera 1874 IUCN Palau
Large sloth lemur Palaeopropithecus ingens
Grandidier, 1899
Primate 1620 IUCN  
In green
Aurochs Bos primigenius
Bojanus, 1827
Artiodactyla 1627 IUCN    
Bluebuck Hippotragus leucophaeus
Pallas, 1766
Artiodactyla 1800 IUCN    
Red gazelle Eudorcas rufina
Thomas, 1894
Artiodactyla 1800 late 1800s IUCN Algeria  
Schomburgk's deer Rucervus schomburgki
Blyth, 1863
Artiodactyla 1932 IUCN Thailand  
Queen of Sheba's gazelle,
or Yemen gazelle
Gazella bilkis
Grover and Lay, 1985
Artiodactyla 1951 IUCN Yemen
Madagascan dwarf hippopotamus Hippopotamus lemerlei
Milne-Edwards, 1868
Artiodactyla 1500 early 1500s [c] IUCN Madagascar  
Falkland Islands wolf or warrah Dusicyon australis
Kerr, 1792
Carnivora 1876 IUCN Falkland Islands  
Burmeister's fox Dusicyon avus
Burmeister, 1866
Carnivora early 1500s IUCN Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay
Sea mink Neogale macrodon
Prentiss, 1903
Carnivora 1894 IUCN United States (Maine, Massachusetts) and Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland)
Japanese sea lion Zalophus japonicus
Peters, 1866
Carnivora 1970s IUCN Japan, Korea, Russia  
Caribbean monk seal Neomonachus tropicalis
Gray, 1850
Carnivora 1952 IUCN Caribbean Sea  
Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelea
Grandidier, 1902
Carnivora before 1658 IUCN    

Extinct in the wildEdit

A species that is extinct in the wild is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as only known by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss. A species is declared extinct in the wild after thorough surveys have inspected its historic range and failed to find evidence of a surviving individual.[15]

Common name Binomial name Order Date of extinction Former range Picture
Père David's deer Elaphurus davidianus
Milne-Edwards, 1866
Artiodactyla 1939 IUCN China  
Scimitar oryx Oryx dammah
Cretzschmar, 1827
Artiodactyla 2000 IUCN Sahara Desert  

Possibly extinctEdit

Extinction of taxa is difficult to detect, as a long gap without a sighting is not definitive. Some mammals declared as extinct may very well reappear.[1] For example, a study found that 36% of purported mammalian extinction had been resolved, while the rest either had validity issues (insufficient evidence) or had been rediscovered.[3] As of December 2015, the IUCN listed 30 mammalian species as "critically endangered (possibly extinct)".[4]

Common name Binomial name Order Last confirmed sighting Range Picture
or Forest ox
Bos sauveli
Urbain, 1937
Artiodactyla 1988 IUCN  
Garrido's hutia Capromys garridoi
Varona, 1970
Rodentia 1989 IUCN[dead link] Cayo Maja, Cuba
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura
Dobson, 1889
Rodentia 1985 IUCN  
Wimmer's shrew Crocidura wimmeri
de Balsac and Aellen, 1958
Rodentia 1976 IUCN  
De Winton's golden mole Cryptochloris wintoni
Broom, 1907
Rodentia 1937 IUCN  
Fuegian dog Lycalopex culpaeus
Bridges, 1919
Lycalopex 1919 IUCN Argentina  
or Yangtze river dolphin
Lipotes vexillifer
Miller, 1918
Cetacea 2002 [d] IUCN    
Zuniga's dark rice rat Melanomys zunigae
Rodentia 1949 IUCN Peru
Dwarf hutia Mesocapromys nanus
Allen, 1917
Rodentia 1937 IUCN Ciénaga de Zapata, Cuba
San Felipe hutia, or Little earth hutia Mesocapromys sanfelipensis
Varona & Garrido, 1970
Rodentia 1978 IUCN Cuba
One-striped opossum Monodelphis unistriata
Wagner, 1842
Didelphimorphia 1899 IUCN  
Gloomy tube-nosed bat Murina tenebrosa
Yoshiyuki, 1970
Chiroptera 1962 IUCN Tsushima Island and possibly Yaku Island, Japan
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta
Dwyer, 1962
Chiroptera 1967 IUCN Big South Cape Island, New Zealand  
Ethiopian amphibious rat, or Ethiopian water mouse Nilopegamys plumbeus
Osgood, 1928
Rodentia 1920s IUCN Mouth of the Lesser Abay River, Ethiopia
Lord Howe long-eared bat Nyctophilus howensis
McKean, 1975
Chiroptera 1972 IUCN Lord Howe Island, Australia
Angel Island mouse Peromyscus guardia
Townsend, 1912
Rodentia 1991 IUCN Isla Ángel de la Guarda, Mexico
Puebla deer mouse Peromyscus mekisturus
Merriam, 1898
Rodentia 1950s IUCN Ciudad Serdan and Tehuacán, Mexico
Telefomin cuscus Phalanger matanim
Flannery, 1987
Diprotodontia 1997 IUCN  
Montane monkey-faced bat Pteralopex pulchra
Flannery, 1991
Chiroptera 1990s IUCN  
Aru flying fox Pteropus aruensis
Peter, 1867
Chiroptera 1877 IUCN  
Emma's giant rat Uromys emmae
Groves and Flannery, 1994
Rodentia 1990s IUCN Papua Province, Indonesia
Emperor rat Uromys imperator
Thomas, 1888
Rodentia 1888 IUCN Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal rat Uromys porculus
Thomas, 1904
Rodentia 1888 IUCN Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands
Central rock rat Zyzomys pedunculatus
Waite, 1896
Rodentia 2001 [e] IUCN    
Malabar large-spotted civet, or Malabar civet Viverra civettina
Blyth, 1862
Carnivora late 1900s [f] IUCN  

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ A 1985 study suggested they may have survived into the 1900s based on local legends of the "comadreja"
  2. ^ There were reports of unusual rats on Nevis being eaten by islanders in the 1930s.[16]
  3. ^ Although, 14C dating points their extinction at 1000 C. E., a 1991 study found they coexisted with humans and survived into the 1500s.[17]
  4. ^ The species may be functionally extinct.[18]
  5. ^ The species was presumed extinct until it was rediscovered in 1996. There was a possible discovery in 2015.[19]
  6. ^ The last confirmed sighting is unknown and their range in the wild is unconfirmed. Camera traps in Karnataka, their presumed habitat, found no individuals after 1,084 nights in 2006.[20]


  1. ^ a b c d e Fisher, Diana O.; Blomberg, Simon P. (2011). "Correlates of rediscovery and the detectability of extinction in mammals". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1708): 1090–1097. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1579. PMC 3049027. PMID 20880890.
  2. ^ Ceballos, G.; Ehrlich, A. H.; Ehrlich, P. R. (2015). The Annihilation of Nature: Human Extinction of Birds and Mammals. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 1421417189. "69"
  3. ^ a b Macphee, Ross D. E.; Flemming, Clare (1999). "Requiem Æternam: the last five hundred years of mammalian species extinctions". In MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Sues, Hans-Dieter (eds.). Extinctions in Near Time. Advances in Vertebrate Paleobiology. 2. ISBN 978-1-4419-3315-7.
  4. ^ a b "IUCN Red List version 2015.4". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Possibly Extinct and Possibly Extinct in the Wild Species" (PDF). IUCN Redlist of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  6. ^ Jackson, P.; Nowell, K. (2008). "Panthera tigris ssp. sondaica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  7. ^ Primack, R. B. (2006). "Habitat destruction". Essentials of Conservation Biology (4th ed.). Sunderland, MA.: Sinauer Associates. pp. 177–188. ISBN 978-0-87893-720-2.
  8. ^ Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken (2015). "Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet". Science Advances. 1 (8): e1500589. Bibcode:2015SciA....1E0589W. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500589. PMC 4643791. PMID 26601273.
  9. ^ Kelly, B. C.; Ikonomou, M. G.; Blair, J. D.; Morin, A. E.; Gobas, F. A. P. C. (2007). "Food Web-Specific Biomagnification of Persistent Organic Pollutants". Science. 317 (5835): 236–239. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..236K. doi:10.1126/science.1138275. PMID 17626882. S2CID 52835862.
  10. ^ Langwig, K.E.; W.F. Frick; J.T. Bried; A.C. Hicks; T.H. Kunz; A.M. Kilpatrick (2012). "Sociality, density-dependence and microclimates determine the persistence of populations suffering from a novel fungal disease, white-nose syndrome". Ecology Letters. 15 (1): 1050–1057. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01829.x. PMID 22747672.
  11. ^ Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F. (2016). "Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (4): 880–885. Bibcode:2016PNAS..113..880E. doi:10.1073/pnas.1502552112. PMC 4743786. PMID 26504217.
  12. ^ Husson, A. M.; Holthuis, L. B. (1969). "On the type of Antilope leucophaea preserved in the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie Leiden". Zoologische Mededelingen. 44: 147–157.
  13. ^ van der Geer, Alexandra; Lyras, George; de Vos, John; Dermitzakis, Michael (2010). Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extinction of Placental Mammals on Islands. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 225–227. ISBN 978-1-4051-9009-1.
  14. ^ Woinarskia, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L. (2015). "Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (5): 4531–4540. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.4531W. doi:10.1073/pnas.1417301112. PMC 4403217. PMID 25675493.
  15. ^ a b IUCN Redlist Categories and Criteria (PDF) (2nd ed.). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Species Survival Commission. 2012. ISBN 978-2-8317-1435-6.
  16. ^ Turvey, Samuel T.; Weksler, Marcelo; Morris, Elaine L.; Nokkert, Mark (2010). "Taxonomy, phylogeny, and diversity of the extinct Lesser Antillean rice rats (Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with description of a new genus and species". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 160 (4): 748–772. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00628.x.
  17. ^ MacPhee, R. D. E.; Burney, David A. (1991). "Dating of modified femora of extinct dwarf Hippopotamus from Southern Madagascar: Implications for constraining human colonization and vertebrate extinction events". Journal of Archaeological Science. 18 (6): 695–706. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(91)90030-S.
  18. ^ Turvey, Samuel T.; Pitman, Robert L.; Taylor, Barbara L.; Barlow, Jay; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Barrett, Leigh A.; Zhao, Xiujiang; Reeves, Randall R.; Stewart, Brent S.; Kexiong, Wang; Zhuo, Wei; Zhang, Xianfeng; Pusser, L. T.; Richlen, Michael; Brandon, John R.; Wang, Ding (2007). "First human-caused extinction of a cetacean species?". Biology Letters. 3 (5): 537–540. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0292. PMC 2391192. PMID 17686754.
  19. ^ McDonald, Peters J.; Brittingham, Richie; Nano, C. E. M.; Paltridge, Rachel M. (2015). "A new population of the critically endangered central rock-rat (Zyzomys pedunculatus) discovered in the Northern Territory". Australian Mammalogy. 37: 97–100. doi:10.1071/AM14012.
  20. ^ Rao, S.; Ashraf, N. V. K.; Nixon, A. M. A. (2007). "Search for the Malabar Civet Viverra civettina in Karnataka and Kerala, India, 2006–2007". Small Carnivore Conservation. 37: 6–10.