List of presidents of Lebanon

This is a list of presidents of Lebanon since the creation of the office in 1926.

President of the
Lebanese Republic
Seal of the President of Lebanon.png
Presidential Seal
since 31 October 2022
StyleHis/Her Excellency
ResidenceBaabda Palace
Term length6 years
Inaugural holderBechara El Khoury
22 November 1943
FormationConstitution of Lebanon
23 May 1926
WebsitePresidency of the Lebanese Republic

Constitutionally (de jure), the president's post carries significant responsibilities and influence. In practice, the president is largely a ceremonial and symbolic post due to external pressure (such as Syrian influence) or the formation of "consensus" cabinets, forcing the president to compromise. In theory, however, the president is responsible for appointing the entire government, therefore the ministers should work to his pleasure. Nevertheless, the president is still able to exercise influence on policy-making and has the role, in conjunction with the prime minister, of choosing ministers in the Government and safeguarding the Constitution of Lebanon.

National PactEdit

Though it is not specifically stated in the constitution, an unwritten understanding known as the National Pact, agreed in 1943, has resulted in the holder of the post being a Maronite Christian in every electoral cycle since that time.

List of officeholdersEdit

State of Greater Lebanon, part of the French Mandate (1926–1943)Edit

No. Portrait Name


Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
1   Charles Debbas

شارل دباس


1 September 1926 2 January 1934 7 years, 123 days Independent
1926, 1929
During the period of the French mandate in Lebanon, he was appointed Minister of Justice, then president of the National Assembly, and finally first President of the Republic of Lebanon he was elected president in 1926, then re-elected in 1929 by 42 votes out of 44, he was kept at his post until January 1934 by the French mandate. Under his presidency, the disarmament of Greater Lebanon was decided, and he instituted the compulsory baccalaureate for the exercise of liberal professions. He was also Minister of Justice and President of the Chamber of Deputies in 1934.[1]
  Antoine Privat-Aubouard

أنطوان أوبوار


2 January 1934 30 January 1934 28 days Independent
He was a member of the French High Commission.
2   Habib Pacha Es-Saad

حبيب باشا السعد


30 January 1934 20 January 1936 1 year, 355 days Independent
He was also speaker of the Representative Council of Greater Lebanon 10 years prior to taking office.
3   Émile Eddé

إميل أده


20 January 1936 4 April 1941 5 years, 74 days National Bloc
Eddé served as the speaker of the Parliament from October 1924 to January 1925,[2] prime minister of Lebanon from 11 October 1929 to 25 March 1930.
  Pierre-Georges Arlabosse

بيار جورج أرلابوس


4 April 1941 9 April 1941 5 days Independent
Arlabosse was a French politician who became acting President of Lebanon for 5 days for the interim period in transfer of presidency from Émile Eddé
4   Alfred Georges Naccache

ألفرد جورج النقاش


9 April 1941 18 March 1943 1 year, 343 days Kataeb Party
Served as the prime minister of Lebanon (1941) and later as foreign minister of Lebanon (1953–1955).
  Ayoub Tabet

أيوب تابت


19 March 1943 21 July 1943 124 days Independent
Acting. Served as Prime Minister of Lebanon for the same period
5   Petro Trad

بيترو طراد


22 July 1943 21 September 1943 61 days Independent
Trad was elected deputy from Beirut in 1925 serving in the Lebanese Parliament for much of the 1920s and 1930s, either elected or appointed by the French authorities. He was a member of the parliamentary committee that worked on the French-Lebanese Treaty of 1936. The French supported him as the Speaker of the Parliament of Lebanon from November 1934 to October 1935 and from October 1937 to September 1939
6   Bechara Khoury

بشارة الخوري


21 September 1943 11 November 1943 51 days Constitutional Bloc
Served as prime minister from 1927 until 1928 and again in 1929 prior to his election as president on 21 September 1943. He was a strong nationalist who opposed the French Mandate, and on 11 November 1943, he was arrested by Free French troops and imprisoned in the Rashaya Tower for eleven days along with other prominent politicians.

Lebanese Republic (1943–present)Edit

No. Portrait Name


Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
  Émile Eddé

إميل أده


11 November 1943 22 November 1943 11 days National Bloc
The High Commissioner installed Eddé as president. Ten days later, however, under pressure from France's other Allies in World War II, the French removed Eddé from office and restored the government of Bechara El Khoury on 21 November. He founded the National Bloc
6   Bechara Khoury

بشارة الخوري


22 November 1943 18 September 1952 8 years, 301 days Constitutional Bloc
1943, 1948
He was released 11 days after being arrested by Free French troops and imprisoned in the Rashaya Tower replacing Emile Edde during WW2
  Fouad Chehab

فؤاد شهاب


18 September 1952 22 September 1952 4 days Military
Chehab refused to allow the army to interfere in the uprising that forced Lebanese President Bechara El Khoury to resign. Chehab became the Prime Minister of Lebanon in September 1952, and hold the additional portfolio of defense minister while also former a military cabinet. Chehab was then appointed acting president with the duty to ensure an emergency democratic presidential election.
7   Camille Chamoun

كميل شمعون


23 September 1952 22 September 1958 5 years, 364 days Constitutional Bloc
National Liberal Party
Served as Minister of the Interior, Post and Telegraph, 1943-1944, Minister of the Interior, Health and Public Aid, 1947-1948. Near the end of his term, Pan-Arabists and other groups backed by Gamal Abdel Nasser, with considerable support in Lebanon's Muslim community attempted to overthrow Chamoun's government in June 1958 after Chamoun tried to seek another term as president against the constitution. Numerous clashes erupted resulting in 1958 Lebanon crisis.
8   Fouad Chehab

فؤاد شهاب


23 September 1958 22 September 1964 5 years, 365 days Independent
Chehab was the Prime Minister of Lebanon in September 1952, and held the additional portfolio of defense minister while also forming a military cabinet. Chehab was appointed acting president with the duty to ensure an emergency democratic presidential election. Following a path of moderation and co-operating closely with the various religious groups, and with both secular and religious forces, Chehab was able to cool tensions and bring stability back to the nation. His ideology inspired the presidencies of 2 other presidents.
9   Charles Helou

شارل حلو


23 September 1964 22 September 1970 5 years, 364 days Chehabist
Helou was an Ambassador to the Vatican in 1947 minister of justice and health (1954–1955) and as minister of education (1964). The Six-Day War of 1967, strained sectarian relations in Lebanon. Many Muslims wanted Lebanon to join the Arab war effort, while many Christians wished to eschew participation. Helou managed to keep Lebanon from entanglement, apart from a brief air strike, but found it impossible to put the lid on the tensions that had been raised. Parliamentary elections in 1968 revealed an increasing polarization in the country, with two major coalitions, one pro-Arab Nationalism, led by Rashid Karami and the other pro-Western, led jointly by former President Camille Chamoun, Pierre Gemayel and Raymond Eddé, both made major gains and won 30 of the 99 seats each.
10   Suleiman Frangieh

سليمان فرنجية


23 September 1970 22 September 1976 5 years, 365 days Marada Movement
Frangieh formed and headed the Marada Movement. In the closest and possibly most controversial presidential election in Lebanese history, the National Assembly elected Frangieh to the Presidency of the Republic on 23 September 1970. He oversaw the beginning of the Lebanese Civil War in the fifth year of his tenure.
11   Élias Sarkis

إلياس سركيس


23 September 1976 22 September 1982 5 years, 364 days Chehabist
It was hoped that Sarkis would be able to unite the warring factions and end the emerging civil war; by September 1976, however, the situation had grown past the government's control as Syria and other countries began interfering and complicating the situation. On 5 March 1980, Sarkis developed his policy as part of his attempts to create national accord: unity, independence, parliamentarian democracy, rejecting the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel.
12   Bachir Gemayel

بشير الجميل


23 August 1982 14 September 1982 22 days Kataeb Party
Was elected during the peek of the Lebanese Civil War. Soon after his election, fighters from the Lebanese Forces were prohibited from wearing their uniforms and also from carrying their weapons in the streets. He notably has close relations with Israel whcih lead to his assassination on the 14th of September 1982 an explosion that killed more than thirty people by SSNP member Habib Shartouni. He was assassinated before officially taking office.
13   Amine Gemayel

أمين الجميل

(born 1942)

23 September 1982 22 September 1988 5 years, 365 days Kataeb Party
He left his post in the Kataeb Party after being elected president. Once elected, he refused to meet any Israeli official. With foreign armies occupying two-thirds of the country (Syria in the north and east, Israel in the south), and private armies independent of government control occupying most of the rest, Gemayel's government lacked any power. He re-organized the Lebanese Army, receiving support from the Multinational Force in Lebanon and despite fierce internal opposition, he reached the May 17 Agreement with Israel in 1983, which stipulated the withdrawal of the Israeli forces and ending the state of war between the two countries, but didn't ratify it.
  Selim Hoss

سليم الحص

(born 1929)

22 September 1988 5 November 1989 1 year, 44 days Independent
Gemayel decided to appoint Maronite army commander Michel Aoun to the office, not withstanding the tradition of reserving it for a Sunni Muslim. Al-Hoss refused to concede the prime minister's post to Aoun, so the two ended up heading rival administrations; with Aoun occupying the presidential palace at Baabda, Hoss established his own office in Muslim-dominated West Beirut.
  Michel Aoun

ميشال عون

(born 1933)

22 September 1988 13 October 1990 2 years, 21 days Military
The outgoing president Amine Gemayel appointed Aoun as Prime Minister, heading a military government formed by six members of the Martial Court, three of which are Christian and three Muslim. He also dismissed the civilian administration of acting Prime Minister Selim Hoss. The Muslims refused to serve, and submitted their resignations on the next day. He controlled his own military faction which was heavily based in East Beirut.
  Second Lebanese Republic
14   René Moawad

رينيه معوض


5 November 1989 22 November 1989 17 days Independence Movement
Moawad served as the Minister of Posts and Telecommunications (1961-1964), Minister of Public Works (1969) and Minister of National Education and Fine Arts (1980-1982). His presidency was disputed by military general Michel Aoun. Seventeen days after being elected, as he was returning from Lebanon's Independence Day celebrations on November 22, 1989, a 250 kg car bomb was detonated next to Moawad's motorcade in West Beirut, killing him and 23 others.[3][4]
Vacant from 22 November 1989 until 24 November 1989
15   Elias Hrawi

إلياس الهراوي


24 November 1989 24 November 1998 9 years Independent
Hrawi served as minister of public works and was a member of the independent Maronite Catholic bloc in the Parliament. Hrawi was elected at the Park Hotel in Chtoura by 47 out of 53 members of two days after the murder of Lebanon's President René Mouawad.[5][6] As President, Hrawi signed into law amendments to the Constitution that formalized the Taif Agreement reforms. He saw the end of the Lebanese Civil War. He signed the treaty of fraternity, co-ordination and co-operation with Syria, in which Lebanon promised not to allow its territory to be used against Syria's interests.[7]
16   Émile Lahoud

إميل لحود

(born 1936)

24 November 1998 24 November 2007 9 years Independent
Lahoud ran for the presidency in 1998 after having the constitution amended to allow the army commander-in-chief to run for office. This amendment is believed to have been backed by Syria.[8] When he became Lebanon's president in 1998, he aligned himself with Hezbollah, and picked his own man as prime minister, Selim al-Hoss.[9] This led to heightened tensions between Rafiq Hariri and Lahoud.[10] During his term, he exerted more control over government decision-making than Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri or Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri.[11] In August 2001, he modified the limits on the executive authority of the presidency stipulated in the 1989 Ta'if Accord and ordered security forces to launch a massive arrest sweep against nationalist dissidents without informing Hariri and other cabinet ministers.[11]
Vacant from 24 November 2007 until 25 May 2008[12]
17   Michel Suleiman

ميشال سليمان

(born 1948)

25 May 2008 25 May 2014 6 years Independent
Suleiman was the commander of the Lebanese Armed Forces (1998-2008). Lebanese political spectrum was deeply polarized, with virtually all parties being divided either in the government loyalists or the opposition which paved way for the non-partisan Michel Suleiman to be elected by parliament. Suleiman launched the table of national dialogue at the Presidential Palace in Baabda on 16 September 2008, in pursuance of the Doha Agreement's articles, and in view of consolidating National Reconciliation and Entente.
Vacant from 25 May 2014 until 31 October 2016[13]
18   Michel Aoun

ميشال عون

(born 1933)

31 October 2016 31 October 2022 6 years Free Patriotic Movement
Aoun was the commander of the Lebanese Armed Forces (1984-1989), held a disputed military presidency and premiership (1988-1990) and leader of the Free Patriotic Movement. From the expiration of the term of President Michel Suleiman in May 2014 until October 31, 2016, the parliament was unable to obtain the majority required to elect a president, and the office was vacant for almost two and a half years, despite more than 30 votes being held. On October 31, 2016, the parliament finally elected Michel Aoun as president after an agreement was signed between the leader of the Free Patriotic Movement Gebran Bassil, and the leader of the Lebanese Forces Samir Geagea[14] at the latter's headquarters in Maarab, which requires Geagea, who had withdrawn from the presidential race, to endorse Michel Aoun's candidacy for the 2016 presidential elections, years after a long rivalry that goes back to the Lebanese Civil War.
Vacant since 31 October 2022


  1. ^ "L'Armée d'Afrique : organe de liaison entre les officiers de réserve de l'Algérie, Tunisie et Maroc et leurs camarades de l'active". Gallica (in French). April 1929. Archived from the original on 2021-11-08. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  2. ^ (in Arabic)Republic of Lebanon – House of Representatives History
  3. ^ Jaber, Ali (23 November 1989). "Lebanon's president killed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2022-11-15. Retrieved 2023-03-29.
  4. ^ "New President of Lebanon killed". Los Angeles Times. 23 November 1989. Archived from the original on 2022-11-15. Retrieved 2023-03-29.
  5. ^ Seeberg, Peter (February 2007). "Fragmented loyalties. Nation and Democracy in Lebanon after the Cedar Revolution" (PDF). University of Southern Denmark. Archived from the original (Working Papers) on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  6. ^ "Former President Hrawi loses fight against cancer". The Daily Star. 8 July 2006. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  7. ^ "Elias Hrawi, 80, Ex-Chief of Lebanon, is Dead". The New York Times. Agence France-Presse. 8 July 2006. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  8. ^ "Emile Lahoud". Lebanon Today. Archived from the original on 3 January 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
  9. ^ Bosco, Robert M. (2009). "The Assassination of Rafik Hariri: Foreign Policy Perspectives". International Political Science Review. 30 (4): 349–363. doi:10.1177/0192512109342521. S2CID 144463265.
  10. ^ Yun, Janice (2010). "Special Tribunal for Lebanon: A Tribunal of an International Character Devoid of International Law". Santa Clara Journal of International Law. 7 (2). Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  11. ^ a b Gambill, Gary C.; Ziad K. Abdelnour; Bassam Endrawos (November 2011). "Emile Lahoud President of Lebanon". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. 3 (11). Archived from the original on 2019-05-12. Retrieved 2023-03-29.
  12. ^ "Lebanon President Steps Down without Successor". Outside the Beltway. 2007-11-24. Archived from the original on 2022-11-04. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  13. ^ Malas, Nour (25 May 2014). "Polarized Lebanon Left Without President as Sleiman's Term Expires". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2014-05-25. Retrieved 2022-11-04.
  14. ^ "Maarab agreement has not collapsed: Geagea". Archived from the original on 2021-11-24. Retrieved 2021-02-13.