List of premiers of China

This is a list of the Premiers of China from 1911–1912 during the Qing dynasty, 1912 onwards of the Republic of China and 1949 onwards of the People's Republic of China.

The first recorded instance of a monarch of China appointing a chief minister was in around 1130 BC, by King Tang of the Shang dynasty. Since then, almost every monarch in China appointed a chief minister to help him or her to run the administration. This role has been known by several different names, most commonly Chancellor. With the unification of China under the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the power in the premiers' hands was reduced because of the Emperors' intentions of setting up an absolute monarchy. In 1380, the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty ordered the death of his Chancellor, and did not appoint another in his lifetime. From then until 1911, a number of people formally shared the responsibility of chief minister to the Emperor. Even when one of them dominated government, such as in the case of Li Hongzhang, they were nevertheless formally just one of several ministers of equal status. During much of the Qing dynasty, for example, the traditional role of the Chancellor was performed collectively by the Grand Council.

In mid 1911, the modern position of Premier was created, when the Qing Imperial Government created the "Princes' Cabinet" as a reform of Chinese politics, shortly before it was overthrown. When Yuan Shikai took over the premiership, the premiers of China played an influential role in Chinese politics.

The list below shows premiers of China during the Qing dynasty. Multiple terms in office, consecutive or otherwise, are listed. The first column shows the consecutively numbered term of the premier, while the second column shows his or her chronological position amongst individual premiers.

For the modern-day positions referred to as Premiers of China, see:

List of prime ministers of Qing Imperial Government (1911–12)Edit

The Qing Imperial Government created the "Imperial Family Cabinet" in May 1911, in order to appease popular anger and calls for reform. But the formation of Cabinet brought even more disaffection. Soon the Wuchang Uprising forced the Qing government to abolish the cabinet, and instead summon Yuan Shikai to head the government. The imperial government collapsed soon afterward.

Zhang Xun briefly held the post during his brief attempt to restore the Qing dynasty in July 1917.

List of prime ministers of Qing Imperial Government

  Non-Partisan   Beiyang clique, etc.

Prime Ministers of Qing Imperial Government
  • period: 8 May 1911 – 10 March 1912
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party Emperor
1   Yikuang (Prince Qing)
慶親王
(1838–1917)
8 May 1911 1 November 1911 177 Non-partisan
(Qing dynasty)
(The Imperial Family)
Xuantong (Puyi)
2   Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Yuán Shìkǎi
(1859–1916)
2 November 1911 12 February 1912 102 Beiyang clique Xuantong (Puyi)
3   Zhang Xun
張勳
Zhāng Xūn
(1854–1923)
1 July 1917 12 July 1917 11 Non-partisan
(warlord)
(restoration attempt)
Puyi
Tried to restore monarchy by a military coup but ended up with failure; not officially recognised by both PRC and ROC governments.

List of premiers of the ROC (since 1912)Edit

List of premiers of the Republic of China

  Non-Partisan   Beiyang clique, etc.   Progressive   Kuomintang (Nationalist)   Democratic Progressive

Premiers of Cabinet of the Republic of China
  • period: 13 March 1912 – 1 May 1914
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party President
1   Tang Shaoyi
唐紹儀
Táng Shàoyí
(1862–1938)
13 March 1912 27 June 1912 106 Beiyang clique Sun Yat-sen, Yuan Shikai
2   Pierre-Célestin Lou
Lou Tseng-tsiang

陸徵祥
Lù Zhēngxiáng
(1871–1949)
29 June 1912 22 September 1912 56 Beiyang clique Yuan Shikai
3   Zhao Bingjun
趙秉鈞
Zhào Bǐngjūn
(1859–1914)
25 September 1912 16 July 1913 328 Beiyang clique Yuan Shikai
  Duan Qirui
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì
(1865–1936)
19 July 1913 31 July 1913 12 Beiyang clique Yuan Shikai
4   Xiong Xiling
熊希龄
Xióng Xīlíng
(1870–1937)
31 July 1913 12 February 1914 196 Beiyang clique Yuan Shikai
  Sun Baoqi
孫寶琦
Sūn Bǎoqí
(1867–1931)
12 February 1914 1 May 1914 78 Beiyang clique Yuan Shikai
Secretaries of State of the Empire of China
  • period: 22 December 1915 – 22 March 1916
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party Emperor
(2)   Pierre-Célestin Lou
Lou Tseng-tsiang

陸徵祥
Lù Zhēngxiáng
(1871–1949)
22 December 1915 22 March 1916 91 Non-partisan Hongxian (Yuan Shikai)
Secretaries of State of the Republic of China
  • period: 1 May 1914 – 22 December 1915; 22 March 1916 – 29 June 1916
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party President
5   Xu Shichang
徐世昌
Xú Shìchāng
(1855–1939)
1 May 1914 21 December 1915 599 Beiyang clique Yuan Shikai
22 March 1916 22 April 1916 31
6   Duan Qirui
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì
(1865–1936)
22 April 1916 29 June 1916 68 Beiyang clique Yuan Shikai, Li Yuanhong
Premiers of State Council of the Republic of China
  • period: 29 June 1916 – 1 July 1917
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party President
(6)   Duan Qirui
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì
(1865–1936)
29 June 1916 23 May 1917 328 Progressive Li Yuanhong
  Wu Tingfang
伍廷芳
Wu Tíngfāng
(1842–1922)
23 May 1917 12 June 1917 20 Progressive Li Yuanhong
  Jiang Chaozong
江朝宗
Jiāng Cháozōng
(1861–1943)
12 June 1917 24 June 1917 12 Progressive Li Yuanhong
7   Li Jingxi
李經羲
Li Jīngxī
(1859–1925)
25 June 1917 2 July 1917 7 Progressive Li Yuanhong
Premiers of State Council of the Republic of China
  • period: 14 July 1917 – 24 November 1924
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party President
(6)   Duan Qirui
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì
(1865–1936)
14 July 1917 22 November 1917 131 Anhui clique Feng Guozhang
  Wang Daxie
汪大燮
Wāng Dàxiè
(1860–1929)
22 November 1917 30 November 1917 8 Zhili clique Feng Guozhang
8   Wang Shizhen
王士珍
Wáng Shìzhēn
(1861–1930)
30 November 1917 20 February 1918 82 Anhui clique Feng Guozhang
  Qian Nengxun
錢能訓
Qián Néngxun
(1869–1924)
20 February 1918 23 March 1918 31 Anhui clique Feng Guozhang
(6)   Duan Qirui
段祺瑞
Duàn Qíruì
(1865–1936)
23 March 1918 10 October 1918 201 Anhui clique Feng Guozhang
9   Qian Nengxun
錢能訓
Qián Néngxun
(1869–1924)
10 October 1918 13 June 1919 246 Anhui clique Xu Shichang
  Gong Xinzhan
龔心湛
Gōng Xīnzhàn
(1871–1943)
13 June 1919 24 September 1919 103 Anhui Clique Xu Shichang
10   Jin Yunpeng
靳雲鵬
Jìn Yúnpéng
(1877–1951)
24 September 1919 14 May 1920 233 Anhui Clique Xu Shichang
  Sa Zhenbing
薩鎮冰
Sà Zhènbīng
(1859–1952)
14 May 1920 9 August 1920 87 Anhui Clique Xu Shichang
(10)   Jin Yunpeng
靳雲鵬
Jìn Yúnpéng
(1877–1951)
9 August 1920 18 December 1921 496 Anhui Clique Xu Shichang
  W.W. Yan
Yan Huiqing

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng
(1877–1950)
18 December 1921 24 December 1921 6 Zhili Clique Xu Shichang
11   Liang Shiyi
梁士詒
Liáng Shìyí
(1869–1933)
24 December 1921 25 January 1922 32 Communications Clique Xu Shichang
  W.W. Yan
Yan Huiqing

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng
(1877–1950)
25 January 1922 8 April 1922 73 Zhili Clique Xu Shichang
  Zhou Ziqi
周自齊
Zhōu Zìqí
(1871–1923)
8 April 1922 11 June 1922 64 Anhui Clique Xu Shichang, Zhou Ziqi (co-serving)
12   W.W. Yan
Yan Huiqing

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng
(1877–1950)
12 June 1922 5 August 1922 54 Zhili Clique Li Yuanhong
(1)   Tang Shaoyi
唐紹儀
Táng Shàoyí
(1862–1938)
5 August 1922 19 September 1922 45 Non-partisan Li Yuanhong
13   Wang Chonghui
王寵惠
Wáng Chǒnghuì
(1881–1958)
19 September 1922 29 November 1922 71 Non-partisan Li Yuanhong
14   Wang Daxie
汪大燮
Wāng Dàxiè
(1860–1929)
29 November 1922 11 December 1922 12 Zhili clique Li Yuanhong
  Wang Zhengting
王正廷
Wáng Zhèngtíng
(1882–1961)
11 December 1922 4 January 1923 24 Non-partisan Li Yuanhong
15   Zhang Shaozeng
張紹曾
Zhāng Shàozéng
(1879–1928)
4 January 1923 13 June 1923 160 Beiyang clique Li Yuanhong, Gao Lingwei
  Gao Lingwei
高凌霨
Gāo Língwèi
(1868–1939)
14 June 1923 12 January 1924 212 Non-partisan Gao Lingwei, Cao Kun
16   Sun Baoqi
孫寶琦
Sūn Bǎoqí
(1867–1931)
12 January 1924 2 July 1924 172 Beiyang clique Cao Kun
  Wellington Koo
Koo Vi-kyuin

顧維鈞
Gù Wéijūn
(1887–1985)
2 July 1924 14 September 1924 74 Non-partisan Cao Kun
(12)   W.W. Yan
Yan Huiqing

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng
(1877–1950)
14 September 1924 31 October 1924 47 Zhili Clique Cao Kun
  Huang Fu
黃郛
Huáng Fú
(1883–1936)
31 October 1924 24 November 1924 24 Non-partisan Cao Kun, Huang Fu (co-serving)
Premiers of State Council of the Republic of China
  • period: 24 November 1924 – 2 June 1928
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party President
17   Xu Shiying
許世英
Xǔ Shìyīng
(1873–1964)
26 December 1925 4 March 1926 68 Non-partisan Duan Qirui
18   Jia Deyao
賈德耀
Jiǎ Déyào
(1880–1940)
4 March 1926 20 April 1926 47 Non-partisan Duan Qirui
  Hu Weide
胡惟德
Hú Wéidé
(1863–1933)
20 April 1926 13 May 1926 23 Non-partisan Hu Weide (co-serving)
  W.W. Yan
Yan Huiqing

顏惠慶
Yán Huìqìng
(1877–1950)
13 May 1926 22 June 1926 40 Non-partisan W.W. Yan (co-serving)
  Du Xigui
杜錫珪
Dù Xīguī
(1875–1933)
22 June 1926 1 October 1926 101 Non-partisan Du Xigui (co-serving)
19   Wellington Koo
Koo Vi-kyuin

顧維鈞
Gù Wéijūn
(1887–1985)
1 October 1926 16 June 1927 258 Non-partisan V.K. Wellington Koo (co-serving)
  Hu Weide
胡惟德
Hú Wéidé
(1863–1933)
16 June 1927 19 June 1927 3 Non-partisan Hu Weide (co-serving)
20   Pan Fu
潘復
Pān Fù
(1883–1936)
20 June 1927 3 June 1928 349 Non-partisan Zhang Zuolin
Presidents of Executive Yuan of the Republic of China
  • period: 25 October 1928 – 24 May 1948
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party President
21   Tan Yankai
譚延闓
Tán Yánkǎi
(1880–1930)
25 October 1928 22 September 1930 697 Kuomintang Tan Yankai (co-serving), Chiang Kai-shek
Died in office.
  T.V. Soong
Soong Tse-ven

宋子文
Sòng Ziwén
(1894–1971)
25 September 1930 18 November 1930 54 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
22   Chiang Kai-shek
蒋中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
18 November 1930 15 December 1931 392 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek (co-serving)
  Chen Mingshu
陳銘樞
Chén Míngshū
(1889–1965)
15 December 1931 1 January 1932 17 Kuomintang Lin Sen
23   Sun Fo
孫科
Sūn Kē
(1891–1973)
1 January 1932 28 January 1932 27 Kuomintang Lin Sen
24   Wang Jingwei
汪兆銘
Wāng Jīngwèi
(1883–1944)
28 January 1932 25 August 1932 210 Kuomintang Lin Sen
  T.V. Soong
Soong Tse-ven

宋子文
Sòng Ziwén
(1894–1971)
25 August 1932 30 March 1933 217 Kuomintang Lin Sen
(24)   Wang Jingwei
汪兆銘
Wāng Jīngwèi
(1883–1944)
30 March 1933 6 November 1935 951 Kuomintang Lin Sen
  H.H. Kung
Kung Hsiang-hsi

孔祥熙
Kǒng Xiángxī
(1881–1967)
6 November 1935 7 December 1935 31 Kuomintang Lin Sen
(22)   Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
7 December 1935 13 December 1936 372 Kuomintang Lin Sen
  H.H. Kung
Kung Hsiang-hsi

孔祥熙
Kǒng Xiángxī
(1881–1967)
13 December 1936 6 April 1937 114 Kuomintang Lin Sen
  Wang Chonghui
王寵惠
Wáng Chǒnghuì
(1881–1958)
6 April 1937 29 May 1937 53 Kuomintang Lin Sen
(22)   Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
29 May 1937 1 January 1938 217 Kuomintang Lin Sen
25   H.H. Kung
Kung Hsiang-hsi

孔祥熙
Kǒng Xiángxī
(1881–1967)
1 January 1938 11 December 1939 709 Kuomintang Lin Sen
(22)   Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
11 December 1939 31 May 1945 1998 Kuomintang Lin Sen, Chiang Kai-shek (co-serving)
26   T.V. Soong
Soong Tse-ven

宋子文
Sòng Ziwén
(1894–1971)
31 May 1945 1 March 1947 639 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
  Chiang Kai-shek
蔣中正
Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng
(1887–1975)
1 March 1947 23 April 1947 53 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
27   Chang Ch'ün
張群
Zhāng Qún
(1889–1990)
23 April 1947 29 May 1948 402 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
Presidents of Executive Yuan of the Republic of China
  • period: 24 May 1948 – present
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Days Political party President
28   Weng Wenhao
翁文灝
Wēng Wénhào
(1889–1971)
29 May 1948 23 December 1948 208 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
(23)   Sun Fo
孫科
Sūn Kē
(1891–1973)
23 December 1948 24 March 1949 91 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek, Li Zongren
29   He Yingqin
何應欽
Hé Yìngqīn
(1890–1987)
24 March 1949 13 June 1949 81 Kuomintang Li Zongren
30   Yan Xishan
閻錫山
Yán Xíshān
(1883–1960)
13 June 1949 15 March 1950 275 Kuomintang Li Zongren (acting), Chiang Kai-shek
Government fled to Taiwan in his term.
31   Chen Cheng
陳誠
Chén Chéng
(1897–1965)
15 March 1950 1 June 1954 1539 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
32   Yu Hung-Chun
俞鴻鈞
Yú Hóngjūn
(1897–1960)
1 June 1954 15 July 1958 1505 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
(31)   Chen Cheng
陳誠
Chén Chéng
(1897–1965)
15 July 1958 16 December 1963 1980 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
  Wang Yun-wu
王雲五
Wáng Yúnwǔ
(1888–1979)
1 July 1963 16 September 1963 77 Non-partisan Chiang Kai-shek
33   C.K. Yen
Yen Chia-kan

嚴家淦
Yán Jiāgàn
(1905–1993)
16 December 1963 1 June 1972 3090 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek
34   Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
Jiǎng Jīngguó
(1910–1988)
1 June 1972 20 May 1978 2179 Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek, C.K. Yen, Chiang Ching-kuo (co-serving)
  Hsu Ching-chung
徐慶鐘
Xú Qìngzhōng
(1907–1996)
20 May 1978 1 June 1978 12 Kuomintang Chiang Ching-kuo
35   Sun Yun-suan
孫運璿
Sūn Yùnxuán
(1913–2006)
1 June 1978 1 June 1984 2192 Kuomintang Chiang Ching-kuo
  Chiu Chuang-huan
邱創煥
Qīu Chuànghuàn
(1925– )
24 February 1984 1 June 1984 98 Kuomintang Chiang Ching-kuo
36   Yu Kuo-hwa
俞國華
Yú Guóhuá
(1914–2000)
1 June 1984 1 June 1989 1826 Kuomintang Chiang Ching-kuo, Lee Teng-hui
37   Lee Huan
李煥
Lǐ Huàn
(1917–2010)
1 June 1989 1 June 1990 365 Kuomintang Lee Teng-hui
38   Hau Pei-tsun
郝柏村
Hǎo Bócūn
(1919– )
1 June 1990 27 February 1993 1002 Kuomintang Lee Teng-hui
39   Lien Chan
連戰
Lián Zhàn
(1936– )
27 February 1993 1 September 1997 1647 Kuomintang Lee Teng-hui
40   Vincent Siew
Siew Wan-chang

蕭萬長
Xiāo Wàncháng
(1939– )
1 September 1997 20 May 2000 992 Kuomintang Lee Teng-hui
41   Tang Fei
唐飛
Táng Fēi
(1933– )
20 May 2000 6 October 2000 139 Kuomintang Chen Shui-bian
42   Chang Chun-hsiung
張俊雄
Zhāng Jùnxióng
(1938– )
6 October 2000 1 February 2002 483 Democratic Progressive Chen Shui-bian
First non-KMT premier.
43   Yu Shyi-kun
游錫堃
Yóu Xíkūn
(1948– )
1 February 2002 1 February 2005 1096 Democratic Progressive Chen Shui-bian
44   Frank Hsieh
Hsieh Chang-ting

謝長廷
Xiè Chángtíng
(1946– )
1 February 2005 25 January 2006 358 Democratic Progressive Chen Shui-bian
45   Su Tseng-chang
蘇貞昌
Sū Zhēnchāng
(1947– )
25 January 2006 21 May 2007 481 Democratic Progressive Chen Shui-bian
(42)   Chang Chun-hsiung
張俊雄
Zhāng Jùnxióng
(1938– )
21 May 2007 20 May 2008 365 Democratic Progressive Chen Shui-bian
46   Liu Chao-shiuan
劉兆玄
Liú Zhàoxuán
(1943– )
20 May 2008 10 September 2009 478 Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou
47   Wu Den-yih
吳敦義
Wú Dūnyì
(1948– )
10 September 2009 6 February 2012 879 Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou
48   Sean Chen
Chen Chun

陳冲
Chén Chōng
(1949– )
6 February 2012 18 February 2013 378 Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou
49   Jiang Yi-huah
江宜樺
Jiāng Yīhuá
(1960– )
18 February 2013 8 December 2014 658 Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou
Youngest premier to take office.
50   Mao Chi-kuo
毛治國
Máo Zhìguó
(1948– )
8 December 2014 1 February 2016 420 Kuomintang Ma Ying-jeou
51   Chang San-cheng
張善政
Zhāng Shànzhèng
(1954– )
1 February 2016 20 May 2016 109 Non-partisan Ma Ying-jeou
First non-partisan premier. First administration with a DPP legislative majority.
52   Lin Chuan
林全
Lín Quán
(1951– )
20 May 2016 8 September 2017 476 Non-partisan Tsai Ing-wen
53   Lai Ching-te
(William Lai)
賴清德
Lài Qīngdé
(1959–)
8 September 2017 14 January 2019 493 Democratic Progressive Tsai Ing-wen
(45)   Su Tseng-chang
蘇貞昌
Sū Zhēnchāng
(1949–)
14 January 2019 Incumbent 919 Democratic Progressive Tsai Ing-wen
Second Premiership

List of premiers of the PRC (since 1949)Edit

The premiership of PRC was created since the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949.

List of premiers of the People's Republic of China
Generations of leadership

  First Administration   Second Administration   Third Administration   Hu–Wen Administration   Xi–Li Administration

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Term of office NPC Cabinet
1   Zhou Enlai
周恩来
(1898–1976)
Beijing At-large
1 October 1949 15 September 1954 26 years, 99 days CP Zhou I
15 September 1954 18 April 1959 I Zhou II
18 April 1959 21 December 1964 II Zhou III
21 December 1964 4 January 1975 III Zhou IV
4 January 1975 8 January 1976 IV Zhou V
Geneva Conference in 1954, Asian-African Conference, 1972 Nixon visit to China, Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution
Offices: Foreign Minister (1949–1958), CPPC Chairman (1954–1976)
†Died in office (cancer)
2   Hua Guofeng
华国锋
(1921–2008)
Hunan At-large
4 February 1976 7 April 1976 4 years, 219 days IV (acting)
7 April 1976 5 March 1978 Hua I
5 March 1978 10 September 1980§ V Hua II
Two Whatevers, Tiananmen Incident, Downfall of the Gang of Four, Sino-Vietnamese War, One Child Policy
Offices: Governor of Hunan (1970–1976), Minister of Public Security (1975–1977), Vice Premier (1975–1976)
§ Ousted
3   Zhao Ziyang
赵紫阳
(1919–2005)
Beijing At-large
10 September 1980 6 June 1983 7 years, 75 days V (acting)
6 June 1983 24 November 1987§ VI Zhao
Chinese economic reform, Sino-British Joint Declaration, Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Offices: Governor of Guangdong (1974–1975), Governor of Sichuan (1975–1980)
§ Resigned
4   Li Peng
李鹏
(1928–2018)
Beijing At-large
24 November 1987 25 March 1988 10 years, 113 days VI (acting)
25 March 1988 15 March 1993 VII Li P. I
15 March 1993 17 March 1998 VIII Li P. II
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Three Gorges Dam, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong
Offices: Chairman of State Education Commission (1985–1988), Vice Premier (1983–1987)
5   Zhu Rongji
朱镕基
(1928– )
Hunan At-large
17 March 1998 19 September 2004 6 years, 186 days IX Zhu
Transfer of sovereignty over Macau, accession to the World Trade Organization
Offices: Mayor of Shanghai (1987–1991), Governor of People's Bank of China (1993–1995), First-ranking Vice Premier (1993–1998)
6   Wen Jiabao
温家宝
(1942– )
Gansu At-large
19 September 2004 16 March 2008 3 years, 177 days X Wen I
16 March 2008 15 March 2013 XI Wen II
SARs outbreak, Anti-Secession Law, H5N1 avian flu outbreak, 2008 Sichuan earthquake, Beijing Olympics, Shanghai Expo
Offices: Vice Premier (1998–2004)
7   Li Keqiang
李克强
(1955– )
Shandong At-large
15 March 2013 Incumbent 8 years, 128 days XII Li Y
2013 Lushan earthquake, H7N9 avian flu outbreak
Offices: First-ranking Vice Premier (2008–2013)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • China Online Encyclopedia