List of possible impact structures on Earth
This is a list of possible impact structures on Earth. More than 130 features on Earth include candidate impact sites that have appeared several times in the literature and/or have been endorsed by the Impact Field Studies Group (IFSG) and/or Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS),. The Earth Impact Database (EID) is used at Wikipedia as authoritative using the terminology "confirmed". The list below includes a three-step confidence level as indicated by the Russian Academy of Sciences, by Anna Mikheeva: 1 for probable, 2 for potential, 3 for questionable. Level 4 is given to discredited structures, hence represent geological features other than impact craters. Structures with confidence 0 are considered "confirmed" (EID) or "proven" (Mikheeva) and should be placed in the lists per continent.
List of possible impact structuresEdit
The following tables list geological features on Earth that some individuals have associated with impact events, but for which there is currently no confirming scientific evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. In order for a structure to be a confirmed as an impact crater, it must meet a stringent set of well established criteria. Some proposed impact structures are eventually confirmed, whereas others are shown to be misidentified (see below). Recent extensive surveys have been done for Australian (2005), African (2014), and South American (2015) craters, as well as those in the Arab world (2016). A book review by A. Crósta and U. Reimold disputes some of the evidence presented for several of the South American structures.
|Confidence||0 - proven[note 1]|
|1 - probable|
|2 - potential|
|3 - questionable|
|4 - discredited|
The Cheko crater is thought by one research group to be the result of the famous Tunguska event, although sediments in the lake have been dated back more than 5,000 years. There is highly speculative conjecture about the supposed Sirente impact (c. 320 ± 90 AD) causing the Roman emperor Constantine's vision at Milvian Bridge.[better source needed]
The Burckle crater and Umm al Binni structure are proposed to be behind the floods that affected Sumerian civilization. The Kachchh impact may have been witnessed by the Harappan civilization and mentioned as a fireball in Sanskrit texts.
As the trend in the Earth Impact Database for about 26 confirmed craters younger than a million years old show that almost all are less than two km (1.2 mi) in diameter (except the three km (1.9 mi) Agoudal and four km (2.5 mi) Rio Cuarto), the suggestion that two large craters, Mahuika (20 km (12 mi)) and Burckle (30 km (19 mi)), formed just within the last few millennia has been met with skepticism.
However, the source of the young (less than a million years old) and enormous Australasian strewnfield (c. 790 ka) is suggested to be a crater about 100 km (62 mi) across somewhere in Indochina, with Hartung and Koeberl (1994) proposing the elongated 100 km × 35 km (62 mi × 22 mi) Tonlé Sap lake in Cambodia (visible in the map at the side) as a suspect structure.
Several twin impacts have been proposed such as the Rubielos de la Cérida and Azuara (30–40 Ma), Cerro Jarau and Piratininga (c. 117 Ma), and Warburton East and West (300–360 Ma). However, adjacent craters may not necessarily have formed at the same time such as case of the confirmed Clearwater East and West lakes.
Some confirmed impacts like Sudbury or Chicxulub are also sources of magnetic anomalies and/or gravity anomalies. The magnetic anomalies Bangui and Jackpine Creek, the gravity anomalies Wilkes Land crater and Falkland Islands, and others have been considered as being of impact origin. Bangui apparently has been discredited, but appears again in a 2014 table of unconfirmed structures in Africa by Reimold and Koeberl.
Several anomalies in Williston Basin were identified by Swatzky in the 1970s as astroblemes including Viewfield, Red Wing Creek, Eagle Butte, Dumas, and Hartney, of which only the last two are unconfirmed.
The Eltanin impact has been confirmed (via an iridium anomaly and meteoritic material from ocean cores) but, as it fell into the Pacific Ocean, apparently no crater was formed. The age of Silverpit and the confirmed Boltysh crater (65.17 ± 0.64 Ma), as well as their latitude, has led to the speculative hypothesis that there may have been several impacts during the KT boundary. Of the five oceans in descending order by area, namely the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Arctic, only the smallest (the Arctic) does not yet have a proposed unconfirmed impact crater.
Craters larger than 100 kilometres (62 mi) in the Phanerozoic (after 541 Ma) are notable for their size as well as for the possible coeval events associated with them especially the major extinction events.
For example, the Ishim impact structure is conjectured to be bounded by the late Ordivician-early Silurian (c. 445 ± 5 Ma), the two Warburton basins have been linked to the Late Devonian extinction (c. 360 Ma), both Bedout and the Wilkes Land crater have been associated with the severe Permian–Triassic extinction event (c. 252 Ma), Manicouagan (c. 215 Ma) was once thought to be connected to the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event (c. 201 Ma) but more recent dating has made it unlikely, while the consensus is the Chicxulub impact caused the one for Cretaceous–Paleogene (c. 66 Ma).
Undiscovered but inferredEdit
There is geological evidence for impact events having taken place on Earth on certain specific occasions, which should have formed craters, but for which no impact craters have been found. In some cases this is because of erosion and Earth's crust having been recycled through plate tectonics, in others likely because exploration of the Earth's surface is incomplete. Typically the ages are already known and the diameters can be estimated.
|Parent crater of||Expected crater diameter||Age||Notes|
|Dakhleh glass||0.4 km||150 ka|||
|Argentinian tektites||5 km||480 ka|||
|Australasian tektites||32–114 km||780 ka|||
|Central American tektites||14 km||820 ka|||
|Skye ejecta deposits||Unknown||60 Ma|||
|Stac Fada Member||40 km||1.2 Ga|||
|Barberton Greenstone Belt microtektites||500 km||3.2 Ga|||
|Marble Bar impact spherules||"hundreds of kilometers"||3.4 Ga||[better source needed]|
Some geological processes can result in circular or near-circular features that may be mistaken for impact craters. Some examples are calderas, maars, sinkholes, glacial cirques, igneous intrusions, ring dikes, salt domes, geologic domes, ventifacts, tuff rings, forest rings, and others. Conversely, an impact crater may originally be thought as one of these geological features, like Meteor Crater (as a maar) or Upheaval Dome (as a salt dome).
The presence of shock metamorphism and shatter cones are important criteria in favor of an impact interpretation, though massive landslides (such as the Köfels landslide of 7800 BC which was once thought to be impact-related) may produce shock-like fused rocks called "frictionite".
- Earth Impact Database
- Gliese 710 – example of gravitational perturbations (in mega-year scale) of the Solar System
- Impact Field Studies Group
- Impact craters
- Impact events
- List of impact craters on Earth
- List of meteor air bursts
- Tollmann's hypothetical bolide
- Traces of Catastrophe book from Lunar and Planetary Institute – comprehensive reference on impact crater science
Notes and referencesEdit
- Impact Field Studies Group
- Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures
- Earth Impact Database
- Mikheeva, 2017
- P. W. Haines (2005). Impact cratering and distal ejecta: the Australian record, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 52, p. 481–507.
- W. Reimold & C. Koeberl (2014). Impact structures in Africa: A review, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 93, May 2014, Pages 57–175.
- R. Acevedo, M. C. Rocca, J. Ponce, S. Stinco (2015). Impact Craters in South America, Springer, Apr 25, 2015.
- M. C. Chabou (2016). An updated inventory of meteorite impact structures in the Arab world, 1st ArabGU International Conference, Feb 2016, Algeria
- A. Crósta and U. Reimold (2016). A Book Review: "Impact Craters in South America, by R. D. Acevedo et al."
- List of confirmed impact craters by name - Earth Impact Database
- Rampino, M.R, and T. Volk. 1996. Multiple impact event in the Paleozoic: Collision with a string of comets or asteroids?. Geophysical Research Letters 23. 49–52. Accessed 2019-04-06.
- Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS), Accessed May 2016
- Meteorite crater site of Ak-Bura
- Bacharev, A (1952), The Murgab meteorite crater. Astron. Tsirk., No 122, p.8-10
- Al Madafi
- Garvin, J. B. & Blodget, H. W. (1986). Suspected Impact Crater Near Al Madafi, Saudi Arabia, Meteoritics, Vol. 21, p.366
- Roger Weller. Al Madafi crater
- Henry Brean (2015). New study ranks Nevada crater among world's largest, Las Vegas Review Journal
- A. Rossi (2002). Seven Possible New Impact Structures In Western Africa Detected On Aster Imagery, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII
- Roger Weller Anefis crater
- Ocampo, A. & Pope, K. (1996). Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-C) Images Reveal Multiple Impact Craters at Aorounga, Northern Chad, Lunar and Planetary Science, volume 27, page 977.
- S. Master & W. Reimold (2000). The impact cratering record of Africa: An updated inventory of proven, probable, possible, and discredited impact structures on the African continent, Catastrophic Events Conference 2000.
- Zeilik, B. (1987). The Arganaty cosmogenic crater in southern Kazakhstan and the ring structures associated with it. Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Doklady, vol. 297, no. 4, 1987, p. 925-928.
- M. Barash (2012). Mass Extinction of Ocean Organisms at the Paleozoic–Mesozoic Boundary: Effects and Causes. Oceanology, 2012, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 238–248.
- Unnamed ("Arlit")
- David Rajmon (2010). Impact Field Studies Group
- Marc Fokker (2008). Astroforum Netherlands
- Connelly, Daniel P. "Guide to MAPCIS for AGCC" (PDF). Retrieved 31 March 2019.
- Bajada del Diablo
- R. D. Acevedo, J. Rabassa, M. J. Orgeira, et al. (2010) Bajada Del Diablo Impact Crater Strewn-Field, Patagonia, Argentina: The Largest Crater Field In The World? 73rd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
- Acevedo, R. D.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F, et al. (2012) The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field, central Patagonia Argentina: Extending the exploration to surrounding areas Geomorphology, Volume 169, p. 151-164.
- Bajo Hondo
- M. C. Rocca (2005). BAJO HONDO, CHUBUT, PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA: A NEW METEORITE IMPACT CRATER IN BASALT?, 68th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
- Girdler, R.; Taylor, P.; Frawley, J. (1992). A possible impact origin for the Bangui magnetic anomaly (Central Africa). Tectonophysics, Volume 212, Issue 1, p. 45-58
- S. Master, G.R.J. Cooper and K. Klajnik (2013). The Bateke Plateau Structure – A New Possible 7 Km Diameter Quaternary Meteorite Impact Structure In Gabon: A Remote Sensing Study, 13th SAGA Biennial Conference & Exhibition
- Becker et al. (2004). Bedout: A Possible End-Permian Impact Crater Offshore of Northwestern Australia, Science , No.304, 1469-1476
- Haines P.W. (2005). Impact cratering and distal ejecta: the Australian record. Aus.Journal of Earth sciences. Vol.52, N.4/5. Aug./Oct. p.481-507
- Bee Bluff
- R. A. Graham (2005) Reinvestigation of the Bee Bluff Structure South of Uvalde, Texas, 'The Uvalde Crater'. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005)
- Bee Bluff
- H. Henkel, A. Bäckström, B. Bergman, O. Stephansson, and M. Lindström (2005). Geothermal Energy from Impact Craters? The Björkö Study, Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005
- Bloody Creek
- M. Papagiannis (1989). Photographs from geostationary satellites indicate the possible existence of a huge 300 KM impact crater in the Bohemian region of Czechoslovakia, Meteoritics, Vol. 24, p.313.
- P. Rajlich (1992). Bohemian Circular Structure, Czechoslovakia: Search for the Impact Evidence, International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution. Held 1992, in Sudbury, Canada
- Bow City
- L. P. Hrjanina (Khryanina), 2006. "Once again about Kainozoic meteorite structures in the Ross Sea, Antarctica" (PDF).
- Gerard-Little, P., Abbott, D., Breger, D. and Burckle, L (2006). "Evidence for a Possible Late Pliocene Impact in the Ross Sea, Antarctica".CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Paul Rincon (2006). Space impact clue in Antarctica, BBC News
- Brushy Creek
- Heinrich, P.V. (2003) Possible Meteorite Impact Crater in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana Search and Discovery Article. no. 50006. American Association of Petroleum Geologist, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Abbott, Dallas H. , Martos, Suzanne, Elkinton, Hannah, Bryant, Edward F., Gusiakov, Viacheslav, and Breger, Dee (2006). Impact craters as sources of megatsunami generated chevron dunes. 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting (22-25 October 2006)
- Masse W. B. , Bryant E., Gusiakov V., Abbott D., Rambolamanana G., Raza H., Courty M.A. (2006). Holocene Indian ocean cosmic impacts ---- the megatsunami chevron evidence from southern Madagascar. AGU, San Francisco
- Mark R. Legg, Craig Nicholson, Chris Goldfinger, Randall Milstein, and Marc Kamerling (2004). Large enigmatic crater structures offshore southern California, Geophys. J. Int. (2004) 159, 803–815
- Brandsma Dan, Lund Steve P., Henyey Thomas L. (1989). Paleomagnetism of Late Quaternary marine sediments from Santa Catalina basin, California continental borderland . J. Geophys. Res. B, Vol.94, No.1, P. 547-564
- A. Crósta, R. Romano (2004). Brazilian Impact Craters: A Review, 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2004)
- A. Crósta, M. Vasconcelos (2013). Update On The Current Knowledge Of The Brazilian Impact Craters, 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2013)
- Charity Shoal
- Holcombe, T.L., J. S. Warren, D. F. Reid, W. T. Virden, and D. L. Divins, 2001, Small Rimmed Depression in Lake Ontario: An Impact Crater? Journal of Great Lakes Research. vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 510-517.
- Holcombe, T.L., S. Youngblut, and N. Slowey, 2013, Geological structure of Charity Shoal crater, Lake Ontario, revealed by multi beam bathymetry. Geo-Marine Letters. vol. 33, no. 4, pp 245-252.
- Suttak, P.A., 2013, High-resolution lake-based magnetic mapping and modeling of basement structures, with examples from Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey and Charity Shoal, Lake Ontario. unpublished MS thesis, School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. 113 pp.
- Higgins, M.D., P. Lajeunesse, G. St-Onge, R. Sanfacon, and M. Duchesne, 2013, Impact Breccia Clast from the Corossol Crater, Canada. 76th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. id.5190.
- Lajeunesse, P., St‐Onge, G., Locat, J., Duchesne, M.J., Higgins, M.D., Sanfaçon, R. and Ortiz, J., 2013. The Corossol structure: A possible impact crater on the seafloor of the northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 48(12), pp. 2542–2558.
- Lajeunesse, P., Duchesne, M.J., St-Onge, G., Locat, J., Higgins, M., Sanfaçon, R. and Ortiz, J., 2016. The Corossol Structure: a glaciated crater of possible impact origin in the northwestern Gulf of St Lawrence, eastern Canada. In Dowdeswell, J. A., Canals, M., Jakobsson, M., Todd, B. J., Dowdeswell, E. K. & Hogan, K. A. (eds) 2016. Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient. Geological Society, London, Memoirs, 46(1), pp.127–128.
- Briggs, D.E., Liu, H.P., McKay, R.M. and Witzke, B.J., 2018. The Winneshiek biota: exceptionally well-preserved fossils in a Middle Ordovician impact crater. Journal of the Geological Society, 175(6), pp.865-874.
- French, B.M., McKay, R.M., Liu, H.P., Briggs, D.E. and Witzke, B.J., 2018. The Decorah structure, northeastern Iowa: geology and evidence for formation by meteorite impact. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 130(11-12), pp.2062-2086.
- "Potential asteroid impact identified in western Queensland". Geoscience Australia. 2015-03-17. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- Glikson, A.; R.J. Korsch, and P. Milligan. 2016. The Diamantina River ring feature, Winton region, western Queensland. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 63. 1–11. Accessed 2019-04-06.
- Gubins, A. & Strangway, D. (1978). Magnetic Fields Associated with a Probable Late Cretaceous Astrobleme at Dumas, Saskatchewan, LUNAR AND PLANETARY SCIENCE IX, PP. 433–435
- Wu Siben (1989). (1989). "Geologic feature of the Duolun impact crater". Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 20: 1219. Bibcode:1989LPI....20.1219W.
- El-Baz, F. (1981). Science, 213, 439–440.
- Shuvalov V.V. (2006). Numerical modeling of the Eltanin impact: determination of projectile size and tsunami amplitude. 40 ESLAB Symposium: 1 International Conference on Impact Cratering in the Solar System, Noordwijk, 8-12 May, 2006, Noordwijk: ESA, P. 201-202
- Weiss Rober, Lynett Patrick; Wunnemann Kai (2015). The Eltanin impact and its tsunami along the coast of South America: Inigshts for potential deposits Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. - Vol. 409. - P. 175-181
- Faya Basin
- M. Schmieder and E. Buchner (2010). The Faya Basin (Chad) revisited – structural insights from central peak morphology and potential Martian analogs, Nördlingen Ries Crater Workshop (2010).
- M. Rocca and J. Presser (2015) A possible new very large impact structure in Malvinas Islands, Historia Natural, Tercera Series, Volumen 5(2), 2015.
- Acevedo, R. D.; Rocca, M. C. L.; Ponce, J.; Stinco, S. G. (2015). Impact Craters in South America. Springer. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-319-13093-4.
- Maximiliano C.L. Rocca et al. (2017). (2017). "Geophysical evidence for a large impact structure on the Falkland (Malvinas) Plateau". Terra Nova. 29 (4): 233–237. doi:10.1111/ter.12269.
- Hannah Osborne (May 5, 2017). "Crater Potentially Linked to the Biggest Mass Extinction Event in Earth's History is Discovered". Newsweek Tech & Science.
- Fried Egg
- Amos, J (2009) 'Fried Egg' may be impact crater BBC News.
- Garet El Lefet
- Roger Weller. Garet El Lefet crater
- J. Classen (1977). Catalogue of 230 certain, probable, possible, and doubtful impact structures, Meteoritics, vol. 12, Mar. 31, 1977, p. 61-78.
- General San Martín
- Harris, R. S.; Schultz, P. H.; Zárate, M. A. (2007) La Dulce Crater: Evidence For A 2.8 Km Impact Structure In The Eastern Pampas Of Argentina, 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
- R. D. Acevedo, M. Rocca, J. Rabassa and J. F. Ponce (2011) Meteorite Impact Craters In South America: A Brief Review. 74th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting (2011)
- R. Iaskty and A. Glikson (2005). "Gnargoo: a possible 75 km-diameter post-Early Permian – pre-Cretaceous buried impact structure, Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia", Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol 52, 2005
- Monteiro Jose Fernando (1991). The Guarda circular structure: a possible complex impact crater . Lunar and Planet. Sci., Houston (Tex.), Vol.22, P. 915-916
- Stanton, M. S., 2002, Is the Gulf's Origin Heaven Sent? AAPG Explorer (Dec. 2002) American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Tulsa Oklahoma.
- C. Anderson (1980). A Seismic Reflection Study of a Probable Astrobleme near Hartney, Manitoba
- Kjær, Kurt H.; et al. (2018). "A large impact crater beneath Hiawatha Glacier in northwest Greenland". Science Advances. 4 (11): eaar8173. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aar8173. PMC 6235527. PMID 30443592.
- J. Glidewell (2009). SEISMIC DATA THROUGH THE HICO STRUCTURE: A POSSIBLE IMPACT FEATURE IN NORTHCENTRAL TEXAS, 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
- Wiberg Leanne (1982). The Hico Structure: a possible impact structure in north-central Texas, USA. Lunar and Planet. Sci. 13: Abstr. Pap. 13th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf., Houston, Tex., March 15-19, Pt 2., Houston, Tex., P. 863-864
- M. Mazur and R. Stewart (1998). Interpreting the Hotchkiss structure: A possible meteorite impact feature in northwestern Alberta, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology (CREWES).
- B. Deane, P. Lee, K. Milam, J. Evenick, and R.Zawislak (2004). THE HOWELL STRUCTURE, LINCOLN COUNTY, TENNESSEE: A REVIEW OF PAST AND CURRENT RESEARCH, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV
- Milam, K. A., Henderson, T., Deane, B. (2014). An Assessment Of Shock Metamorphism In Breccias From The Howell Structure, Lincoln County, Tennessee, USA, Abstracts of the 2014 GSA Annual Meeting, Geological Society of America
- E. Ghoneim (2009). Ibn-Batutah: A possible simple impact structure in southeastern Libya, a remote sensing study, Geomorphology, Volume 103, Issue 3, p. 341-350.
- Frank Dachille (1976). (1976). "Frequency of the formation of large terrestrial impact craters". Meteoritics. 11: 270. Bibcode:1976Metic..11..270D.
- Zeylik B. S.; Seytmuratova E. Yu, 1974: A meteorite-impact structure in central Kazakhstan and its magmatic-ore controlling role. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 1, Pages 167–170
- Jackpine Creek
- S. Goussev, R. Charters, J. Peirce and W. Glenn (2002). Jackpine Creek Magnetic Anomaly: A Case of the HRAM Prospect Scale Interpretation. CSEG: The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists
- Jebel Hadid
- Martin Schmieder, Elmar Buchner, & Daniel Paul Le Heron (2009). The Jebel Hadid structure (Al Kufrah Basin, SE Libya)—A possible impact structure and potential hydrocarbon trap?, Marine and Petroleum Geology, Volume 26, Issue 3, March 2009, Pages 310–318
- Jeptha Knob
- Snows Island
- Talwani Pradeep, Wildermuth Eric, Parkinson Chris D. (2003). An impact crater in northeast South Carolina inferred from potential field data. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol.30, No.7, P.19/1-19/4
- Jwaneng South
- Sharad Master, Brad Pitts and Marek Wendorff (2009). Jwaneng South Structure, Botswana: a New 1.3 km Diameter Buried Cenozoic Impact Crater Discovered by Airship-mounted Gravity Gradometer, 11th SAGA Biennial Technical Meeting and Exhibition
- R. V. Karanth, P. Thakker, and M. Gadhavi 2006. A preliminary report on the possible impact crater of Kachchh, Current Science, vol. 91, no. 7, October 2006
- Reimold W.U., Koeberl Ch. (2014). Impact structures in Africa: A review J. Afr. Earth. Sci. 93: 57-175
- M.S. Huber, D.T. King, Jr., L.W. Petruny, and C. Koeberl (2013). REVISITING KILMICHAEL (MISSISSIPPI), A POSSIBLE IMPACT STRUCTURE, 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
- Robertson P.B., Butler M.D. (1982). New evidence for the impact origin of Kilmichael Mississippi. Lunar and Planet. Sci. 13: Abstr. Pap. 13th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf., Houston, Tex., March 15-19, 1982. Pt 2, Houston, Tex., P. 653-654
- King D.T. Petruny Jr. and L.W. (2002). COSMIC IMPACT IN THE COASTAL PLAIN OF MISSISSIPPI? THE RIDDLE THE OF THE KILMICHAEL STRUCTURE 65th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
- T. Marjanac, A. Tomša, Lj. Marjanac, M. Calogovic & S. Fazinic (2015). Krk impact structure ejecta breccia and melt rocks on the islands of Krk and Rab, Croatian Adriatic: A clue on the impact target lithology, Bridging the Gap III (2015)
- Kurai Basin
- S. A. Vishnevsky (2007). The Kurai Basin, Altai mountains (Russia): First evidences of impact origin, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007)
- La Dulce
- Dietz, R. S. & McHone, J. (1974). Impact structures from ERTS imagery, Meteoritics, Vol. 9, p.329
- Roger Weller. Labynkyr ring
- Lac Iro
- James B. Garvin (1986). POSSIBLE IMPACT STRUCTURES IN CENTRAL AFRICA
- (in Russian) Lake Cheko
- Tai Hu
- Roger Weller. Tai Hu crater
- Wang, K.; Geldsetzer, H. H. J. (1992). "A late Devonian impact event and its association with a possible extinction event on Eastern Gondwana". Lunar and Planetary Inst., International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution: 77. Bibcode:1992lmip.conf...77W.
- Loch Leven
- B. J. Hamill (2003). The Loch Leven Crater: Anatomy Of A Low-Angle Oblique Impact Structure, Large Meteorite Impacts (2003)
- P. Tonkin (1998). Lorne Basin, New South Wales: Evidence for a possible impact origin?, Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 45, Issue 5, 1998
- Lycksele 2
- D. Nisca, H. Thunehed, L.J. Pesonen, S-Å. Elming (1997). The Lycksele structure, a huge ring formation in northern Sweden: result of an impact?, Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution
- L.J. Pesonen (1996). The Impact Cratering Record of Fennoscandia, Earth, Moon and Planets, Volume 72, Issue 1–3, pp. 377–393
- Madagascar 3
- Roger Weller. Madagascar structure
- Tamas Bodoky et al. (2007). Is the Magyarmecske telluric conductivity anomaly a buried impact structure?
- Bodoky Tamas, Kis Marta, Kummer Istvan, Don Gyorgy (2006). The telluric conductivity anomaly at magyarmecske: is it a buried impact crater?. 40th ESLAB First International Conference on Impact Cratering in the Solar System, Noordwijk,The Netherlands
- Bodoky T., Kis M., Kummer I., Don Gy. (2006). Geophysical signatures indicate a possible impact crater in Sw-Hungary. 40 ESLAB Symposium: 1 International Conference on Impact Cratering in the Solar System, Noordwijk, 8-12 May, 2006, Noordwijk: ESA, P. 111
- Abbott, D.H., A. Matzen, E.A. Bryant, and S.F. Pekar (2003). Did a bolide impact cause catastrophic tsunamis in Australia and New Zealand?. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 35:168
- Abbott, Dallas H. , Martos, Suzanne, Elkinton, Hannah, Bryant, Edward F., Gusiakov, Viacheslav, and Breger, Dee (2006). Impact craters as sources of megatsunami generated chevron dunes. 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting (22-25 October 2006)
- Garde, Adam A.; McDonald, Iain; Dyck, Brendan; Keulen, Nynke (2012). "Searching for giant, ancient impact structures on Earth: The Mesoarchaean Maniitsoq structure, West Greenland". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 337–338: 197–210. Bibcode:2012E&PSL.337..197G. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.04.026.
- Scherst, Anders; Garde, Adam A. (30 July 2013). "Complete hydrothermal re-equilibration of zircon in the Maniitsoq structure, West Greenland: A 3001 Ma minimum age of impact?". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 48 (8): 1472–1498. Bibcode:2013M&PS...48.1472S. doi:10.1111/maps.12169.
- Roger Weller. Mejaouda crater
- Merewether crater
- J. B. Garvin and J. J. Frawley (2008). Geometric Properties Of The Merewether Structure, Newfoundland, Canada.Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008)
- Meseta de la Barda Negra
- A.C. Ocampo, A.C. Garrido, J. Rabassa, M.C. Rocca, J.C. Echaurren, and E. Mazzoni (2005). A Possible Impact Crater In Basalt At Meseta De La Barda Negra, Neuquen, Argentina, 68th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
- Middle Urals
- G. Burba (1991). Middle-Urals Ring structure, USSR: Definition, description, possible planetary analogues, Lunar and Planetary Science conference XXII.
- G. Burba (2003). The geologic evolution of the Ural Mountains: A supposed exposure to a giant impact. Microsymposium 38, MS011, 2003
- 1987 - S.Genest and F.Robert The Mistassini-Otish impact structure, Northern Quebec, Canada: an update
- Mount Ashmore
- A. Glikson, D. Jablonski, & S. Westlake (2010). Origin of the Mt Ashmore structural dome, west Bonaparte Basin, Timor Sea. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 57, Issue 4
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