List of political parties in the United States

This is a list of political parties in the United States, both past and present. The list does not include independents.

Active parties edit

Major parties edit

Party Ideology Year
founded
Membership (2022)
[1]
Presidential vote[2] Senators
[3]
Representatives[4] Governors
[5]
State
legislators
[5]
Legislatures
[5]
Trifectas
[5]
Electoral Popular Voting Nonvoting
  Democratic Party Social liberalism (American) 1828 47,194,492
306 / 538
81,284,778
(51.27%)
51 / 100
[A]
212 / 435
3 / 6
28 / 55
3,271 / 7,383
19 / 49
17 / 49
  Republican Party Conservatism (American) 1854 35,723,389
232 / 538
74,224,501
(46.82%)
49 / 100
222 / 435
3 / 6
26 / 55
4,031 / 7,383
28 / 49
22 / 49

Third parties edit

Represented in state legislatures edit

The following third parties have members in state legislatures affiliated with them.

Party Ballot access (2022) Ideology Year
founded
Membership Presidential vote (2020) State
legislators
  Libertarian Party See also the list of affiliates
AZ, CA, CO, DE, FL, HI, ID, IN, KS, LA, MD, MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NC, NH, OH, OK, OR, SC, SD, TX, UT, VT, WV, WY + D.C.[6][7]
Libertarianism (American)[8] 1971[9] 727,776

(2022)[1]

1,865,917 (1.18%)
1 / 7,383[10]
  Forward Party CO, FL, SC, UT, VA[11] Human-Centered Capitalism
Populism
Reformism
Radical centrism
2022 63 (UT)[12] No candidate
2 / 7,383[13]
Vermont Progressive Party Vermont Progressivism (American)[14]
Democratic socialism[14]
1993 Unknown No candidate
6 / 7,383[15]
  Independent Party of Oregon Oregon Centrism[16] 2007 137,972

(2022)[1]

No candidate
1 / 7,383[17]

Represented in the legislature of the unincorporated territory of Puerto Rico edit

The following third parties are represented in the Puerto Rican Legislature.

Party Ideology Year
founded
President Gubernatorial vote[18] Senators[19] Representatives[19] Mayors[20]
  New Progressive Party
Partido Nuevo Progresista
Puerto Rico statehood 1967[21] Pedro Pierluisi 427,016 (33.24%)
10 / 27
21 / 51
36 / 78
  Popular Democratic Party
Partido Popular Democrático
Pro-Commonwealth
Centrism
1938[22] Jesus Manuel Ortiz 407,817 (31.75%)
12 / 27
26 / 51
41 / 78
  Citizens' Victory Movement
Movimiento Victoria Ciudadana
Anti-imperialism
Anti-neoliberalism
Progressivism
2019 Ana Irma Rivera Lassén 179,265 (13.95%)
2 / 27
2 / 51
0 / 78
  Puerto Rican Independence Party
Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño
Puerto Rico independence
Social democracy
1946[21] Rubén Berríos 175,402 (13.58%)
1 / 27
1 / 51
0 / 78
  Project Dignity
Proyecto Dignidad
Christian democracy
Anti-corruption
2019 César Váquez Muñiz 87,379 (6.80%)
1 / 27
1 / 51
1 / 78

Parties with ballot access for Congress, state legislatures, or territorial legislatures edit

The following third parties have ballot access in at least one state and are not represented in a national office, state legislature, or territorial legislature.[23]

Multi-state or territory edit
Single state or territory edit

Active parties without ballot access edit

The following parties have been active in the past 4 years, but as of December 2021, did not have official ballot access in any state.[23]

Multi-state or territory edit
Single state or territory edit

Historical parties edit

Held national office or elected to Congress edit

Party Years in national office Other names Ideology Mergers/Splits Created Disbanded
Federalist Party 1789–1825 Classical conservatism[80] 1789 1824
Anti-Administration party 1789–1792 Anti-Federalism[81] Merged into: Democratic-Republican Party in 1792 1789 1792
Democratic-Republican Party 1792–1825 Republican Party, Democratic Party Jeffersonianism[82] Split into: Democratic Party and National Republican Party 1792 1825
National Republican Party 1825–1837 Anti-Jacksonian Party, Adams-Clay Republicans Classical conservatism[83] Merged into: Whig Party 1825 1837
Anti-Masonic Party 1829–1839 Anti-Masonry[84] Merged into: Whig Party 1828 1838
Nullifier Party 1831–1839 Nullification[85] 1828 1839
Whig Party 1837–1857 Traditionalist conservatism[86] 1833 1854
Law and Order Party of Rhode Island 1843–1845 Charterites Anti-Dorr Rebellion[87] Merged into: Whig Party 1840 1848
Liberty Party 1845–1849 Abolitionism[88] Merged into: Free Soil Party and Republican Party 1840 1848
Know Nothing Party 1845–1860 Nativism[89] Merged into: Constitutional Union Party (South) and Republican Party (North) 1844 1860
Free Soil Party 1849–1857 Abolitionism[90] Merged into: Republican Party 1848 1855
Unionist Party 1851–1853 American unionism[91] Merged into: National Union Party 1852 1861
Opposition Party (Northern) 1855–1857 Abolitionism[92] Merged into: Republican Party 1854 1858
Opposition Party (Southern) 1859–1860 Pro-slavery[93] Merged into: Constitutional Union Party 1858 1860
Constitutional Union Party 1860 Unionist Party Southern unionism[94] Merged into: Unconditional Union Party 1860 1860
Unconditional Union Party 1860–1866 Unionist Party American unionism[95] Merged into: National Union Party 1861 1866
Liberal Republican Party 1871–1875 Classical liberalism[96] Merged into: Republican Party and Democratic Party 1871 1875
Anti-Monopoly Party 1873–1881 Progressivism[97] Merged into: People's Party (1892) 1874 1886
Greenback Party 1879–1889 Currency reform[98] Merged into: People's Party (1892) 1874 1884
Readjuster Party 1881–1889 Left-wing populism[99] 1870 1885
Labor Party 1887–1891
People's Party (1892) 1892–1903 Populist Party Populism[100] Merged into: Democratic Party 1892 1908
Silver Party 1893–1902 Bimetalism[101] Merged into: Democratic Party 1892 1902
Silver Republican Party 1897–1900 Bimetalism[102] Merged into: Republican Party 1896 1900
Socialist Party of America 1911–1913
1915-1919
1921-1929
Democratic socialism[103] Splinter parties: Nonpartisan League (1915)
National Party (1917)
Communist Party USA (1919)
Proletarian Party of America (1920)
American Labor Party (1936)
Social Democratic Federation (1936)
Final Split: (1972-1973) Socialist Party USA, Social Democrats, USA, and Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee
1901 1972
Progressive Party (1912) 1913–1919 Bull Moose Party Progressivism[104] Merged into: Republican Party 1912 1920
Farmer–Labor Party 1919–1921
1923-1945
Social democracy[105] 1920 1936
Wisconsin Progressive Party 1935–1946 1934 1946
American Labor Party (1936) 1939–1951 Social democracy[106] 1936 1956
Non-Partisan League 1917-1959 NPL Democratic Socialism Agrarianism[107] Merged into: North Dakota Democratic-NPL Party[108] 1915 1956

Multi-State political parties edit

Single state political parties edit

Political parties in the unincorporated territories edit

Party Territory Other names Ideology Mergers/Splits Created Disbanded
Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Puerto Rico Puerto Rican nationalism[171] 1922 1965
Puerto Rican Socialist Party Puerto Rico Puerto Rican nationalism[172] 1959 1993
Covenant Party Northern Mariana Islands Populism Merged into: Republican Party 2001 2013[173]
Working People's Party Puerto Rico Partido del Pueblo Trabajador 2010 2016
Popular Party Guam Commercial Party Merged into: Democratic Party 1949 1964

Non-electoral organizations edit

Active edit

These organizations generally do not nominate candidates for election, but some of them have in the past; they otherwise function similarly to political parties.


Historical edit

These historical organizations did not officially nominate candidates for election but may have endorsed or supported campaigns; they otherwise functioned similarly to political parties.

See also edit

Notes edit

Notes
  1. ^ Includes three Independent Senators who all caucus with the Democratic Party.[3]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Votes counted in a fusion ticket.
  3. ^ a b Nominated a candidate associated with a different party.
Footnotes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Winger, Richard (September 4, 2022). "August 2022 Ballot Access News Print Edition". Ballot Access News. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e "2020 Presidential General Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections.
  3. ^ a b "U.S. Senate: Party Division". United States Senate. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  4. ^ "Party Breakdown". House Press Gallery. November 29, 2018. Archived from the original on March 14, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d "State Partisan Composition". National Conference of State Legislatures. April 1, 2019. Archived from the original on February 18, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  6. ^ Johnston, Bob (November 9, 2020). "Ballot Access Update". Libertarian Party. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e Doherty, Brian (September 15, 2022). "Libertarian Party Faces State Rebellions". Reason. Retrieved September 24, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d Segal, Cheryl (May 27, 2016). "5 things the Libertarian Party stands for". The Hill. Archived from the original on August 16, 2018. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  9. ^ Martin, Douglas (November 22, 2010). "David Nolan, 66, Is Dead; Started Libertarian Party". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  10. ^ Dritschilo, Gordon (May 3, 2023). "Sammis makes party switch official". Rutland Herald. Retrieved May 11, 2023.
  11. ^ "Search Results Forward party | Ballot Access News". January 19, 2024. Retrieved January 22, 2024.
  12. ^ "Current Voter Registration Statistics – Utah Voter Information". vote.utah.gov. Retrieved April 9, 2024.
  13. ^ Prose, J. D. (June 21, 2023). "Two Pa. legislators announce their affiliation with centrist Forward Party". pennlive. Retrieved September 22, 2023.
  14. ^ a b Elliott-Negri, Luke (August 2, 2016). "Lessons From Vermont". Jacobin. Retrieved June 12, 2022.
  15. ^ "ELECTED PROGRESSIVES". The Vermont Progressive Party. January 12, 2023.
  16. ^ "INDEPENDENT PARTY'S 2009 LEGISLATIVE AGENDA | Independent Party of Oregon". August 19, 2009. Archived from the original on August 19, 2009. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  17. ^ "Senator Brian Boquist has left GOP, is now a member of the Independent Party of Oregon". Oregon Catalyst. January 15, 2021.
  18. ^ "Puerto Rico gubernatorial election, 2020". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  19. ^ a b "Puerto Rico Legislative Assembly". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  20. ^ "List of current mayors of Puerto Rico". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 28, 2021.
  21. ^ a b Ramos, Tatiana Mena (October 13, 2020). "Which Political Parties are Competing for the Governorship of Puerto Rico?". BELatina. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  22. ^ "Political Parties of Puerto Rico, Founded 1898 through 1945* | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d "List of political parties in the United States". ballotpedia.org. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  24. ^ "State Board Recognizes Green Party as NC Political Party".
  25. ^ Fenster, Jordan Nathaniel (November 11, 2022). "CT's minor party meltdown leads to rethinking strategy". The Middletown Press. Retrieved December 9, 2022.
  26. ^ "Howie Hawkins will probably be the Green Party's 2020 nominee". The Economist. March 26, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  27. ^ Blake, Evan (May 29, 2020). "Howie Hawkins and the Green Party: Capitalist politics in the guise of "ecosocialism"". World Socialist Website. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  28. ^ "Green Party Founding". www.c-span.org. C-SPAN. July 30, 2001. Archived from the original on May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  29. ^ "Green Party Voter Registration Statistics". www.registergreenparty.org. Retrieved November 26, 2023.
  30. ^ Kleefeld, Eric (July 26, 2010). "Tancredo's New Home In The Constitution Party: A Religious, Paleoconservative Group Without Much Electoral Success". Talking Points Memo. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  31. ^ a b c Feinauer, J.J. (January 16, 2014). "Want to support a third party? Here are your options". Deseret News. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  32. ^ Meyerson, Harold (November 11, 2014). "Meet the Working Families Party, Whose Ballot Line is in Play in New York". Prospect. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
  33. ^ "Ballot Access News -- June 1, 2006". www.ballot-access.org. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  34. ^ Winger, Richard (May 6, 2019). "Minnesota Independence Party Becomes State Affiliate of the Alliance Party | Ballot Access News". Ballot Access News. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  35. ^ "How We Formed". Alliance Party. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  36. ^ Lind, Michael (December 3, 1995). "The Radical Center or the Moderate Middle?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  37. ^ a b Perkins, William; Travis, Jordan (November 4, 2022). "In northern Michigan, some third-party candidates seek to break the mold". Traverse City Record-Eagle. Retrieved June 27, 2023.
  38. ^ "No separate destiny for US workers apart from the workers of the world". International Communist Press. October 1, 2018. Archived from the original on February 16, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  39. ^ "Would-be independents joining the American Independent Party could blame California's voter registration card". Los Angeles Times. April 19, 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  40. ^ Wojcik, Nik (October 26, 2016). "Peace and Freedom Party candidate talks socialism". Golden Gate XPress. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  41. ^ a b Cimmino, Jeff (August 7, 2017). "The American Solidarity Party Charts Its Own Path". National Review. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  42. ^ "Unity Party Reaches Minor-Party Status in Colorado". Westword. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  43. ^ Thomas, Jeff (February 6, 1996). "Natural Law Party advocates meditation as way to peace". Colorado Springs Gazette - Telegraph. p. B.2.
  44. ^ Luning, Ernst (October 2, 2019). "Colorado's Approval Voting Party achieves minor party status". Colorado Politics. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  45. ^ "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS NewsHour Extra.
  46. ^ "Our Platform - Movement For A People's Party". August 14, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  47. ^ a b Winger, Richard (March 28, 2021). "March 2021 Ballot Access News Print Edition". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 26, 2022.
  48. ^ a b Metzger, Hannah. "Colorado Center Party becomes state's newest political party". coloradopolitics.com. Retrieved January 29, 2024.
  49. ^ Chiusano, Mark (February 1, 2019). "End of a Long era for NY Conservatives". Newsday. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  50. ^ Wade, Christian M. (November 11, 2022). "Libertarians regain major party status". The Eagle-Tribune. Boston. Retrieved November 12, 2022.
  51. ^ "N.M. Liberation Party Files Incorporation". Albuquerque Journal. June 28, 1972. p. 20. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved August 26, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  52. ^ "Oregon Peace Party becomes Progressive Party | Oregon Progressive Party". October 3, 2009. Archived from the original on October 3, 2009. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  53. ^ Young, Jeremy Au (February 26, 2016). "Is socialism now acceptable in the US?". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  54. ^ Walker, Hunter (September 17, 2014). "American Separatists Are Thrilled About Scotland And Think It Will Lead To A 'Paradigm Shift'". Business Insider. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  55. ^ Finnegan, Michael (September 3, 2008). "Sarah Palin's ties to Alaskan Independence Party are played down". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  56. ^ "Voter Registration Totals By Political Party" (PDF). elections.delaware.gov. State of Delaware Department of Elections. December 1, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  57. ^ "New centrist party forms in Utah to attract disaffected Republicans, Democrats". The Salt Lake Tribune. May 22, 2017. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  58. ^ a b Penn, Ivan (October 30, 2012). "Ecology Party of Florida to battle over environmental concerns surrounding the Levy County nuclear plant". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved September 13, 2021.
  59. ^ "Could Hawaii see another political party? Aloha Aina hopes to join the mix". www.kitv.com. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  60. ^ Featherly, Kevin (August 3, 2018). "Weed backer hopes to smoke competition in AG race". Minnesota Lawyer. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  61. ^ "A sobering alternative? Prohibition party back on the ticket this election" Archived October 7, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, May 11, 2016.
  62. ^ "American Freedom Party". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on May 11, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  63. ^ "Socialist Equality Party Raises its U.S. Profile: With a History as Left Wreckers and a 19th Century Program, a Group to Beware of". Socialism.com. Retrieved August 4, 2020.
  64. ^ Alaska, Green Party of. "Green Party of Alaska". Green Party of Alaska. Retrieved January 1, 2022.
  65. ^ "Political Groups". elections.alaska.gov. Alaska Division of Elections. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  66. ^ "This SFSU Calif. Secessionist is Newsom's most fascinating recall foe". June 21, 2021.
  67. ^ "Registration by Political Bodies Attempting to Qualify by County" (PDF). elections.cdn.sos.ca.gov. Retrieved September 11, 2023.
  68. ^ "Third Choice | Independence Party of New York | United States". Ipny. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  69. ^ "Presidential election in New York, 2020". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  70. ^ "BROCK 2020". Ipny. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  71. ^ Fois, Bob (March 8, 2006). "Revisionist Politics". News Copy. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008 – via Wayback machine.
  72. ^ "Moderate Party | Rhode Island | onPolitix". November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  73. ^ "Green Party of Rhode Island - ¡Este es tu partido! - This is your party!". www.rigreens.org. Retrieved January 1, 2022.
  74. ^ "Policy Endorsements". Independent Greens of Virginia. September 1, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2014.
  75. ^ "Washington Progressive Party - About". waprogressiveparty.org. Retrieved January 1, 2022.
  76. ^ Luce, Stephanie (July 28, 2017). "What Happens If We Win?". Jacobin.
  77. ^ Delano, Jon (August 5, 2022). "Pennsylvania's newest political party has candidates for governor and senator on ballot". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved October 21, 2022.
  78. ^ Hounshell, Blake (June 7, 2022). "New Jersey Centrists Seek to Legalize Their Dream: The Moderate Party". The New York Times. Retrieved November 26, 2022.
  79. ^ Viereck, Peter (1956). Conservative Thinkers: From John Adams to Winston Churchill. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. pp. 87–95.
  80. ^ Gordon S. Wood (2009). Empire of liberty. Internet Archive. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-503914-6.
  81. ^ "Democratic-Republican Party". Encyclopædia Britannica. July 20, 1998. Retrieved August 30, 2017. The Republicans contended that the Federalists harboured aristocratic attitudes and that their policies placed too much power in the central government and tended to benefit the affluent at the expense of the common man.
  82. ^ Brown, Thomas (1985). Politics and Statesmanship: Essays on the American Whig Party. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 9780231056021. OCLC 906445960.
  83. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (July 20, 1998). "Anti-Masonic Movement". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  84. ^ Ford, Hamilton, Madison, and Jay; ed Paul L. "South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification". The Federalist (Ford).{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  85. ^ Farmer, Brian (2008). American Conservatism: History, Theory and Practice. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 9781443802765.
  86. ^ "End of survey report: State of Rhode Island". UNT Journal. January 1, 1979. doi:10.2172/5212647.
  87. ^ Thomas Hudson McKee (1970). The National Conventions and Platforms of All Political Parties 1789-1905. Scholarly Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-403-00356-3.
  88. ^ Boissoneault, Lorraine. "How the 19th-Century Party Reshaped American Politics". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  89. ^ Wilentz, Sean (2005). The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 478–479. ISBN 0-393-05820-4.
  90. ^ "Joel H. Silbey. A Respectable Minority: The Democratic Party in the Civil War Era, 1860–1868. (Norton Essays in American History.) New York: W. W. Norton. 1977. Pp. xviii, 267. $10.95". The American Historical Review. June 1, 1978. doi:10.1086/ahr/83.3.810-a. ISSN 1937-5239.
  91. ^ Baggett, James Alex (September 2004). The Scalawags : Southern dissenters in the Civil War and reconstruction (Louisiana paperback ed.). Baton Rouge: 2004. ISBN 0-8071-3014-1. OCLC 717408969.
  92. ^ Freehling, William W., 1935- (1990–2007). The road to disunion. Frank and Virginia Williams Collection of Lincolniana (Mississippi State University. Libraries). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505814-3. OCLC 20670363.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  93. ^ Egerton, Douglas R. (2010). Year of meteors : Stephen Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, and the election that brought on the Civil War (1st U.S. ed.). New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 978-1-59691-619-7. OCLC 504281088.
  94. ^ Fehrenbacher, Don E.; Nevins, Allan (1972). "The War for the Union. Volume 3, The Organized War, 1863; Volume 4, The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865". The American Historical Review. 77 (3): 832. doi:10.2307/1870477. ISSN 0002-8762. JSTOR 1870477.
  95. ^ Slap, Andrew L. (2006). Doom of Reconstruction : the Liberal Republicans in the Civil War Era. Bronx: Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-2711-2. OCLC 923763474.
  96. ^ Veditz, C. W. A. (1908). "The New Encyclopedia of Social Reform, etc. Edited by William D. P. Bliss and Rudolph M. Binder, Ph.D., with the coöperation of many specialists, etc. New Edition. (New York and London: Funk and Wagnalls Company. 1908. Pp. vi, 1321.)". American Political Science Review. 4 (1): 139–141. doi:10.2307/1944430. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 1944430. S2CID 148521310.
  97. ^ Paul Kleppner, The Greenback and Prohibition Parties," in Arthur M. Schlesinger (ed.), History of U.S. Political Parties: Volume II, 1860-1910, The Gilded Age of Politics. New York: Chelsea House/R.R. Bowker Co., 1973; pg. 1552.
  98. ^ Pearson, C. C. (1916). "The Readjuster Movement in Virginia". The American Historical Review. 21 (4): 734–749. doi:10.2307/1835892. hdl:2027/coo1.ark:/13960/t08w3zv24. ISSN 0002-8762. JSTOR 1835892.
  99. ^ Mansbridge, Jane; Macedo, Stephen (October 13, 2019). "Populism and Democratic Theory". Annual Review of Law and Social Science. 15 (1): 59–77. doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-042843. ISSN 1550-3585. S2CID 210355727.
  100. ^ "MALAWI: Voter Registration". Africa Research Bulletin: Political, Social and Cultural Series. 45 (8): 17640B–17640C. 2008. doi:10.1111/j.1467-825x.2008.01886.x. ISSN 0001-9844.
  101. ^ Ellis, Elmer (1932). "The Silver Republicans in the Election of 1896". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 18 (4): 519–534. doi:10.2307/1898561. ISSN 0161-391X. JSTOR 1898561.
  102. ^ Martinek, Jason D (2010). "Business at the Margins of Capitalism: Charles H. Kerr and Company and the Progressive Era Socialist Movement" (PDF). Business & Economic History On-Line. p. 6.
  103. ^ Mead, Walter Russell; Chace, James (2004). "1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Debs: The Election That Changed the Country". Foreign Affairs. 83 (5): 172. doi:10.2307/20034097. ISSN 0015-7120. JSTOR 20034097.
  104. ^ Cravens, Hamilton (1966). "The Emergence of the Farmer-Labor Party in Washington Politics, 1919-20". The Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 57 (4): 148–157. ISSN 0030-8803. JSTOR 40488173.
  105. ^ Waltzer, K. (April 1, 1980). "The Party and the Polling Place: American Communism and an American Labor Party in the 1930s". Radical History Review. 1980 (23): 104–129. doi:10.1215/01636545-1980-23-104. ISSN 0163-6545.
  106. ^ "The Birth of the Nonpartisan League". The BND Story. Retrieved September 12, 2023.
  107. ^ "Home - Dem-NPL Party Democrats". Dem-NPL Party. November 5, 2024. Retrieved September 12, 2023.
  108. ^ LeMay, Michael. Transforming America: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration. ABC-CLIO. p. 220.
  109. ^ "JOHN TYLER: CAMPAIGNS AND ELECTIONS". Miller Center. October 4, 2016.
  110. ^ Inbody, Donald S. (2016), "Reelecting Mr. Lincoln: 1863–1865", The Soldier Vote, New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, pp. 29–44, doi:10.1057/9781137519207_3, ISBN 978-1-349-57815-3
  111. ^ Smith, Adam I. P. (August 17, 2006), "Concepts of Party and Nation before the Civil War", No Party Now, Oxford University Press, pp. 9–24, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188653.003.0002, ISBN 978-0-19-518865-3
  112. ^ Grevin, Jerry (July 23, 2001). "The political legacy of De Leonism (part VI)". Internationalism. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  113. ^ Rothbard, Murray N. (Murray Newton), 1926-1995. (2002). A history of money and banking in the United States : the colonial era to World War II. Auburn, Ala.: Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 0-945466-33-1. OCLC 51205107.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  114. ^ Quint, Howard H. (1953). The forging of American socialism : origins of the modern movement. University of South Carolina Press. OCLC 597175.
  115. ^ Davenport, Tim, ed. (1897). "Declaration of Principles of The Social Democracy of America" (PDF). Marxist History. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  116. ^ "The Independence Convention Makes its Choice in Early Morning" (PDF). The New York Times. July 29, 1908. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  117. ^ "Single Tax". Time. February 18, 1924. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2021. A National Convention of the great Presidential year of 1924 was held in Manhattan. Before the Convention, the name of the Party was the Single Tax Party. After the Convention it was the Commonwealth Land Party. But the change was only a change of name.
  118. ^ Saloutos, Theodore (1946). "The Rise of the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota, 1915-1917". Agricultural History. 20 (1): 43–61. ISSN 0002-1482. JSTOR 3739348.
  119. ^ Foner, Philip Sheldon, 1910-1994. (1988). History of the labor movement in the United States (2d ed.). New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0092-X. OCLC 2134966.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  120. ^ Tim Davenport (May 16, 2011). Formation of the Proletarian Party of America, Part 1.
  121. ^ "Candidate Tells Where He Stands". August 22, 1924. p. 13. ProQuest 161696255. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  122. ^ "The Progressive Movement of 1924. By <italic>Kenneth Campbell MacKay</italic>. (New York: Columbia University Press. 1947. Pp. 298. $3.75.)". The American Historical Review. 1947. doi:10.1086/ahr/53.3.569. ISSN 1937-5239.
  123. ^ Cannon, James Patrick, 1890-1974. (1944). The history of American Trotskyism : report of a participant. Pioneer Publishers. OCLC 265864.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  124. ^ Industrial Union Party (1968). Industrial unionist Vol. II #6 Nov. 1933. dudeman5685. New York : Greenwood Reprint Corp.
  125. ^ Wald, Alan M., 1946- (1987). The New York intellectuals : the rise and decline of the anti-Stalinist left from the 1930s to the 1980s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1716-3. OCLC 14273419.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  126. ^ "FOR FUSION WITH THE AWP!". www.marxists.org. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  127. ^ Brinkley, Alan. (1983). Voices of protest : Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and the Great Depression. Mazal Holocaust Collection. (1st Vintage books ed.). New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-394-71628-0. OCLC 9370944.
  128. ^ Caverly, Matthew. America First Party.docx.
  129. ^ Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh (1951). "The Ideology of the "Dixiecrat" Movement". Social Forces. 30 (2): 162–171. doi:10.2307/2571628. ISSN 0037-7732. JSTOR 2571628.
  130. ^ Markowitz, Norman D. (1973). The Rise and Fall of the People's Century: Henry A. Wallace and American Liberalism, 1941-1948. New York: Free Press. p. iii. LCCN 72086508. OCLC 1036776283.
  131. ^ "Constitution Party Hits Candidates on Red Issue". Altoona Tribune. October 2, 1952. p. 13. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  132. ^ "Our Campaigns - Political Party - American (Amer)". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  133. ^ Soldatenko, Michael. (2009). Chicano studies : the genesis of a discipline. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-9953-0. OCLC 844052292.
  134. ^ Kastenberg, Joshua E. (April 1, 2016). Shaping US Military Law. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315608853. ISBN 978-1-315-60885-3.
  135. ^ Russo, Andrew (1989). The Lyndon LaRouche political movement (Master's thesis). San Jose State University Library. doi:10.31979/etd.phnj-d7e2.
  136. ^ "Platform of the Citizens/Consumer Party as adopted at Party Convention | Digital Pitt". digital.library.pitt.edu. 1980. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  137. ^ Fulani, Leonora (February 20, 2007). "Keynote Address". Independent Voting. Archived from the original on February 20, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  138. ^ Bringhurst, Newell G. (2008). The Mormon quest for the presidency. Foster, Craig L. (2nd ed.). Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books. ISBN 978-1-934901-11-3. OCLC 243743573.
  139. ^ "Official Formation of the Green Party-USA | C-SPAN.org". www.c-span.org. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  140. ^ Hendren, Lee (January 23, 2006). "Labor Party launches petition drive to gain ballot access". The Times and Democrat. Archived from the original on September 6, 2006. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  141. ^ "Southern Party seeks to revive old times not forgotten - August 1, 1999". www.cnn.com. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  142. ^ Byrnes, Sholto (October 23, 2008). "Bizarre political parties: The Boston Tea Party". New Statesman. Retrieved October 31, 2008.
  143. ^ "Independence Party of America formed". Mid-Hudson News Network. September 24, 2007. Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  144. ^ Christensen, Rob (April 26, 2009). "Whigs Rise Again". The News & Observer. Archived from the original on April 29, 2009. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  145. ^ a b c "Modern Whig Party". ballotpedia.org. Ballotpedia. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  146. ^ Abrahams, Tom (June 22, 2021). "SAM, known as the Serve America Movement, hopes to become next political party". ABC13. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  147. ^ Reid, Tim (July 27, 2022). "Former Republicans and Democrats form new third U.S. political party". Reuters. Retrieved July 29, 2022.
  148. ^ Fox, Dixon Ryan; Purcell, Richard J. (1963). "Connecticut in Transition, 1775-1818". Political Science Quarterly. 36 (2): 317. doi:10.2307/2142262. ISSN 0032-3195. JSTOR 2142262.
  149. ^ Carlton, Frank T. (1907). "The Workingmen's Party of New York City: 1829-1831". Political Science Quarterly. 22 (3): 401–415. doi:10.2307/2141055. ISSN 0032-3195. JSTOR 2141055.
  150. ^ Russell, William D.; Walker, Ronald W. (1999). "Wayward Saints: The Godbeites and Brigham Young". The Western Historical Quarterly. 30 (4): 524. doi:10.2307/971442. ISSN 0043-3810. JSTOR 971442.
  151. ^ Erickson, Velt G. (1948). The Liberal Party of Utah (MA thesis). University of Utah.
  152. ^ Andrade, Ernest Jr. (1996). Unconquerable rebel : Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian politics, 1880-1903. Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-585-02407-3. OCLC 42329047.
  153. ^ Hudelson, Richard. (2006). By the ore docks : a working people's history of Duluth. Ross, Carl, 1913-. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-9760-1. OCLC 320324829.
  154. ^ Lau, Peter F., 1971- (2006). Democracy rising : South Carolina and the fight for Black equality since 1865. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-7129-6. OCLC 70262482.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  155. ^ Taylor, Kate (July 17, 2014). "Cuomo Allies Plan a Political Party Focusing on Women". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  156. ^ Sojourner, Sue Lorenzi, 1941- (2013). Thunder of freedom : black leadership and the transformation of 1960s Mississippi. Reitan, Cheryl. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-4095-7. OCLC 826855507.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  157. ^ "Labor and Farm Party Records, 1982-1987". digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  158. ^ Williams, John W. (1995). "THE 1986 LAROUCHE ELECTION DEBACLE IN ILLINOIS". Principia College. Archived from the original on December 4, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  159. ^ "Faiks Draws Fire". Daily Sitka Sentinel. August 29, 1986. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  160. ^ Yarrow, Andrew L. (July 27, 1992). "Third Party Celebrates Its Second Year". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  161. ^ Pristin, Terry (September 28, 1995). "NEW JERSEY DAILY BRIEFING; Conservatives May Join Perot". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  162. ^ "Burnt Out". New York Press. Manhattan Media. December 28, 2004. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
  163. ^ Gunzburger, Ron (March 16, 2008). "Politics1 - Guide to the 2004 Personal Choice Party Presidential Candidate". Politics1. Archived from the original on March 16, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  164. ^ Phillips, Michael M. (August 24, 2010). "Political Party for Mild-Mannered Is Off to a Slow Start". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  165. ^ Kornblut, Anne E.; Peters, Jeremy W. (November 7, 2006). "Lieberman Prevails Against Lamont in Connecticut". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  166. ^ Barrett, Wayne (October 1, 2010). "Carl Paladino vs. The Tea Party: No Love Lost". Village Voice. Archived from the original on October 6, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  167. ^ Lisberg, Adam (June 18, 2010). "Charles Barron, upset at all-white Dem ticket, running for gov as head of all-black Freedom Party". New York Daily News. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  168. ^ Tyler, Taylor (July 14, 2013). "Newly Formed United Independent Party Makes MA Gubernatorial Run". Independent Voter Network. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  169. ^ Chason, Rachel (August 28, 2019). "Jerome Segal, of Maryland socialist Bread and Roses party, to run for president". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 2, 2022. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
  170. ^ Pagán, Bolívar. (1959). Historia de los partidos políticos puertorriqueños (1898-1956). Librería Campos. OCLC 29383220.
  171. ^ The Puerto Rican movement : voices from the diaspora. Torres, Andrés, 1947-, Velázquez, José E. (José Emiliano), 1952-. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. 1998. ISBN 0-585-36518-0. OCLC 47010150.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  172. ^ Erediano, Emmanuel T. (August 20, 2021). "Lt. Gov. Arnold I. Palacios will 'most likely' run for governor with Saipan Mayor David M. Apatang as his running-mate". Marianas Variety News & Views. Retrieved December 17, 2021.
  173. ^ "Black Riders show resistance is possible". Workers World Party. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  174. ^ Malhotra, Ravi (2013). "Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels, and Black Power: Community Organizing in Radical Times, Amy Sonnie and James Tracy, New York: Melville House, 2011; The Hidden 1970s: Histories of Radicalism, edited by Dan Berger, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2010; Stayin' Alive: The 1970s and the Last Days of the Working Class, Jefferson Cowie, London: The New Press, 2010". Historical Materialism. 21 (3): 189–204. doi:10.1163/1569206x-12341304. ISSN 1465-4466.
  175. ^ Austin, Curtis J., 1969- (2006). Up against the wall : violence in the making and unmaking of the Black Panther Party. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 978-1-61075-444-6. OCLC 649942374.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  176. ^ Krassner, Paul. (2012). Confessions of a raving, unconfined nut : misadventures in the counterculture (Updated and expanded ed.). New York: Soft Skull Press. ISBN 978-1-59376-503-3. OCLC 813416037.
  177. ^ Alexander, Robert J. (Robert Jackson), 1918 November 26- (2001). Maoism in the developed world. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96148-6. OCLC 44877014.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  178. ^ Kwong, Peter. (2005). Chinese America : the untold story of America's oldest new community. Miščevič, Dušanka Dušana. New York: New Press. ISBN 1-56584-962-0. OCLC 60420916.
  179. ^ Blevins, David. (2006). American political parties in the 21st century. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-2480-X. OCLC 64897141.
  180. ^ "The ISO's vote to dissolve and what comes next". SocialistWorker.org. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
  181. ^ Forging radical alliances across difference : coalition politics for the new millennium. Bystydzienski, Jill M., 1949-, Schacht, Steven P. London. 2001. ISBN 0-7425-1057-3. OCLC 47364128.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  182. ^ Viets, Sarah; Lenz, Ryan (July 11, 2016). "Matt Heimbach's Traditionalist Youth Network is Cutting Deals with Holocaust Deniers". Southern Poverty Law Center.

Further reading edit

  • Nash, Howard P. Jr.; Schnapper, M. B. (1959). Third Parties in American Politics.
  • Ness, Immanuel; Ciment, James (2000). The Encyclopedia of Third Parties in America. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference. ISBN 0-7656-8020-3.

External links edit