List of plant hybrids

This is a list of plant hybrids created intentionally or by chance and exploited commercially in agriculture or horticulture. The hybridization event mechanism is documented where known, along with the authorities who described it.

An ornamental lily hybrid known as Lilium 'Citronella'[1]

HybridsEdit

Species Common name Family Hybridization Confirmed or putative hybridization? Putative parental/introgressive species Polyploid or homoploid? Polyploid chromosome count References Notes
Abelmoschus esculentus Okra Malvaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Uncertain Polyploid (tetraploid) usually 2n=4x=130 Joshi and Hardas, 1956; Schafleitner et al., 2013 Variable ploidy
Actinidia deliciosa Kiwifruit Actinidiaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Actinidia chinensis and other Actinidia species Polyploid (hexaploid) 2n=6x=174 Atkinson et al., 1997
Agave fourcroydes Henequen Asparagaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Uncertain Polyploid (usu. pentaploid, triploid) 2n=5x(3x)=150(90) Robert et al., 2008; Hughes et al., 2007 Variable ploidy, polyploid event not recent
Agave sisalana Sisal Asparagaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Uncertain Polyploid (usu. pentaploid, hexaploid) 2n=5x(6x)=150(180) Robert et al., 2008 Variable ploidy, polyploid event not recent
Allium ampeloprasum Great headed garlic Amaryllidaceae Intraspecific hybrid origin Putative Allium ampeloprasum Homoploid Guenaoui et al., 2013
Allium cepa Common onion Amaryllidaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Putative Uncertain: Allium vavilovii, A. galanthum or A. fistulosum Homoploid Gurushidze et al., 2007
Allium cornutum Triploid onion Amaryllidaceae Triparental allopolyploid origin Confirmed Allium cepa, A. roylei, other Allium species Polyploid (triploid) 2n=3x=24 Fredotovic et al., 2014
Ananas comosus Pineapple Bromeliaceae Interspecific introgression Putative Ananas ananassoides Homoploid Duval et al., 2003
Annona × atemoya Atemoya Annonaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Annona cherimola and A. squamosa ? Perfectti et al., 2004; Jalikop, 2010
Arachis hypogaea Peanut Fabaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Arachis duranensis and A. ipaënsis Polypoid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=40 Kochert et al., 1996; Bertioli et al., 2011
Armoracia rusticana Horseradish Brassicaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Putative Uncertain ? Courter and Rhodes, 1969
Artocarpus altilis Breadfruit Moraceae Interspecific introgression Putative Artocarpus mariannensis ? Zerega et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2013
Avena sativa Oat Poaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Uncertain Polyploid (hexaploid) 2n=6x=42 Linares et al., 1998; Oliver et al., 2013
Brassica carinata Ethiopian mustard Brassicaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Brassica oleracea and B. nigra Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=19 Arias et al., 2014
Brassica juncea Indian mustard Brassicaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Brassica nigra and B. rapa Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=18 Arias et al., 2014
Brassica napus Rapeseed, rutabega Brassicaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Brassica rapa and B. oleracea Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=19 Arias et al., 2014
Cajanus cajan Pigeon pea Fabaceae Intraspecific introgression, interspecific introgression Putative Wild Cajanus cajan and other Cajanus species Homoploid Kassa et al., 2012
Cannabis sativa Hemp Cannabaceae Intraspecific introgression Putative Cannabis sativa 'Indica' and 'Sativa' types Homoploid de Meijer and van Soest, 1992
Carica pentagona Babaco Caricaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Uncertain (Carica stipulata, Vasconcellea pubescens, V. weberbaueri ? Van Droogenbroeck et al., 2002; Van Droogenbroeck et al., 2006
Carya illinoinensis Pecan Juglandaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Putative Uncertain ? Grauke et al., 2011
Castanea dentata American Chestnut Fagaceae Interspecific introgression Confirmed Castanea pumila Homoploid Li and Dane, 2013 Also ongoing efforts to introgress blight resistance from Castanea mollissima (see Jacobs et al., 2013)
Castanea sativa Chestnut Fagaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Castanea sativa Eurosiberian and Mediterranean populations Homoploid Villani et al., 1999; Mattioni et al., 2013
Chenopodium quinoa Quinoa Chenopodiaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Uncertain Polyploid (tetraploid) Heiser, 1974; Ward, 2000; Maughan et al., 2004
Cicer arietinum Chickpea (pea-shaped) Fabaceae Intraspecific hybrid origin Putative Cicer arietinum Desi and Kabuli germplasm ? Upadhyaya et al., 2008; Keneni et al., 2011
Cichorium intybus Radicchio Asteraceae Interspecific introgression Confirmed Wild Cichorium intybus Homoploid Kiaer et al., 2009
Citrus aurantiifolia Key lime Rutaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Citrus medica and Citrus subg. Papeda ? Ollitrault and Navarro, 2012; Penjor et al., 2014; Nicolosi et al., 2000; Moore, 2001
Citrus aurantium Sour oranges Rutaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Citrus maxima and C. reticulata ? Wu et al., 2014; Moore, 2001
Citrus clementina Clementine Rutaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Citrus sinensis and C. reticulata ? Wu et al., 2014
Citrus limon Lemon, lime Rutaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Citrus medica, C. × aurantiifolia, and other Citrus species ? Nicolosi et al., 2000; Moore, 2001
Citrus paradisi Grapefruit Rutaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Citrus sinensis and C. maxima ? Wu et al., 2014; Moore, 2001
Citrus reticulata Mandarin Rutaceae Interspecific introgression Confirmed Citrus maxima ? Wu et al., 2014
Citrus sinensis Sweet orange (blood, common) Rutaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Uncertain ? Wu et al., 2014; Moore, 2001
Cocos nucifera Coconut Arecaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Cocos nucifera Indo-Atlantic and Pacific lineages Homoploid Gunn et al., 2011
Coffea arabica Coffee Rubiaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Coffea eugenioides and C. canephora Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=44 Lashermes et al., 1999
Corylus avellana Hazelnut Betulaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Wild Corylus avellana in southern Europe Homoploid Campa et al., 2011; Boccacci et al., 2013
Cucurbita pepo Winter squash, pumpkin Cucurbitaceae Intraspecific introgression Putative Cucurbita pepo var. texana Homploid Kirkpatrick and Wilson, 1988
Daucus carota subsp. sativus Carrot Apiaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Daucus carota subsp. carota Homoploid Iorizzo et al., 2013; Simon, 2000
Dioscorea species Yam Dioscoreaceae Interspecific hybrid origin, introgression Putative Uncertain Variable Terauchi et al., 1992; Dansi et al., 1999; Bhattacharjee et al., 2011; Mignouna et al., 2002 Multiple species of putative hybrid (perhaps allopolyploid) origin including Dioscorea cayennensis subsp. rotundata and D. cayennensis
Diospyros kaki Persimmon Ebenaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Uncertain Polyploid (hexaploid) Yonemori et al., 2008
Ficus carica Fig Moraceae Interspecific introgression Putative Uncertain ? Aradhya et al., 2010
Fragaria ananassa Strawberry Rosaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Fragaria virginiana (octoploid), F. chiloensis (octoploid) Homoploid relative to parentals (octoploid) 2n=8x=56 Evans, 1977; Hirakawa et al., 2014 Uncertain which species formed the octoploid progenitors
Garcinia mangostana Mangosteen Clusiaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Garcinia celebica and G. malaccensis Polyploid (tetraploid) ? Richards, 1990 Recent work shows this may not be of hybrid origin (Nazre, 2014)
Gossypium hirsutum Upland cotton Malvaceae hybrid origin Confirmed Uncertain, referred to as 'A' and 'D' Polyploid (formed <1MYA) 2n =4x=52 Wendel and Cronn 2003 Polyploidization likely led to agronomically significant traits (Applequist et al., 2001)
Hibiscus sabdariffa Roselle Malvaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Uncertain Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=72 Menzel and Wilson, 1966; Satya et al., 2013
Hordeum vulgare Barley Poaceae Introgression Confirmed Hordeum spontaneum Homoploid Badr et al., 2000; Dai et al., 2012
Humulus lupulus Hops Cannabaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Humulus lupulus North American and European germplasm Homoploid Reeves and Richards, 2011; Stajner et al., 2008; Seefelder et al., 2000
Ipomoea batatas Sweet potato Convolvulaceae Intraspecific introgression; Interspecific introgression? Putative Ipomoea batatas Central American and South American germplasm Homoploid relative to parentals Roullier et al., 2013
Juglans regia Walnut Juglandaceae Interspecific hybridization Confirmed Juglans sigillata Homoploid Gunn et al., 2010
Lactuca sativa Lettuce Asteraceae Intraspecific hybrid origin Putative Lactuca serriola and other Lactuca species Homoploid de Vries, 1997
Lagenaria siceraria Bottle Gourd Cucurbitaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Lagenaria siceraria African/American and Asian germplasm Homoploid Clarke et al., 2006
Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris Lentil Fabaceae Intraspecific introgression Putative Wild lentil, Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis Homoploid Erskine et al., 2011
Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia Proteaceae Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression Confirmed Macadamia tetraphylla and other Macadamia species Homoploid Hardner et al., 2009; Steiger et al., 2003; Aradhya et al., 1998
Malus domestica Apple Rosaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Malus sieversii, M. sylvestris, and possibly other Malus species Homoploid Cornille et al., 2012
Mentha piperita Peppermint Lamiaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Mentha aquatica and M. spicata Polyploid (12-ploid) 2n=12x=66 or 72 Harley and Brighton, 1977; Gobert et al., 2002
Musa paradisiaca Banana Musaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana Polyploid (usually triploid) 2n=3x=33 Simmonds and Shepherd, 1955; Heslop-Harrison and Schwarzacher, 2007; De Langhe et al., 2010
Nicotiana tabacum Tobacco Solanaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Uncertain (Nicotiana sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis) Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=48 Kenton et al., 1993; Murad et al., 2002
Olea europaea Olive Oleaceae Intraspecific introgression Putative Wild Olea europaea, western and eastern germplasm Homoploid Kaniewski et al., 2012; Besnard et al., 2013; Breton et al., 2006; Rubio de Casas et al., 2006; Besnard et al., 2007; Besnard et al., 2000
Opuntia species Opuntia Cactaceae Interspecific hybrid origin, Allopolyploid origin Putative Including Opuntia ficus-indica Polyploid, homoploid Hughes et al., 2007; Griffith, 2004
Oryza sativa Rice Poaceae Intraspecific introgression, interspecific introgression Putative Oryza sativa 'Japonica' and 'Indica' germplasm, Oryza rufipogon Homoploid Caicedo et al., 2007; Gao and Innan, 2008
Oxalis tuberosa Oca Oxalidaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Uncertain Polyploid (octaploid) 2n=8x=64 Emswhiller and Doyle, 2002; Emshwiller 2002; Emswhiller et al., 2009
Pennisetum glaucum Pearl millet Poaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Wild Pennisetum glaucum Homoploid Oumar et al., 2008
Persea americana Avocado (Hass and other cultivars) Lauraceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Persea americana 'Guatamalensis', 'Drymifolia', and 'Americana' Homoploid Chen et al., 2008; Davis et al., 1998; Ashworth and Clegg, 2003; Douhan et al., 2011
Phoenix dactylifera Date palm Arecaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Putative Uncertain Homoploid El Hadrami et al., 2011; Bennaceur et al., 1991
Piper methysticum Kava Piperaceae Allopolyploid origin Putative Piper wichmannii and P. gibbiflorum Polyploid (decaploid) 2n=10x=130 Singh, 2004; Lebot et al., 1991
Pistacia vera Pistachio Anacardiaceae Interspecific introgression Putative Pistacia atlantica, P. chinensis subsp. integerrima Homoploid Kafkas et al., 2001
Pisum abyssinicum Abyssinian Pea Fabaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Uncertain (Pisum fulvum and other Pisum species) Homoploid Vershinin et al., 2003
Pisum sativum Pea Fabaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Uncertain (Pisum sativum subsp. elatius and other Pisum species) Homoploid Vershinin et al., 2003
Plinia cauliflora Jaboticaba Myrtaceae Intraspecific hybridization, interspecific hybridization Putative Plinia 'Jaboticaba' and 'Cauliflora' germplasm; P. peruviana Homoploid Balerdi et al., 2006
Prunus cerasus Cherry Rosaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Prunus avium and P. fruticosa Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=32 Tavaud et al., 2004; Olden and Nybom, 1968
Prunus domestica Plum Rosaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Uncertain (Prunus cerasifera and P. spinosa Polyploid (hexaploid) 2n=6x=48 Zohary, 1992; Hartmann and Neumuller, 2009 Also hybridizes with other cultivated Prunus species
Prunus dulcis Almond Rosaceae Interspecific introgression Confirmed Prunus orientalis and other Prunus species Homoploid Delplancke et al., 2012; Delplancke et al., 2013
Pyrus species Pear Rosaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Many species Homoploid Silva et al., 2014 Also introgression with semidomesticated populations (see Iketani et al. 2009)
Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus Radish Brassicaceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. raphanistrum Homoploid Ridley et al., 2008
Rheum cultivated species Rhubarb Polygonaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Putative Unclear Homoploid relative to parentals (tetraploid) Foust and Marshall, 1991; Kuhl and Deboer, 2008 Hybrids include: Rheum rhaponticum L., R. rhabarbarum L., R. palmatum L.
Rubus species Red raspberry, blackberry, tayberry, boysenberry, etc. Rosaceae Allopolyploid origin, interspecific hybridization Confirmed Many Polyploid Alice et al., 2014; Alice and Campbell, 1999
Saccharum species Sugarcane Poaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum Polyploid Variable, 2n=10-13x=100-130 Grivet et al., 1995; D'Hont et al., 1996
Secale cereale Rye Poaceae Interspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Uncertain (Secale montanum, S. vavilovii) Homoploid Bartos et al., 2008; Korzun et al., 2001; Hillman, 1978; Tang et al., 2011; Salamini et al., 2002
Sechium edule Chayote Cucurbitaceae Interspecific introgression Putative Sechium compositum Homoploid Newstrom, 1991
Setaria italica Foxtail millet Poaceae Interspecific introgression Confirmed Setaria viridis Homoploid Till-Bottraud et al., 1992
Solanum species section Petota Potato Solanaceae Interspecific hybrid origin, allopolyploid origin, interspecific introgression Confirmed Including Solanum tuberosum, S. ajanhuiri, S. curtilobum, S. juzepczukii Homoploid and Polyploid Rodriguez et al., 2010
Solanum lycopersicum Tomato Solanaceae Intraspecific introgression, interspecific introgression Confirmed Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and S. pimpinellifolium Homoploid Blanca et al., 2012; Causse et al., 2013; Rick, 1950
Solanum melongena Eggplant Solanaceae Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression, intraspecific introgression Confirmed Solanum undatum. and other Solanum species; wild S. melongena (= S. insanum) Homoploid Knapp et al., 2013; Meyer et al., 2012 Hybrid origin is not confirmed, but introgression is well documented
Solanum muricatum Pepino dulce Solanaceae Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression Likely Solanum species in Series Caripensia Homoploid Blanca et al., 2007 Polyphyletic origin and extensive, ongoing introgression with wild species
Solanum tuberosum Potato Solanaceae Intraspecific Hybrid Confirmed Diploid potato lines crossed with S. chacoense containing Sli gene Homoploid Lindhout et al., 2011
Spondias purpurea Jocote Anacardiaceae Interspecific introgression Putative Spondias mombin Homoploid Miller and Schaal, 2005
Theobroma cacao Cacao (Trinitario-type) Malvaceae Intraspecific hybrid origin Confirmed Theobroma cacao 'Forastero' and 'Criollo' germplasm Homoploid Yang et al., 2013
Triticum aestivum Bread wheat, spelt Poaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Triticum turgidum (tetraploid) with Aegilops tauschii Polyploid (hexaploid) 2n=6x=42 Matsuoka, 2011; Dvorak, 2012
Triticum turgidum Emmer wheat, durum wheat Poaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Triticum urartu and Aegilops speltoides Polyploid (tetraploid) 2n=4x=28 Dvorak et al., 2012; Matsuoka, 2011; Yamane and Kawahara, 2005
Vaccinium corymbosum Highbush blueberry Ericaceae Interspecific hybrid origin, interspecific introgression Putative Vaccinium tenellum, V. darrowii, (V. virgatum, V. angustifolium) Uncertain Vander Kloet, 1980; Bruederle et al., 1994; Lyrene et al., 2003; Boches et al., 2006 Possible hybrid origin during the Pleistocene
Vanilla tahitensis Tahitian vanilla Orchidaceae Allopolyploid origin Confirmed Vanilla planifolia and V. odorata Polyploid Variable, 2n=2x(4x)=32(64) Lubinsky et al., 2008
Vitis rotundifolia Grape Vitaceae Interspecific introgression Confirmed Many Vitis species Homoploid 2n=2x=38 Reisch et al., 2012; This et al., 2006
Zea mays Maize Poaeceae Intraspecific introgression Confirmed Wild Zea mays (teosinte, =subsp. parviglumis) Homoploid Van Heerwaarden et al., 2011; Hufford et al., 2013

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Lilium Hybrids". Pacific Bulb Society. Retrieved 22 March 2015.

External linksEdit