List of patent medicines

A patent medicine, also known as a proprietary medicine or a nostrum (from the Latin nostrum remedium, or "our remedy") is a commercial product advertised to consumers as an over-the-counter medicine, generally for a variety of ailments, without regard to its actual effectiveness or the potential for harmful side effects. The earliest patent medicines were created in the 17th century. They were most popular from the mid-19th century to the early 20th century, before the advent of consumer protection laws and evidence-based medicine.[1][2] Despite the name, patent medicines were usually trademarked but not actually patented, in order to keep their formulas secret.[3][4]

E. W. Kemble's "Death's Laboratory" on the cover of Collier's (June 3, 1905)

Patent medicines often included alcohol and drugs such as opium as active ingredients.[5] Addiction and overdose were common as a result.[6][7] Some formulations included toxic ingredients such as arsenic, lead, and mercury.[8] Other ingredients like sarsaparilla and wintergreen may have been medically inert and largely harmless, but lacked significant medical benefits.[9] It was rare for any patent medication to be pharmacologically effective, and none lived up to the miraculous promises made by their advertising.[9]

Patent medicine advertising was typically outlandish, eye-catching, and had little basis in reality.[10] Advertisements emphasized exotic or scientific-sounding ingredients, featured endorsements from purported experts or celebrities, and often claimed that products were universal remedies or panaceas.[11] Beginning in the early 20th century, the passage of consumer protection laws in countries like the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada began to regulate deceptive advertising and put limits on what ingredients could be used in medicines, putting an end to the dominance of patent medicines.[2][12][13] Although some modern alternative medicines bear similarities to patent medicines, the term most typically refers to remedies created before modern regulations, and the scope of this list reflects that.[14][15][16][17]

Types of patent medicineEdit

 
1889 lithograph advertisement

Various types of pre-scientific medical preparations, some based on folk or traditional remedies, were sold as patent medicines.[18] Because patent medicines were unscientific and unregulated, the brand names of many products were not necessarily an accurate reflection of their ingredients or preparation methods.

Notable brand namesEdit

Surviving brands and productsEdit

 
Early 20th-century advertisement
 
A bottle of Fernet-Branca herbal liqueur

Some brands from the patent medicine era have survived into the present day, typically with significantly revised formulas and toned-down advertising. Some are still sold as medicines, with more realistic claims and less harmful ingredients. Many others, particularly liquid preparations, have been revised into non-medical food or drink products such as soft drinks.[14]

Discontinued productsEdit

 
Antique bottles of Daffy's Elixir, Dalby's Carminative and Turlington's Balsam of Life
 
Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People
 
Advertising poster from about 1890
 
1894 advertisement poster for Vin Mariani, lithograph by Jules Chéret

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Balm of America: Patent Medicine Collection -- History". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
  2. ^ a b "Patent Medicine, 1860-1920". Digital Public Library of America. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
  3. ^ "History of Patent Medicine". Hagley. 2017-04-10. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  4. ^ Janik, Erika (2014-01-07). Marketplace of the Marvelous: The Strange Origins of Modern Medicine. Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807022092.
  5. ^ a b Kyle, Robert A.; Steensma, David P. (2017-09-01). "Charles Fletcher, The Centaur Company, and Proprietary Medicine Revenue Stamps". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 92 (9): e127–e128. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.06.021. ISSN 0025-6196. PMID 28870369.
  6. ^ Agnew, Jeremy (2010-04-23). Medicine in the Old West: A History, 1850-1900. McFarland. ISBN 9780786456031.
  7. ^ a b Parker, R. R.; Cobb, J. P.; Connell, P. H. (March 1974). "Chlorodyne dependence". Br Med J. 1 (5905): 427–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5905.427. PMC 1633222. PMID 4816855.
  8. ^ "First tests of old patent medicine remedies from a museum collection". American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  9. ^ a b Parascandola, John (1999). "Patent Medicines and the Public's Health". Public Health Reports. 114 (4): 320–321. doi:10.1093/phr/114.4.318. ISSN 0033-3549. JSTOR 4598417. PMC 1308491. PMID 10501130.
  10. ^ Janik 2014, p. 118.
  11. ^ Loeb, Lori (2001). "Doctors and Patent Medicines in Modern Britain: Professionalism and Consumerism". Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies. 33 (3): 409–410. doi:10.2307/4053198. ISSN 0095-1390. JSTOR 4053198. PMID 18300407.
  12. ^ Gale, Nicola K.; McHale, Jean V. (2015-04-10). Routledge Handbook of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Perspectives from Social Science and Law. Routledge. ISBN 9781136685552.
  13. ^ Boisrobert, Christine E.; Stjepanovic, Aleksandra; Oh, Sangsuk; Lelieveld, Huub L.M., eds. (2010). "Chapter 2 - Development of Food Legislation Around the World". Ensuring Global Food Safety. Academic Press. doi:10.1016/C2009-0-01854-6. ISBN 978-0-12-374845-4.
  14. ^ a b Sfetcu, Nicolae (2014-05-02). Health & Drugs: Disease, Prescription & Medication.
  15. ^ Aronson, Jeffrey K (2009). "Patent medicines and secret remedies". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 339 (7735): 1396. doi:10.1136/bmj.b5415. ISSN 0959-8138. JSTOR 25673512. PMID 20008435. S2CID 22420837.
  16. ^ Uretsky, Samuel; Birdsall, Carole (1986). "Quackery: A Thoroughly Modern Problem". The American Journal of Nursing. 86 (9): 1031–1032. doi:10.2307/3425579. ISSN 0002-936X. JSTOR 3425579. PMID 3638913.
  17. ^ "Definition of PATENT MEDICINE". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  18. ^ a b c d Kelly, James (2008). "Health for sale: mountebanks, doctors, printers and the supply of medication in eighteenth-century Ireland". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature. 108C: 78. ISSN 0035-8991. JSTOR 40657923.
  19. ^ Young, James Harvey (1993). "Sex Fraud". Pharmacy in History. 35 (2): 65–69. ISSN 0031-7047. JSTOR 41111519. PMID 11623341.
  20. ^ Twitchell, James B. (2000). 20 Ads that Shook the World: The Century's Most Groundbreaking Advertising and how it Changed Us All. Three Rivers Press. pp. 30–31. ISBN 9780609807231.
  21. ^ Silverstein, Ken (2005). The Radioactive Boy Scout: The Frightening True Story Of A Whiz Kid And His Homemade Nuclear Reactor. Villard. ISBN 9780812966602.
  22. ^ Klemens Fiebach; Dieter Grimm (2007), "Resins, Natural", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, p. 2, doi:10.1002/14356007.a23_073
  23. ^ Milwright, Marcus (2003). "The Balsam of Maṭariyya: An Exploration of a Medieval Panacea". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 66 (2): 193–209. doi:10.1017/S0041977X03000119. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 4145845.
  24. ^ Feiling, Thomas (2012-02-15). Cocaine Nation: How the White Trade Took Over the World. Pegasus Books. ISBN 9781681770048.
  25. ^ Platt, Jerome J. (2000-05-05). Cocaine Addiction: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674001787.
  26. ^ Lestrange, Aymon de (2018-12-18). Coca Wine: Angelo Mariani's Miraculous Elixir and the Birth of Modern Advertising. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781620557853.
  27. ^ Times, CHARLES PERRY Los Angeles. "TAKING YOUR MEDICINE WAS A CORDIAL AFFAIR". Sun-Sentinel.com. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  28. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Elixir" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 281–282.
  29. ^ a b Crellin, John K. (2004). A social history of medicines in the twentieth century: to be taken three times a day. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press. p. 154. ISBN 9780789018458.
  30. ^ Watson, Ronald Ross; Preedy, Victor R. (2008). Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice. CABI. p. 823. ISBN 9781845934132.
  31. ^ Calvert, Robert Noah (April 2002). The History of Massage: An Illustrated Survey from Around the World. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. ISBN 9780892818815.
  32. ^ Bullard, Loring (2004). Healing Waters: Missouri's Historic Mineral Springs and Spas. University of Missouri Press. p. 96. ISBN 9780826264183.
  33. ^ Young, James Harvey (1961). "Chapter 11: The Pattern of Patent Medicine Appeals". The Toadstool Millionaires. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691646855.
  34. ^ Graber, Cynthia. "Snake Oil Salesmen Were on to Something". Scientific American. Retrieved 2019-09-24.
  35. ^ Romm, Aviva (2017-01-25). Botanical Medicine for Women's Health E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 53. ISBN 9780702065132.
  36. ^ Mackintosh, Alan (2017-12-04). The Patent Medicines Industry in Georgian England: Constructing the Market by the Potency of Print. Springer. p. 96. ISBN 9783319697789.
  37. ^ History, Bill Kemp | Archivist/librarian McLean County Museum of. "Intestinal worms were once a common menace to all classes". pantagraph.com. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
  38. ^ Nostrums & Patent Medicines. North Dakota Agricultural College. 1916. p. 239.
  39. ^ Hiss, A. Emil (1898). Thesaurus of Proprietary Preparations and Pharmaceutical Specialties: Including "patent" Medicines, Proprietary Pharmaceuticals, Open-formula Specialties, Synthetic Remedies, Etc. G. P. Engelhard. p. 266.
  40. ^ Tiekink, Edward R.T.; Gielen, Marcel (2005). Metallotherapeutic Drugs and Metal-based Diagnostic Agents : The Use of Metals in Medicine. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. p. 3. ISBN 978-0470864036.
  41. ^ Barnett, Richard (2012-04-14). "Bitter medicine: gout and the birth of the cocktail". The Lancet. 379 (9824): 1384–1385. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60586-8. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 22509528. S2CID 791211.
  42. ^ Watson, Wilbur (1998-01-01). Black Folk Medicine: The Therapeutic Significance of Faith and Trust. Transaction Publishers. p. 54. ISBN 9781412818773.
  43. ^ Crowder, Steve, "Black Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia." (2001). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 149, p. 24.
  44. ^ "History of the Tonic Wine". Buckfast Abbey. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  45. ^ "Buckfast tonic wine hits record £43.2m sales high". www.thedrinksbusiness.com. 10 January 2018.
  46. ^ "Carter's Little Liver Pills". Lowcountry Digital Library. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  47. ^ Pendergrast, Mark (2000). For God, Country, and Coca-Cola. New York: Basic Books. p. 32. ISBN 9780465046997.
  48. ^ Bloom, John (April 1978). "Business: Sweet Revenge". Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications. p. 78. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
  49. ^ a b c Pendergrast 2000, p. 13.
  50. ^ Crellin, John K. (2004). A social history of medicines in the twentieth century : to be taken three times a day (Reprint. ed.). New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press. p. 154. ISBN 9780789018458.
  51. ^ Kreidler, Marc (2014-04-23). "Father John's Medicine | Center for Inquiry". Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  52. ^ Curtis, Wayne (2008-11-01). "The Bitter Beginning". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  53. ^ May, Lee (1989-12-04). "Business is bubbling again as lithium-water drinkers swear by its healing powers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  54. ^ "History of the Mentholatum Company". Buffalo Rising. 2017-03-26. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  55. ^ "Minard's King of Pain Liniment". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  56. ^ Crellin, J. K. (1994). Home Medicine: The Newfoundland Experience. Mcgill-Queen's/Hannah Institute Studies in the History of Medicine, Health, and Society. 1. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 118. ISBN 9780773511972. PMID 11618571.
  57. ^ Waugh, Danielle (2018-08-29). "Maine Split on Coca-Cola's Acquisition of Moxie". NBC10 Boston. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  58. ^ Wu, Tim (September 0217). The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads. New York: Vintage Book. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-385-35202-4. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  59. ^ Jarvis, Alice-Azania (2014-07-08). "Eight of the most outlandish food health claims". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  60. ^ D'Antonio, Michael (2007-01-09). Hershey: Milton S. Hershey's Extraordinary Life of Wealth, Empire, and Utopian Dreams. Simon and Schuster. p. 52. ISBN 9780743264105.
  61. ^ Platt, Frances Marion. "Poughkeepsie's own Smith Brothers Cough Drops make a comeback". Hudson Valley One. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  62. ^ Crellin 1994, p. 72.
  63. ^ Thomas, Jeremy. "Nampak index shows SA needs its Zam-Buk". Business Live. Retrieved 2019-12-16.
  64. ^ Everybody's Family Doctor. London, UK: Odhams Press LTD. 1935. p. 7.
  65. ^ Weir, Archibald (February 15, 1896). "Fatal Case Of Poisoning By A.B.C. Liniment". The British Medical Journal. 1 (1833): 399–400. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.435.399-a. S2CID 19739440.
  66. ^ Fisher, O D. (November 1954). "Accidental Poisoning of Children in Belfast: A Report of two years' experience at the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children". Ulster Med J. 23 (2): 124–131. PMC 2480209. PMID 20476409.
  67. ^ D'Esaguy, Augusto (May 1936). "Água de Inglaterra". Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine. 4 (5): 404–408. JSTOR 44438162.
  68. ^ Graves, W. H. (1905-07-22). "The Dangers of Acetanilid". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. XLV (4): 252. doi:10.1001/jama.1905.02510040024010. ISSN 0098-7484.
  69. ^ Rowell, Hubert N. (1907). "Poisoning by Antikamnia". California State Journal of Medicine. 5 (12): 326. ISSN 0093-402X. PMC 1652258. PMID 18734242.
  70. ^ British Medical Association (1909). Secret remedies: what they cost and what they contain. Harold B. Lee Library. London: British Medical Association. pp. 175.
  71. ^ Spiegl, Fritz (1996). Sick Notes: An Alphabetical Browsing-Book of Derivatives, Abbreviations, Mnemonics and Slang for Amusement and Edification of Medics, Nurses, Patients and Hypochondriacs. CRC Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-85070-627-4.
  72. ^ Hensley, Scott. "Annals Of Weight-Loss Gimmicks: From Bile Beans To Obesity Soap". Shots: Health News from NPR. NPR. Archived from the original on 30 January 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  73. ^ Johnson, Frederick Neil (1984-06-18). The History of Lithium Therapy. Springer. p. 21. ISBN 9781349072897.
  74. ^ "Daffys elixir - Dawsons lozenges". British History Online. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  75. ^ The Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery. Prentice & Weissinger. 1844. p. 157.
  76. ^ Richard Reece, 'Bateman’s Pectral Drops,' The Monthly Gazette of Health; or Medical Dietetic, Antiempirical, and General Philosophical Journal, Vol. VI, 807.
  77. ^ Shaw, Robert B. (1972). "History of the Comstock Patent Medicine Business and Dr. Morse's Indian Root Pills". Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology (22): 1–48. doi:10.5479/si.00810258.22.1. hdl:10088/2421. PMID 11633173.
  78. ^ Sullivan, Catherine (May 1984). "Dr. Thomas' Eclectric Oil" (PDF). Parks Canada History.
  79. ^ Loeb, Lori (1999). "George Fulford and Victorian Patent Medicine Men: Quack Mercenaries or Smilesian Entrepreneurs?". Canadian Bulletin of Medical History. 16 (1): 125–45. doi:10.3138/cbmh.16.1.125. PMID 14531402.
  80. ^ Jolliffe, D. M. (1993). "A history of the use of arsenicals in man". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 86 (5): 287–289. PMC 1294007. PMID 8505753.
  81. ^ Doyle, Derek (2009). "Notoriety to respectability: a short history of arsenic prior to its present day use in haematology". British Journal of Haematology. 145 (3): 309–317. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07623.x. PMID 19298591. S2CID 6676910.
  82. ^ Lane, Joan (2001). A Social History of Medicine: Health, Healing and Disease in England, 1750-1950. Oxon: Routledge. p. 152. ISBN 9781135119270.
  83. ^ C., T. E. (1 June 1970). "What were Godfrey's Cordial and Dalby's Carminative?". Pediatrics. 45 (6). ISSN 0031-4005.
  84. ^ Higby, Gregory; Pharmacy, American Institute of the History of (2001). Apothecaries and the Drug Trade: Essays in Celebration of the Work of David L. Cowen. Amer. Inst. History of Pharmacy. ISBN 9780931292361.
  85. ^ Anderson, Ann (2000). Snake Oil, Hustlers and Hambones: The American Medicine Show. Jefferson: McFarland & Company. p. 149. ISBN 9781476601120.
  86. ^ Stinnett, Chuck (Feb 2, 2010). "Chuck Stinnett column: Hadacol, with its splash of alcohol, was a sensation for a while". Evansville Courier & Press. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  87. ^ Anderson 2000, p. 112.
  88. ^ McNamara, Brooks (October 1995). Step right up (Revised ed.). University Press of Mississippi. p. 67. ISBN 9780878058310.
  89. ^ Parascandola, John (May–June 1995). "The Public Health Service and Jamaica Ginger Paralysis in the 1930s". PHS Chronicles. 110 (3): 361–363. PMC 1382135. PMID 7610232.
  90. ^ Gussow, Leon (October 2004). "The Jake Walk and Limber Trouble: A Toxicology Epidemic". Emergency Medicine News. 26 (10): 48. doi:10.1097/00132981-200410000-00045. ISSN 1054-0725.
  91. ^ Louis-Courvoisier M (2007)An 18th century controlled trial prompted by a potential shortage of hospital beds., JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation
  92. ^ Conner, Susan P. The Pox in Eighteenth-Century France, in The Secret Malady: Venereal Disease in Eighteenth-century Britain and France, p. 25
  93. ^ "Victorian Heritage Celebrations and the story of Lane's Emulsion | Culture Waitaki". culturewaitaki.org.nz. Retrieved 2019-09-01.
  94. ^ Holmes, Richard. "Londonderry's brief bottled water fame". The Derry News. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
  95. ^ Smith, Mickey C. (1988-12-31). Principles of Pharmaceutical Marketing, Third Edition. Psychology Press. pp. 487–. ISBN 9780866569354. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  96. ^ McClellan, Mark B (August 8, 2003). "Speech before National Press Club". FDA. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  97. ^ "Nostrums and Quackery; Articles on the Nostrum Evil and Quackery". Internet Archive. Chicago, IL.: American Medical Association. 1911. p. 318.
  98. ^ "Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup". Wood Library Museum. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  99. ^ http://www.victorianlondon.org/publications3/toilers-19.htm
  100. ^ FRANCIS, George William (1853). The Dictionary of Practical Receipts; Containing the Arcana of Trade and Manufacture; Domestic Economy; Artistical, Ornamental&scientific Processes; Pharmaceutical and Chemical Preparations, Etc (3rd ed.). J. Allen, D. Francis.
  101. ^ Gentilcore, David (1998). Healers and Healing in Early Modern Italy. Manchester University Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780719041990.
  102. ^ Gambaccini, Piero (2003-11-20). Mountebanks and Medicasters: A History of Italian Charlatans from the Middle Ages to the Present. McFarland. p. 144. ISBN 9780786416066.
  103. ^ Blood, C. L. (1875). "Persecution of New Ideas". Asher & Adams' New Columbian Rail Road Atlas and Pictorial Album of American Industry. Asher & Adams. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  104. ^ Blood, C. L. (May 1, 1867). "Oxygenized Air". Lewiston Evening Journal. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  105. ^ Hamblin, James (January 31, 2013). "Why we took cocaine out of soda". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
  106. ^ Sullivan, Jack (May–June 2007). "The Peruna Story: Strumming That Old Catarrh" (PDF). Bottles and Extras. Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors: 28, 31.
  107. ^ Johannisson, Karin (2001-06-24). "Vad är egentligen ett läkemedel?". LäkemedelsVärlden (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
  108. ^ Hake, Carl-Magnus (2002-02-24). "Nyponextrakt, tuggummi och fusioner". LäkemedelsVärlden (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
  109. ^ "Death Stirs Action on Radium 'Cures'. Trade Commission Speeds Its Inquiry. Health Department Checks Drug Wholesalers. Autopsy Shows Symptoms. Maker of "Radithor" Denies It Killed Byers, as Does Victim's Physician in Pittsburgh. Walker Uses Apparatus. Friends Alarmed to Find Mayor Has Been Drinking Radium-Charged Water for Last Six Months". New York Times. April 2, 1932. Retrieved 2011-10-01. Federal and local agencies, as well as medical authorities in various parts of the country, were stirred to action yesterday as a result of the death of Eben M. Byers, wealthy Pittsburgh steel manufacturer and sportsman, who died here Wednesday at the Doctors' Hospital from causes attributed to radium poisoning resulting from the drinking of water containing radium in solution. ...
  110. ^ Chríodáin, Louise Ní (15 Nov 2018). "Cocaine Tooth Powder – useful for toothache and spongy gums". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2019-09-02.
  111. ^ Wynbrandt, James (2015-01-27). The Excruciating History of Dentistry: Toothsome Tales & Oral Oddities from Babylon to Braces. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9781466890145.
  112. ^ Hix, Lisa. "Untangling the Tale of the Seven Sutherland Sisters and Their 37 Feet of Hair". Collectors Weekly. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  113. ^ Stewart, Susan (2017-12-15). Painted Faces: A Colourful History of Cosmetics. Amberley Publishing Limited. ISBN 9781445654003.
  114. ^ Wilson, Ben (2014-03-20). Decency and Disorder: The Age of Cant 1789-1837. Faber & Faber. ISBN 9780571317202.
  115. ^ Helfand, William H. (1989). "President's Address: Samuel Solomon and The Cordial Balm of Gilead". Pharmacy in History. 31 (4): 155. ISSN 0031-7047. JSTOR 41111251.
  116. ^ Young, James Harvey (1961). "Chapter 5: Hercules and Hydra". The Toadstool Millionaires. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691646855.
  117. ^ Griffenhagen, George B.; Bogard, Mary (1999). History of Drug Containers and Their Labels. Amer. Inst. History of Pharmacy. p. 78. ISBN 9780931292262.
  118. ^ Ludlow, Fitz Hugh (1857). The Hasheesh Eater: Being Passages from the Life of a Pythagorean. Harper & brothers. pp. 64.
  119. ^ Lee, Martin A. (2013-08-13). Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana - Medical, Recreational and Scientific. Simon and Schuster. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4391-0261-9.
  120. ^ Kelly, Kate (2010). Old World and New: Early Medical Care, 1700–1840. Infobase Publishing. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-8160-7208-8.
  121. ^ Kremers, Edward; Sonnedecker, Glenn (1986). Kremers and Urdang's History of Pharmacy. American Institute of the History of Pharmacy. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-931292-17-0.
  122. ^ Griffenhagen, George B.; Bogard, Mary (1999). History of Drug Containers and Their Labels. Amer. Inst. History of Pharmacy. ISBN 9780931292262.
  123. ^ Bock, Gregory R.; Whelan, Julie (2008-04-30). Cocaine: Scientific and Social Dimensions. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9780470514252.
  124. ^ Inciardi, James A. (1992). The War on Drugs II. Mayfield Publishing Company. p. 6. ISBN 1-55934-016-9.
  125. ^ Tamreihao, K.; Mukherjee, Saikat; Ningthoujam, Debananda S. (2019-11-18). Current Perspectives on Anti-Infective Agents. Bentham Science Publishers. pp. 229–230. ISBN 978-981-14-3272-9.
  126. ^ The Medical Times and Gazette. J. & A. Churchill. 1857. p. 90.
  127. ^ The Lancet, edition 1875-11-13, 'Professor Maclean, C.B., on the true composition and therapeutic value of Warburg's Tincture', pp. 716–718.