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List of parties to the Geneva Conventions

  Parties to GC I–IV and P I–III
  Parties to GC I–IV and P I–II
  Parties to GC I–IV and P I and III
  Parties to GC I–IV and P I
  Parties to GC I–IV and P III
  Parties to GC I–IV and no P

The Geneva Conventions, which were most recently revised in 1949, consist of seven individual treaties which are open to ratification or accession by any sovereign state. They are:

The four 1949 Conventions have been ratified by 196 states, including all UN member states, both UN observers the Holy See and the State of Palestine, as well as the Cook Islands. The Protocols have been ratified by 174, 168 and 73 states respectively. In addition, Article 90 of Protocol I states that "The High Contracting Parties may at the time of signing, ratifying or acceding to the Protocol, or at any other subsequent time, declare that they recognize ipso facto and without special agreement, in relation to any other High Contracting Party accepting the same obligation, the competence of the [International Fact-Finding] Commission to enquire into allegations by such other Party, as authorized by this Article." [1] 76 states have made such a declaration.

Parties to the 1949 Conventions and Protocols I–IIIEdit

Below is a list of state parties to the Geneva Conventions.

Year of ratification/accession/succession[Note 1]
State[2][3][4] GC I–IV[5][6][7][8] Protocol I[9] Protocol II[10] Protocol III[11] Prot. I Art. 90 Declaration[12] Notes
  Afghanistan 1956 2009 2009
  Albania 1957 1993 1993 2008
  Algeria 1960 1989 1989 1989
  Andorra 1993
  Angola 1984 1984 S
  Antigua and Barbuda 1986 1986 1986
  Argentina 1956 1986 1986 2011 1996
  Armenia 1993 1993 1993 2011
  Australia 1958 1991 1991 2009 1992
  Austria 1953 1982 1982 2009 1982
  Azerbaijan 1993
  Bahamas 1975 1980 1980
  Bahrain 1971 1986 1986
  Bangladesh 1972 1980 1980
  Barbados 1968 1990 1990
  Belarus 1954 1989 1989 2011 1989 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II ratified as the   Byelorussian SSR.
  Belgium 1952 1986 1986 2015 1987
  Belize 1984 1984 1984 2007
  Benin 1961 1986 1986
  Bhutan 1991
  Bolivia 1976 1992 1983 S 1992
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1992 1992 S 1992
  Botswana 1968 1979 1979
  Brazil 1957 1992 1992 2009 1993
  Brunei 1991 1991 1991
  Bulgaria 1954 1989 1989 2006 1994
  Burkina Faso 1961 1987 1987 2016 2004
  Burundi 1971 1993 1993 S
  Cambodia 1958 1998 1998
  Cameroon 1963 1984 1984
  Canada 1965 1990 1990 2007 1990
  Cape Verde 1984 1995 1995 S 1995
  Central African Republic 1966 1984 1984
  Chad 1970 1997 1997
  Chile 1950 1991 1991 2008 1991
  China 1956 1983 1983   Macau was declared by China to be covered by its ratification of Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II from 20 December 1999,[13][14] the same date Portugal renounced their obligations for the territory[13] following the transfer of sovereignty over Macau to China.

  Hong Kong was declared by China to be covered by its ratification of Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II from 1 July 1997,[15] the same date the UK renounced their obligations for the territory[16][17] following the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong to China.

  Colombia 1961 1993 1995 S 1996
  Comoros 1985 1985 1985
  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1961 1982 2002 2002
  Republic of the Congo 1967 1983 1983 S
  Cook Islands 2002 2002 2002 2011 2002
  Costa Rica 1969 1983 1983 2008 1999
  Côte d'Ivoire 1961 1989 1989
  Croatia 1992 1992 1992 2007 1992
  Cuba 1954 1982 1999
  Cyprus 1962 1979 1996 2007 2002
  Czech Republic 1993 1993 1993 2007 1995
  Denmark 1951 1982 1982 2007 1982 All the treaties extended to the Faroe Islands and to Greenland.[Note 2]
  Djibouti 1978 1991 1991
  Dominica 1981 1996 1996
  Dominican Republic 1958 1994 1994 2009
  Ecuador 1954 1979 1979 S
  Egypt 1952 1992 1992
  El Salvador 1953 1978 1978 2007
  Equatorial Guinea 1986 1986 1986
  Eritrea 2000
  Estonia 1993 1993 1993 2008 2009
  Ethiopia 1969 1994 1994 S
  Fiji 1971 2008 2008 2008
  Finland 1955 1980 1980 2009 1980
  France 1951 2001 1984 2009
  Gabon 1965 1980 1980
  The Gambia 1966 1989 1989
  Georgia 1993 1993 1993 2007
  Germany 1954 1991 1991 2009 1991
  Ghana 1958 1978 1978 S
  Greece 1956 1989 1993 2009 1998
  Grenada 1981 1998 1998
  Guatemala 1952 1987 1987 2008
  Guinea 1984 1984 1984 1993
  Guinea-Bissau 1974 1986 1986
  Guyana 1968 1998 1998 2009
  Haiti 1957 2006 2006 S
  Holy See 1951 1985 1985
  Honduras 1965 1995 1995 2006
  Hungary 1954 1989 1989 2006 1991
  Iceland 1965 1987 1987 2006 1987
  India 1950
  Indonesia 1958
  Iran 1957 S S
  Iraq 1956 2010
  Ireland 1962 1999 1999 S 1999
  Israel 1951 2007
  Italy 1951 1986 1986 2009 1986
  Jamaica 1964 1986 1986 S
  Japan 1953 2004 2004 2004
  Jordan 1951 1979 1979
  Kazakhstan 1992 1992 1992 2009
  Kenya 1966 1999 1999 2013
  Kiribati 1989
  North Korea 1957 1988
  South Korea 1966 1982 1982 S 2004
  Kuwait 1967 1985 1985 2013
  Kyrgyzstan 1992 1992 1992
  Laos 1956 1980 1980 1998
  Latvia 1991 1991 1991 2007
  Lebanon 1951 1997 1997
  Lesotho 1968 1994 1994 2010
  Liberia 1954 1988 1988
  Libya 1956 1978 1978
  Liechtenstein 1950 1989 1989 2006 1989
  Lithuania 1996 2000 2000 2007 2000
  Luxembourg 1953 1989 1989 2015 1993
  Macedonia 1993 1993 1993 2008 1993
  Madagascar 1963 1992 1992 S 1993
  Malawi 1968 1991 1991 2014
  Malaysia 1962
  Maldives 1991 1991 1991
  Mali 1965 1989 1989 2003
  Malta 1968 1989 1989 S 1989
  Marshall Islands 2004
  Mauritania 1962 1980 1980
  Mauritius 1970 1982 1982
  Mexico 1952 1983 2008
  Federated States of Micronesia 1995 1995 1995
  Moldova 1993 1993 1993 2008
  Monaco 1950 2000 2000 2007 2007
  Mongolia 1958 1995 1995 1995
  Montenegro 2006 2006 2006 2007
  Morocco 1956 2011 2011
  Mozambique 1983 1983 2002
  Myanmar 1992
  Namibia 1991 1994 1994 1994 The United Nations Council for Namibia acceded to Conventions I-IV and Protocols I-II in 1983.[19] Nambia succeeded to Conventions I-IV in 1991,[20] and Protocols I-II in 1994.[21]
  Nauru 2006 2006 2006 2012
    Nepal 1964 S
  Netherlands 1954 1987 1987 2006 1987 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–III have been extended to Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and the Caribbean Netherlands.[22][23][24][Note 3]
  New Zealand 1959 1988 1988 2013 1988   Niue is considered bound by New Zealand's ratification of Conventions I–IV in 1959 by the International Committee of the Red Cross[25][26] on the basis of Niue's enactment of its own Geneva Conventions Act 1958.[27]

New Zealand declared that its ratification of Protocols I–II does not extend to the   Cook Islands (which subsequently independently ratified the Protocols),   Niue and   Tokelau.[28]

  Nicaragua 1953 1999 1999 2009
  Niger 1964 1979 1979
  Nigeria 1961 1988 1988
  Norway 1951 1981 1981 2006 1981
  Oman 1974 1984 1984
  Pakistan 1951 S S
  Palau 1996 1996 1996
  State of Palestine 2014 2014 2015 2015 2018 The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) unilaterally declared itself bound by Conventions I-IV and Protocol I in 1982.[29]
In 1989, the PLO submitted a letter to the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs which stated in part that the State of Palestine had decided to "adhere to the Four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the two Protocols additional thereto."[30] However, the Swiss Government, which acts as the depositary for the Conventions, responded by stating that it was "not in a position to decide whether this communication can be considered as an instrument of accession" due to "the incertainty [sic] within the international community as to the existence or non-existence of a State of Palestine."[29][30] In 1990, the PLO submitted a "Memorandum on the accession of the State of Palestine to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949" to the depository and requested that the issue be reconsidered. However, the Swiss Government reiterated its prior conclusions.[31]
Following the United Nations General Assembly passing a resolution granting non-member observer state status to Palestine in November 2012, Palestine acceded to Conventions I-IV and Protocol I in April 2014.[32] In January 2015 Palestine acceded to Protocols II and III.[33]
  Panama 1956 1995 1995 2012 1999
  Papua New Guinea 1976
  Paraguay 1961 1990 1990 2008 1998
  Peru 1956 1989 1989 S
  Philippines 1951 (I)
1952 (II-IV)
2012 1986 2006
  Poland 1954 1991 1991 2009 1992
  Portugal 1961 1992 1992 2014 1994
  Qatar 1975 1988 2005 1991
  Romania 1954 1990 1990 2015 1995
  Russia 1960 1989 1989 S 1989 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I and II ratified as the   Soviet Union.
  Rwanda 1964 1984 1984 1993
  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1986 1986 1986 2014
  Saint Lucia 1981 1982 1982
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981 1983 1983 2013
  Samoa 1984 1984 1984
  San Marino 1953 1994 1994 2007
  Sao Tome and Principe 1976 1996 1996
  Saudi Arabia 1963 1987 2001
  Senegal 1963 1985 1985
  Serbia 2001 2001 2001 2010 2001 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II ratified as the   Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
  Seychelles 1984 1984 1984 1992
  Sierra Leone 1965 1986 1986 S
  Singapore 1973 2008
  Slovakia 1993 1993 1993 2007 1995
  Slovenia 1992 1992 1992 2008 1992
  Solomon Islands 1981 1988 1988
  Somalia 1962
  South Africa 1952 1995 1995
  South Sudan 2013 2013 2013 2013
  Spain 1952 1989 1989 2010 1989
  Sri Lanka 1959
  Sudan 1957 2006 2006
  Suriname 1976 1985 1985 2013
  Swaziland 1973 1995 1995
  Sweden 1953 1979 1979 2014 1979
   Switzerland 1950 1982 1982 2006 1982
  Syria 1953 1983
  Tajikistan 1993 1993 1993 1997
  Tanzania 1962 1983 1983 S Conventions I–IV ratified as   Tanganyika.
  Thailand 1954
  Timor-Leste 2003 2005 2005 2011
  Togo 1962 1984 1984 S 1991
  Tonga 1978 2003 2003 2003
  Trinidad and Tobago 1963 2001 2001 2001
  Tunisia 1957 1979 1979
  Turkey 1954 S
  Turkmenistan 1992 1992 1992
  Tuvalu 1981
  Uganda 1964 1991 1991 2008
  Ukraine 1954 1990 1990 2010 1990 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II ratified as the   Ukrainian SSR.
  United Arab Emirates 1972 1983 1983 1992
  United Kingdom 1957 1998 1998 2009 1999 Protocols I–III have been extended to all three Crown dependencies and to 13 of the 14 British Overseas Territories (excluding Gibraltar).[34][35][36]
  United States 1955 S S 2007
  Uruguay 1969 1985 1985 2012 1990
  Uzbekistan 1993 1993 1993
  Vanuatu 1982 1985 1985
  Venezuela 1956 1998 1998
  Vietnam 1957 1981 Conventions I-IV ratified as the   North Vietnam.[4]
Also ratified by the State of Vietnam in 1953 and the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam in 1973 prior to Vietnamese reunification.[4]
  Yemen 1970 1990 1990 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I-II ratified as   North Yemen.[4][37]
Conventions I–IV also ratified by   South Yemen in 1977 prior to Yemeni unification.[38]
  Zambia 1966 1995 1995
  Zimbabwe 1983 1992 1992
Totals
Ratified 196 174 168 73 77
Signed only 0 3 3 23 N/A
Notes
  1. ^ "S" indicates that the state has signed but has not ratified.
    "—" indicates that the state has taken no action.
  2. ^ Denmark informed the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 2003 that "Denmark's ratifications normally include the entire Kingdom of Denmark including the Faroe Islands and Greenland.”[18] No declaration excluding either of their dependent territories was made by Denmark upon ratification of any of the seven treaties.
  3. ^ The Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–III were originally extended to the Netherlands Antilles prior to its dissolution into Aruba in 1986, and Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and the Caribbean Netherlands in 2010.
Former states parties

The following states were party to the Geneva Conventions I–IV, but their ratifications have not been recognised as applying to any succeeding state under international law:

Authorities making a unilateral declaration

Article 96.3 of Protocol I allows for an "authority representing a people engaged against a High Contracting Party in an armed conflict" to make a unilateral declaration to apply the four Conventions and Protocol I with respect to that conflict. As of 2015 this provision has been utilized by the Polisario Front in 2015.

Authority[39] Year of declaration Conflict
  Polisario Front 2015[40] Western Sahara conflict with Morocco

Parties to the 1864 Geneva ConventionEdit

The first ten articles of the First Geneva Convention were concluded in 1864. This was the original Geneva Convention. The following states were parties to the 1864 Geneva Convention.

State[41] GC 1864[Note 1] Notes
  Argentina 1879
  Austrian Empire 1866
  Grand Duchy of Baden 1864 Original signatory.
  Kingdom of Bavaria 1866
  Belgium 1864 Original signatory.
  Bolivia 1879
  Brazil 1906
  Principality of Bulgaria 1884
  British Cape Colony 1896 The Union of South Africa was recognized as the successor state of this ratification.
  Chile 1879
  Qing Dynasty of China 1904
  Colombia 1906
  Congo Free State 1888
  Cuba 1907
  Denmark 1864 Original signatory.
  Dominican Republic 1907
  Ecuador 1907
  El Salvador 1874
  Second French Empire 1864 Original signatory.
  German Empire 1906
  Kingdom of Greece 1865
  Guatemala 1903
  Haiti 1907
  Grand Duchy of Hesse 1866 Original signatory.
  Holy See 1868
  Honduras 1898
  Qajar dynasty of Iran 1874 Ratified as "Persia".
  Kingdom of Italy 1864 Original signatory.
  Empire of Japan 1886
  Korean Empire 1903
  Luxembourg 1888
  Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1895
  Mexico 1905
  Principality of Montenegro 1875
  Netherlands 1864 Original signatory.
  Nicaragua 1898
  Orange Free State 1897
  Ottoman Empire 1865
  Panama 1907
  Paraguay 1907
  Peru 1880
  Kingdom of Portugal 1866 Original signatory.
  Kingdom of Prussia 1865 Original signatory.
  Romania 1874
  Russian Empire 1867
  Kingdom of Saxony 1866
  Principality of Serbia 1876
  Spanish Empire 1864 Original signatory.
   Switzerland 1864 Original signatory.
  Thailand 1895 Ratified as "Siam".
  United Kingdom 1865
  United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway 1864
  United States 1882
  Uruguay 1900
  Venezuela 1894
  Kingdom of Württemberg 1864 Original signatory.
Notes
  1. ^ Year the state ratified or acceded to the 1864 version of the First Geneva Convention.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  2. ^ "Protection des victimes de la guerre". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  3. ^ "1949 Conventions and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Geneva Convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 2016-04-16. 
  5. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention pour l'amélioration du sort des blessés et des malades dans les forces armées en campagne" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  6. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention pour l'amélioration du sort des blessés, des malades et des naufragés des forces armées sur mer" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  7. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention relative au traitement des prisonniers de guerre" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  8. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention relative à la protection des personnes civiles en temps de guerre" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  9. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à la protection des victimes des conflits armés internationaux (Protocole I)" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  10. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à la protection des victimes des conflits armés non internationaux (Protocole II)" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  11. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à l'adoption d'un signe distinctif additionnel (Protocole III)" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  12. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à la protection des victimes des conflits armés internationaux (Protocole I) - Etats ayant fait la déclaration prévue à l'article 90" (PDF) (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  13. ^ a b "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2000-07-07. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  14. ^ "Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 - China". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  15. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1999-06-28. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  16. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1997-06-24. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  17. ^ "Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 - United Kingdom". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  18. ^ "Historical Information". United Nations Treaty Series. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  19. ^ "Accession of the United Nations Council for Namibia to the four Conventions and the two Protocols Additional" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1983-11-30. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  20. ^ "Succession by Namibia to the Conventions" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1991-10-25. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  21. ^ "Declaration by Namibia" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1994-07-27. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  22. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1987-07-10. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  23. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2006-12-15. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  24. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2011-10-17. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  25. ^ "Niue". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  26. ^ "State Parties to the Following International Humanitarian Law and Other Related Treaties as of 29-Sep-2014" (PDF). International Committee of the Red Cross. 2014-09-29. Retrieved 2014-10-15. 
  27. ^ "Niue Laws" (PDF). Government of Niue. 2006. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  28. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1988-03-15. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  29. ^ a b "Note of information" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1989-09-13. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  30. ^ a b "Geneva Conventions for the protection of war victims of 12 August 1949 and Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 Ratifications, accessions and successions as at 31 December 1996". International Committee of the Red Cross. 1997-04-30. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  31. ^ "Information note" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1990-12-11. Retrieved 2016-04-14. 
  32. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2014-04-10. Retrieved 2015-01-09. 
  33. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2015-01-09. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 2015-01-09. 
  34. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2002-11-01. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  35. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  36. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  37. ^ "Ratification of the Additional Protocols I and II by the Yemen Arab Republic" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1990-05-31. Retrieved 2016-04-16. 
  38. ^ "Declaration of Accession by the People's Republic of Yemen" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1977-06-27. Retrieved 2016-04-16. 
  39. ^ "Autorité ayant fait la déclaration unilatérale prévue à l'article 96, paragraphe 3" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
  40. ^ "Unilateral declaration pursuant to Article 96, paragraph 3, of Protocol I" (PDF). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2015-06-30. 
  41. ^ "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16.